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Mulenburg.jerry Mulenburg.jerry Presentation Transcript

  • Above and Beyond NASA 2010 Project Management Challenge ConferenceThe Power of Teams! Dr. Jerry Mulenburg NASA Ames Research Center (Retired) Used with Permission
  • Something About TeamsInsights into “sound practices” for Project Teams Research findings Personal experiences Current thinking2/19/2010 2
  • How Do Teams?• Overcome Challenges?• Achieve desirable results?• Overcome significant obstacles?By working together - toward the project goal through a “Social Contract “ 2/19/2010 3
  • Do we Really Need Teams? Forming a team is unnecessary and undesirable if the work can be assigned toindividual contributors in discrete tasks, and then combined into a whole2/19/2010 4
  • Do we Really Need Teams?When work needs to be organized in such a waythat the people doing it have to collaborate with each other, working as a team, is necessary. Project work is just such work. So, we need project teams!Teamwork: Cooperative, coordinated work by a team in the interest of a common cause2/19/2010 5
  • What is a Project Team?A small unit of [multidisciplinary] people, working [collaboratively] toward a specific purpose, for a defined period of time. WikipediaAll teams are built on the foundation of trust and understanding. Project Management Institute2/19/2010 6
  • Groups versus TeamsGroup: a collection of people, considered together as being related in some wayTeam: a number of persons associated in some joint action2/19/2010 7
  • What Makes Teams Different?Project Teams, by the very act of bringing together representatives of specialized subunits, become amicrocosm of the larger Organizational Dynamics Hill & Somerest, 1988 What happens in organizations, happens in projects 2/19/2010 8
  • What Makes Project Teams Powerful? The People!2/19/2010 9
  • What Supports The Conclusionthat People are the Power of Teams? Who does the work on a project? Who solves the problems on a project? Who makes the decisions on a project? Who creates the innovations on a project? Who is responsible for the outcome of a project?2/19/2010 10
  • What Causes Problems on Projects? People!The Dilemma: People make the team powerful, but also create the most problems “People Do Not Always Act Rationally!“ (As we want, or expect them to) 2/19/2010 11
  • The Development of a Team Necessary, & InevitableDevelopment Stages for a Team to GrowForming – Orientation: individuals, focused on themselvesStorming – Organization: ideas competing for attentionNorming – Cohesion: agreeing on rules, values, behavior, methodsPerforming – Synergy: motivated to function as a “unit”Adjourning, or Mourning – Deconstructing the relationships Bruce Tuckman, 19652/19/2010 12
  • The Social ContractA Social Contract is a mutual agreementamong people to surrender some individualfreedom for the well being of the group. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Anticipatory anxiety: Fear of an undesirable outcome, making it even more likely t occur2/19/2010 13
  • The Social Contract is About: Conflict Dynamics Emotion Status Inclusion Control2/19/2010 14
  • The Social Contract Is All About Relationships! It’s not just what you are willing to give to be part of the team, it’s also what you are willing to give up to be a member2/19/2010 15
  • What People Want & NeedTo feel valued, appreciated, for themselvesand for their workAll teams are built on the foundation of trust andunderstanding. This foundation allows a strongcommitment to shared goals. Brian King2/19/2010 16
  • Social ConflictSocial conflict is “relational.”- a problem does not exist until two or more persons need to work together.Dysfunction lies not in one person or the other, but in their relationship, often based on an individual need for Inclusion, Control, or Affection. (FIRO, Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation, Hill & Somers, 1988 )2/19/2010 17
  • Dysfunction: When Teams Don’t Work Dysfunction is generally defined as a failure to function in an expected or complete manner. Dysfunction occurs in Project Management whenan individual or group does not, or cannot, perform its role properly, resulting in abnormal relations. Jerry Mulenburg The 77 Deadly Sins of Project Management2/19/2010 18
  • The Five Dysfunctions of a Team 1. Absence of Trust, 2. Fear of Conflict, 3. Lack of Commitment, 4. Avoidance of Accountability 5. Inattention to Results. Patrick Lencioni2/19/2010 19
  • What is Involved in Being Effective?How do you motivate each person on a team to cooperate and collaborate as an interdependent part of a group? Through understanding their ways of seeing the world and operating in it If we do not know anything about an individual, we are less likely to trust and work with him or her effectively.2/19/2010 20
  • Personality “…much seemingly chance variation in human behavior, in fact is not due chance; it is the logical result of a few basic, observable preferences.” Isabel Briggs Meyers A Guide to the Development and use of the Meyers Briggs Type Indicator2/19/2010 21
  • PersonalityHow do different personalities make teams powerful? Extraversion......................Introversion Sensing..............................iNtuition Thinking............................Feeling Judging..............................Perceiving2/19/2010 22
