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Matching the Project Manager’s        Leadership Style to              Project Type       Dr Ralf Müller, Umeå School of B...
Two pervading beliefs about ProjectManagement• The PM’s competence, including leadership  style, is not a success factor o...
Does PM leadershipcompetence matter?• The project success literature  studiously ignores the project  manager, and his or ...
Research question• Is the competence of the  project manager, including  personality and leadership  style, a success fact...
Matching Project Manager Leadership       Style to Project Type            Theories of leadership     Our hypotheses and r...
Confucius (500BC)• De (virtues)  – Jen (relationships)  – Xiao (values)  – Li (process)  – Zhang rong (doctrine of    the ...
Aristotle (300BC)• Pathos      Form relationships with your team• Ethos       Sell them your values and vision• Logos     ...
Chester L Barnard (1938)• Cognitive roles  (transactional)  – delegate  – but guide subordinates and    limit choices• Cat...
Theories of leadership•   1930s-1940s   Trait school•   1940s-1950s   Behavioral or style school•   1960s-1970s   Continge...
Theories of leadership and projectmanagement • Trait school    – Turner (1993), 7 traits • Behavioural or style school    ...
Team member behaviour• Theories of team member  behaviour   – Myers-Briggs   – 16PF   – Belbin   – Margerison and McCann• ...
Emotional Intelligence School -Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee (2002)• All managers are reasonably intelligent   – entry level...
Emotional intelligence -nineteen emotional competencies• Personal competence  – self-awareness - 3 competencies  – self-ma...
Competence school • Encompasses all the other schools • Competence is   –   knowledge   –   skills   –   personal characte...
Dulewicz and Higgs (Henley) -15 leadership competencies• Emotional, EQ  –   self-awareness  –   emotional resilience  –   ...
Dulewicz and Higgs (Henley) -15 leadership competencies• Intellectual, IQ   – critical analysis and     judgement   – visi...
Dulewicz and Higgs (Henley) -3 leadership stylesStyle           Successful when:Goal oriented   Relatively stable changeIn...
How far have we come in 2.500 years?                    People   Vision   ProcessConfucius 500BC     Jen      Xiao      Li...
A company cannot be managed by achimpanzee  • The CEOs leadership style impacts the    performance of the company     – th...
Matching Project Manager Leadership       Style to Project Type              Theories of leadership   Our hypotheses and r...
Early Hypotheses• H1: The project manager’s competence, which  includes leadership style, is positively correlated to  pro...
Hypotheses for this study• H0: There are no differences in project manager  leadership competencies in successful projects...
Our research model       Independent     Moderating         Dependent         Variables      Variables         Variables  ...
Our model - 15 leadership competencies • Intellectual, IQ              • Emotional, EQ    – critical analysis and        –...
Our model - success criteria- web-based questionnaire•   Meeting performance targets•   Meeting user requirements•   Meeti...
Our model - 19 types of projects Attribute          Project Types Application area   Engineering, ICT, Business Complexity...
Study 1: Fourteen interviewsCountries       Industries• Austria       • Project management consulting• Australia     • Des...
Choosing project managers- General conclusions• Competence always important  – technical knowledge  – management skill and...
Choosing project managers- Personality or leadership style  • Ability to deal or communicate with stakeholders,    politic...
Choosing project managers- Personality or leadership style  • Cultural sensitivity, geography, language (4 times)  • Locat...
Interview ratings -15 leadership competencies• Emotional                  2.4  –   self-awareness               2.4  –   e...
Interview ratings -15 leadership competencies• Intellectual                      2.1   – critical analysis, judgement     ...
Study 2: Web based questionnaire• Two parts• Project success  – rate ten success criteria  – claimed performance of last  ...
Responses   • 950 to Part 1   • 414 to Part 2   • 400 useable   • 70% males   • 50% US
Initial analysis• Leadership dimensions correlated (positively  and negatively) with project success on  different types o...
Leadership styles correlated with success• All projects  – EQ  – conscientiousness, sensitivity, communication  – strategi...
Leadership styles correlated with success• IT projects  – EQ  – self-awareness, communication  – vision• Organizational ch...
Leadership styles correlated with success• Medium complexity projects  – EQ  – emotional resilience, communication  – visi...
Leadership styles correlated with success• Mandatory projects  – MQ  – developing• Repositioning projects  – EQ  – motivat...
Leadership styles correlated with success• Fixed price contracts  – MQ  – sensitivity, communication• Remeasurement contra...
Leadership styles correlated with success• Life-cycle  –   EQ – throughout  –   conscientiousness, communication – through...
Matching Project Manager LeadershipStyle to Project Type            Theories of leadership      Our hypotheses and researc...
Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Eng, IT, Org)                                    Critcal thinking       ...
Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Importance)                                        Critcal thinking     ...
Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Complexity)                                     Critcal thinking        ...
Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Contracts)                                      Critcal thinking        ...
Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Life-cycle)                                        Critcal thinking     ...
Recommendations: a five step process• Recognize types of projects• Assess leadership styles of Project  Managers• Develop ...
Further analysis• Rating of success criteria by:   – type of project   – gender   – geography• Claimed performance of proj...
That’s All Folksralf.mueller@usbe.umu.sewww.pm-concepts.com
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  1. 1. Matching the Project Manager’s Leadership Style to Project Type Dr Ralf Müller, Umeå School of Business Umeå University, Sweden Professor J Rodney Turner, Kemmy Business School University of Limerick, Ireland
  2. 2. Two pervading beliefs about ProjectManagement• The PM’s competence, including leadership style, is not a success factor on projects – it is all tools and techniques – “if you can move a mouse, you can manage a project” – the proverbial chimpanzee can manage a project with the right tools• Any project manager can manage any project – not domain specific – regardless of temperament
  3. 3. Does PM leadershipcompetence matter?• The project success literature studiously ignores the project manager, and his or her competence or leadership style as a potential success factor on projects• The competent application of tools and techniques is seen as a success factor, but not the project manager him- or herself
  4. 4. Research question• Is the competence of the project manager, including personality and leadership style, a success factor on projects?• Are different competence profiles appropriate for different project types?
  5. 5. Matching Project Manager Leadership Style to Project Type Theories of leadership Our hypotheses and research model Initial results Profiles of managers of successful projects
  6. 6. Confucius (500BC)• De (virtues) – Jen (relationships) – Xiao (values) – Li (process) – Zhang rong (doctrine of the mean)
  7. 7. Aristotle (300BC)• Pathos Form relationships with your team• Ethos Sell them your values and vision• Logos Then and only then persuade them with the logic• Adequate managers go straight in with the logos• Effective leaders work through pathos>ethos>logos
  8. 8. Chester L Barnard (1938)• Cognitive roles (transactional) – delegate – but guide subordinates and limit choices• Cathectic roles (transformational) – motivation – goal setting
  9. 9. Theories of leadership• 1930s-1940s Trait school• 1940s-1950s Behavioral or style school• 1960s-1970s Contingency school• 1980s-1990s Visionary or charismatic school• 2000s Emotional intelligence school• 2000s Competence school
  10. 10. Theories of leadership and projectmanagement • Trait school – Turner (1993), 7 traits • Behavioural or style school – Frame (1987), Turner (1993), 4 styles • Contingency school – Frame (1987), Turner (1993), styles and the life-cycle • Visionary or charismatic school – Keegan and den Hartog (2004) • Emotional intelligence school – Lee Kelley et al (2003) • Competence school – Crawford (2002)
  11. 11. Team member behaviour• Theories of team member behaviour – Myers-Briggs – 16PF – Belbin – Margerison and McCann• Only weakly correlated to leadership success (Dulewicz and Higgs, 2003)• So we are discounting them
  12. 12. Emotional Intelligence School -Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee (2002)• All managers are reasonably intelligent – entry level of knowledge and skills• So it is emotional dimensions that differentiate effective leaders from adequate managers• The emotional intelligence of the CEO influences the shareholder value of the company (2,000 data points)
  13. 13. Emotional intelligence -nineteen emotional competencies• Personal competence – self-awareness - 3 competencies – self-management - 6 competencies• Social competence – social awareness - 3 competencies – relationship management - 7 competencies Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee (2002)
  14. 14. Competence school • Encompasses all the other schools • Competence is – knowledge – skills – personal characteristics, traits, behaviours – that deliver superior results • Different competence profiles appropriate in different circumstances • Build up competence profile of transactional and transformational leadership
  15. 15. Dulewicz and Higgs (Henley) -15 leadership competencies• Emotional, EQ – self-awareness – emotional resilience – motivation – sensitivity – influence – intuitiveness – conscientiousness
  16. 16. Dulewicz and Higgs (Henley) -15 leadership competencies• Intellectual, IQ – critical analysis and judgement – vision and imagination – strategic perspective• Managerial, MQ – engaging communication – managing resources – empowering – developing – achieving
  17. 17. Dulewicz and Higgs (Henley) -3 leadership stylesStyle Successful when:Goal oriented Relatively stable changeInvolving Significant changeEngaging Transformational change
  18. 18. How far have we come in 2.500 years? People Vision ProcessConfucius 500BC Jen Xiao LiAristotle 300BC Pathos Ethos LogosDulewicz 2003 EQ IQ MQ& Higgs
  19. 19. A company cannot be managed by achimpanzee • The CEOs leadership style impacts the performance of the company – the CEO does more than move a mouse • Different leadership styles are required for different types of company in different circumstances – board of Channel Tunnel changed as they moved from construction to operation • Why, oh why, oh why do we think it is any different for the temporary organization that is a project???!!!
