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O'keefe william


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  • 1. Situation Awareness (SA) for Project Team Members Bill O’Keefe United Space Alliance, LLC william.s.o’ (713) 725-7036 NASA Project Management Challenge 2007 Feb 6-7, 2007 Copyright © 2006 by United Space Alliance, LLC. These materials are sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Space Administration under Contract NAS9-20000 and Contract NNJ06VA01C. The U.S. Government retains a paid-up, nonexclusive, NAS9- paid-irrevocable worldwide license in such materials to reproduce, prepare, derivative works, distribute copies to the public, and perform prepare, perform publicly and display publicly, by or on behalf of the U.S. Government. All other rights are reserved by the copyright owner. Government.
  • 2. Is Situation Awareness (SA) Important? PM SA Skills ? Shared SA Individual SA Project SA Project Success Page 1
  • 3. Overview• Define Individual and Team Situation Awareness (SA)• Turn Individual SAs into Team SA• Good Team SA tools• Use the “Questioning Look” + = Page 2
  • 4. Definition (from Dr. M. Endsley)Situation Awareness is the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning and the projection of their status in the near future Perception of Compre- Projection elements in hension of future current situation of current Status Level 1 situation Level 3 Level 2 Page 3
  • 5. Situation Awareness Levels Perception Comprehension Projection Bottom-Up or Data Driven Top-Down or Goal Driven Page 4
  • 6. Role of Goals & Mental Models in SA Compre- hension Projection SA Perception of of RIDMental RID Report of open drives CompletionModel RIDs GoaldrivesSA Preliminary Design Review (PDR) Goal drives Mental Model Page 5
  • 7. Distributed vs Shared SAHardwareDesign SoftwareTeam DesignSA Team SA Team Shared SA ProjectSE&I ManagerTeam SA SA Page 6
  • 8. Good Teams turn individual SA… Spear Snake Tree FanWall Rope Page 7
  • 9. …. into Team SA …Spear Snake Tree Fan Rope Page 8
  • 10. .. which gives context to individual SA Tusk Trunk Leg EarBody Tail Page 9
  • 11. Why so tough to get good team SA?• Too little time• Too many teams• Constant change• Complexity• Stressors• “Can Do” people Page 10
  • 12. How does Individual SA become Team SA? Bottoms-Up Data Driven Communication HW Team’s SA Then magic happens? SW Team’s No, then SA Shared good Team SE&I Team’s Project SA SA Management happens ! PM’s SA Team Mental Team Goal Model Top-Down Goal Driven Communication Page 11
  • 13. Low Hanging FruitYou already made sure that they have• Enough time• Well designed tools and products• Proper environment• Training• Mentoring Page 12
  • 14. Teams w/ good SA do1. Prepare more2. Focus more on comprehending and projecting Page 13
  • 15. Teams w/ good SA do3. Pay attention to the actions of others4. Verbalize decisions and actions Page 14
  • 16. Teams w/ good SA do5. Attend to more cues and seek out more information6. Plan for distractions/ interruptions Page 15
  • 17. Teams w/ good SA do7. “Buy time”8. Do better risk assessment, especially as related to their skill9. Feedback Page 16
  • 18. Tool for PM to build Team SA? Maintain (Self/ Team) (modified from ESSAI) Situation Awareness Communicate Manage tasks/ workload and prioritize Interact with processesPrepare & Notice and Comprehend and Project and ThinkReview Perceive Interpret Ahead• Set objectives • Seek informa- • Build picture of • Build picture offor team tion current situation future situation• Not too focus- • Pay attention to • Validate picture • Assess whethered on one goal subtle changes by checking for picture of future• Consider human & weak signals contradictory ele- situation conformslimitations & • Validate info by ments & applying to planningpitfalls double cross- rules of thumb • Set markers for• Review own & checking and • Assess whether confirmationteam’s perform- applying rules of picture of current • Plan for contin-ance in meetings thumb situation conforms gencies to desired picture Page 17
  • 19. Window of OpportunitySpear Snake Tree Fan We are looking at different Rope things? Page 18
  • 20. Best chance to find bad team SA? This is your “window of HW Team’s Opportunity” ! SA Then magic happens? SW Team’s No, then SA good Shared Project Team SA SE&I Team’s SA Management happens ! PM’s SA Team Mental Team Goal Model Page 19
  • 21. Another definition of SA Seeing how things are really going despite our expectations Page 20
  • 22. Is Situation Awareness (SA) Important? PM SA Skills ? Shared SA Individual SA Project SA Project Success Page 21
  • 23. References• Dr. Mica Endsley/ SA Technologies: – Theoretical Underpinnings of Situation Awareness: A Critical Review – Training for Situation Awareness – Modeling and Measuring Situation Awareness in the Infantry Operational Environment – Presentation to ‘Situation Awareness in Control Centers for Real- time Operations of Power Systems and Markets’ course – Designing for Situation Awareness• S. Banbury & S. Tremblay: – A Cognitive Approach to Situation Awareness: Theory and Application• Albert A. Nofi – Defining and Measuring Shared Situational Awareness” (CRM D0002895.A1 Final, dated Nov. 2000) Page 22
  • 24. Acronyms• HW Hardware• PM Project Manager Project Management• RID Review Item Disposition• SA Situation Awareness• SE&I System Engineering & Integration• SW Software• USA United Space Alliance Page 23