  • Personality Meyers Briggs Personality Type (MBTI)Extraversion - Introversion (how we energize ourselves)Sensing - iNtuition (how we gather information)Thinking - Feeling (how we make decisions)Judging - Perceiving (how we bring closure) 2/19/2010 23
  • NASA Project Manager - Research FindingsNASA Women Project Managers (ENTJs) Extraversion XXXXXX XX Introversion Sensing XX XXXXXX iNtuition Thinking XXXXXXX X Feeling Judging XXXXXX XX PerceivingNASA Men Project Managers (ENTJs) Extraversion XXXXXXXX XXXXX Introversion Sensing XXX XXXXXXXXXX iNtuition Thinking XXXXXXXXXXXX X Feeling Judging XXXXXXXXX XXXX Perceiving 30 0 302/19/2010 24
  • Temperamenttem·per·a·ment,“ the combination of mental, physical, and emotionaltraits of a person; a natural predisposition”How do different temperaments make teams powerful?“Our brain has temperament for hardware (inborn), andcharacter for software (experience in the environment).Temperament is …our inclination - our pre-dispositionCharacter is …our habits - our disposition.” David Keirsey: Please Understand Me2/19/2010 25
  • Temperament Four Types of Temperament (Using two middle letters of the MBTI typology)SJs - Guardians - Most Traditional >38% Of the populationSPs - Artisans - Most Adventurous >38% of the populationNFs - Idealists - Naturally Empathetic >12% of the populationNTs - Rationals - Most Independent <12% of the population David Keirsey: Please Understand Me 2/19/2010 26
  • Ego Resilience - A Measure of Ego Brittleness (a measure of Ego “toughness”) “…ego resilience can be considered a surrogate of Emotional Intelligence.” Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence2/19/2010 27
  • Emotional Intelligence Needs Personal CompetencesSelf-Awareness Knowing our internal states, preferences, resources, and intuitionsSelf-Regulation Managing our internal states, impulses, and resourcesMotivation Emotional tendencies that guide or facilitate reaching goals Social CompetencesEmpathy Awareness of other’s feelings, needs, concernsSocial Skills Adeptness at inducing desirable responses in others 2/19/2010 28
  • Emotional Intelligence BenefitsGroup Trust Participation Better decisionsEmotional Identity Cooperation Creative solutionsIntelligence Efficacy Collaboration Higher productivityTeam Effectiveness Occurs Through the Group: - Self evaluation - Feedback - Making time for, and acknowledging and expressing emotion - Being optimistic - Anticipating and taking initiative on problems - Focusing on solutions and success Steven Wolff, HBR Mar 012/19/2010 29
  • So, How do We Go “Above and Beyond” for Teams? Recognizing how important, and how difficult it can be, how can we capture the power of teams?2/19/2010 30
  • What Can We do to Help Teams be More Effective?How do you motivate each person to cooperateand collaborate as part of a group?2/19/2010 31
  • Seven Deadly Sins of Teams 1. Ineffective leadership 2. Inadequate resources 3. Flawed procurement implementation 4. Broken context 5. Power struggles 6. Unsuited temperaments 7. Flawed organizational structure2/19/2010 Pellerin, 2009 32
  • The Social Context of Teams We define teams as groups of people who interact sufficiently that their behaviors affect others’ behaviors. These collective behavioral norms define the team social context that shapes the experience of people in the team environment, whether temporarily or over long durations. ...experience with workplace teams shows that behaviors of the hierarchal leaders are the most influential on other team members’ behaviors Pellerin, 20092/19/2010 33
  • Social Context : What Members of a Team Need 1) To feel valued, appreciated 2) To feel a sense of belonging 3) To have a hopeful, realistic future to look forward to; and 4) To know what others expect of them and have the resources to succeed. Pellerin, 20092/19/2010 34
  • Social Context: Innate Critical Soft SkillsCULTIVATING VISIONING ( NT) Visioning – Idea Builders (NF) Reality based optimism, commitment Cultivating – People Builders Mutual respect, people feel valued Directing – System Builders Clear organization accountability Including – Team Builders (SF) (ST)INCLUDING DIRECTING People feel included, trustworthy2/19/2010 Pellerin, 2009 35
  • Recognizing the Critical Soft SkillsIt’s not about having any one of thesecharacteristics, it’s having the right balanceof them for the correct leadership, dependingon the project’s needs Pellerin, 20092/19/2010 36
  • Recognizing the Critical Soft Skills Green 1. Show authentic appreciation 2. Address shared interests 3. Appropriately include others Yellow 4. Keep your agreements 5. Express reality-based enthusiasm Blue 6. Be 100% committed 7. Avoid blaming or complaining Orange 8. Clarify role accountability & authority2/19/2010 Pellerin, 2009 37
  • Creating the Team You Want Through Emphasizing the Soft Skills Green Cultivating Dimension Blue Visioning Dimension1. Express 2. Address 5. Express 6. Be Authentic Shared Reality-Based 100% Appreciation Interests Optimism Committed 3. Appropriately 4. Keep all 7. Avoid 8. Clarify Roles, Include Your Blaming & Accountability, Others Agreements Complaining & Authority Yellow Including Dimension Orange Directing Dimension2/19/2010 Pellerin, 2009 38
  • Building Effective NASA Teams What WorksLearn how to authentically appreciate and sharewith everyoneAppropriately include others and keep youragreements to themFocus on reality-based optimism and be 100%committedClarify roles, accountability & authorityTake responsibility for not blaming or complaining2/19/2010 39
  • Building Effective NASA Teams2/19/2010 40