  20. 20. Matching Project Manager Leadership Style to Project Type Theories of leadership Our hypotheses and research model Initial results Profiles of managers of successful projects
  21. 21. Early Hypotheses• H1: The project manager’s competence, which includes leadership style, is positively correlated to project success – Dulewicz and Higgs 15 factor model for leadership – 10 success factors• H2: Different combinations of project management competencies are correlated with success on different project types – 19 types model
  22. 22. Hypotheses for this study• H0: There are no differences in project manager leadership competencies in successful projects of different type.• HA: There are differences in project manager leadership competencies in successful projects of different type.
  23. 23. Our research model Independent Moderating Dependent Variables Variables Variables Project Leader Success Competencies Sponsor 3IQ User 5MQ Supplier 7EQ Project Project Type Application Strategic Impact Life-cycle Stage Complexity Culture
  24. 24. Our model - 15 leadership competencies • Intellectual, IQ • Emotional, EQ – critical analysis and – self-awareness judgement – emotional resilience – vision and imagination – motivation – strategic perspective – sensitivity • Managerial, MQ – influence – intuitiveness – engaging communication – conscientiousness – managing resources – empowering – developing – achieving
  25. 25. Our model - success criteria- web-based questionnaire• Meeting performance targets• Meeting user requirements• Meeting project purpose• Client satisfaction with results• Reoccurring business with the client• User satisfaction with the results• Supplier satisfaction• Project team satisfaction• Other stakeholders satisfaction• The respondent’s own defined criteria
  26. 26. Our model - 19 types of projects Attribute Project Types Application area Engineering, ICT, Business Complexity Low, Medium, High Life-cycle stage Feasibility, Design, Execution, Close-out Strategic import Mandatory, Repositioning, Renewal Culture Home, hosting, expatriate Type of contract Fixed price, remeasurement, alliance
  27. 27. Study 1: Fourteen interviewsCountries Industries• Austria • Project management consulting• Australia • Design and construction• Germany • Research• Netherlands • Telecommunications• Sweden • Manufacturing• UK• USA
  28. 28. Choosing project managers- General conclusions• Competence always important – technical knowledge – management skill and experience• Leadership style more important on complex projects• Task focus versus people focus – technical skills important on technical projects – relationship skills important on change projects• Some competencies are an entry ticket to being a member of the project management pool
  29. 29. Choosing project managers- Personality or leadership style • Ability to deal or communicate with stakeholders, political sensitivity (8 times) • Contract type (4 times) – fixed price – remeasurement or alliance – sensitive, trustworthy, calm • Able to deal with client (4 times) • Able to deal with complexity, ambiguity and expected issues, duration (7 times)
  30. 30. Choosing project managers- Personality or leadership style • Cultural sensitivity, geography, language (4 times) • Location and nature of work within the company (2 times) • Type of assignment (2 times) – consultancy versus project management – technical versus change project • Duration and budget, project size (3 times) • Able to balance work and home life (2 times)
  31. 31. Interview ratings -15 leadership competencies• Emotional 2.4 – self-awareness 2.4 – emotional resilience 2.4 – motivation 2.7 – sensitivity 2.4 – influence 2.4 – intuitiveness 2.0 – conscientiousness 2.5
  32. 32. Interview ratings -15 leadership competencies• Intellectual 2.1 – critical analysis, judgement 2.5 – vision and imagination 2.0 – strategic perspective 1.9• Managerial 2.4 – engaging communication 2.6 – managing resources 2.6 – empowering 2.4 – developing 2.0 – achieving 2.7
  33. 33. Study 2: Web based questionnaire• Two parts• Project success – rate ten success criteria – claimed performance of last project against ten criteria – nature of last project• Leadership style – demographic data – psychometric test
  34. 34. Responses • 950 to Part 1 • 414 to Part 2 • 400 useable • 70% males • 50% US
  35. 35. Initial analysis• Leadership dimensions correlated (positively and negatively) with project success on different types of project• Profiles of project managers for different types of project
  36. 36. Leadership styles correlated with success• All projects – EQ – conscientiousness, sensitivity, communication – strategic perspective• Engineering projects – EQ – motivation, conscientiousness, sensitivity – vision
  37. 37. Leadership styles correlated with success• IT projects – EQ – self-awareness, communication – vision• Organizational change projects – EQ – motivation, communication – vision
  38. 38. Leadership styles correlated with success• Medium complexity projects – EQ – emotional resilience, communication – vision• High complexity projects – EQ – sensitivity
  39. 39. Leadership styles correlated with success• Mandatory projects – MQ – developing• Repositioning projects – EQ – motivation• Renewal projects – EQ – self-awareness, communication
  40. 40. Leadership styles correlated with success• Fixed price contracts – MQ – sensitivity, communication• Remeasurement contracts – EQ, IQ – self-awareness, communication – empowering
  41. 41. Leadership styles correlated with success• Life-cycle – EQ – throughout – conscientiousness, communication – throughout – motivation, sensitivity – commissioning – managing resources - design – strategic perspective – design, execution, commissioning
  42. 42. Matching Project Manager LeadershipStyle to Project Type Theories of leadership Our hypotheses and research model Early resultsProfiles of managers of successful projects
  43. 43. Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Eng, IT, Org) Critcal thinking Critcal thinking Critcal thinking 3 33 Conscientiousness Conscientiousness Conscientiousness Vision Vision Vision Motivation Motivation Motivation 2 2 Strategic perspective Strategic perspective Strategic perspective Influence Influence Influence 1 1 Managing resources Managing resources Managing resources 0 0 Sensitivity Sensitivity Sensitivity Communication Communication Communication Intuitiveness Intuitiveness Intuitiveness Empowering Empowering Empowering Emotional resilence Emotional resilence Emotional resilence Developing Developing Developing Self awareness Self awareness Self awareness Achieving Achieving Achieving Org. Change IT EngineeeringEngineeering IT Engineeering
  44. 44. Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Importance) Critcal thinking Critcal thinking 33 Conscientiousness Conscientiousness Vision Vision Motivation Motivation 22 Strategic perspective Strategic perspective Influence Influence 11 Managing resources Managing resources 00 Sensitivity Sensitivity Communication Communication Intuitiveness Intuitiveness Empowering Empowering Emotional resilence Emotional resilence Developing Developing Self awareness Self awareness Achieving Achieving Repositioning Mandatory Renewal Renewal Mandatory Mandatory
  45. 45. Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Complexity) Critcal thinking Critcal thinking 3 3 Conscientiousness Conscientiousness Vision Vision Motivation Motivation 2 2 Strategic perspective Strategic perspective Influence 1 1 Managing resources Managing resources 0 0 Sensitivity Communication Communication Intuitiveness Empowering Empowering Emotional resilence resilence Developing Developing Self awareness Self awareness Achieving Achieving High complexity Medium complexity complexitycomplexity complexity Medium Low Low complexity Low
  46. 46. Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Contracts) Critcal thinking Critcal thinking 3 3 Conscientiousness Conscientiousness Vision Vision Motivation Motivation 2 2 Strategic perspective Strategic perspective Influence Influence 1 1 Managing resources Managing resources 0 0 Sensitivity Sensitivity Communication Communication Intuitiveness Intuitiveness Empowering Empowering Emotional resilence Emotional resilence Developing Developing Self awareness Self awareness Achieving Fixed price Alliance Alliance Alliance Remeasurement Remeasurement
  47. 47. Leadership profiles of high performing managers, (Life-cycle) Critcal thinking Critcal thinking Critcal thinking Critcal thinking 3 3 Conscientiousness Conscientiousness 33 Vision Vision Conscientiousness Conscientiousness Vision Vision Motivation Motivation 2 2 Strategic perspective Strategic perspective Motivation Motivation 2 2 Strategic perspective Influence Influence 1 1 Managing resources Managing resources Influence Influence 1 1 Managing resources 0 0 Sensitivity 0 0 Communication Sensitivity Sensitivity Sensitivity Communication Communication Intuitiveness Intuitiveness Intuitiveness Empowering Empowering Intuitiveness Empowering Emotional resilence Emotional resilence Emotional resilence Developing Developing Developing Emotional resilence Self awareness Self awareness Self awareness Achieving Achieving Achieving Self awareness Achieving Cl, Com De, De, Ex, Cl De, Ex, Cl, Ex, De, Ex, Fea, De, Ex, Fea, De, Ex, ClEx, De, ComCl Cl, ComEx, ClDe, Com Cl Fea, Cl, Ex, De, De, Ex, Cl
  48. 48. Recommendations: a five step process• Recognize types of projects• Assess leadership styles of Project Managers• Develop profiles in accordance with project needs• Differentiate different types of projects in the organization• Value your project managers
  49. 49. Further analysis• Rating of success criteria by: – type of project – gender – geography• Claimed performance of projects against those success criteria by – type of project – gender – geography
  50. 50. That’s All Folksralf.mueller@usbe.umu.sewww.pm-concepts.com
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