Lessons from Columbia   Ballistic Impact DynamicsProject Management Challenge 2009      Daytona Beach, Florida            ...
Contributions of Ballistic Impact Research in  The Columbia Accident Investigation                     &         NASA’s Re...
A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
The Columbia Accident
On January 16 2003, Columbia’s leading edgewas impacted by a piece of foam suspected tohave separated from the external ta...
Insulating Foam Separates from Bipod Ramp and         Impacts Left Wing of Columbia
Insulating Foam Separates from Bipod Ramp and         Impacts Left Wing of Columbia
Bipod    Image      Ramp    from CAIB ReportShowing shuttle ramp and wing Impact  Point
The Bipod Ramp
The Bipod Ramp
Redesign of the External Tank Bipod RampOld Design                   New Design
The Orbiter Leading Edges
Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Panels Protect        the Leading Edges of the Orbiter                            22 panels...
RCC Panels 6, 8 & 9 of Specific Interest
RCC T-Seals Seal the Gap Between Panels
Leading Edge Panel Used for Full Scale Tests
Efforts of theColumbia Accident Investigation Board       Forensic Reconstruction       Establish Probable CauseSupport Fi...
The Reconstruction Effort
The Debris Field
The Debris Hanger
The Debris Hanger
The Debris Hanger
Reconstructing the Left Wing Leading Edges
Reconstructing the Left Wing Leading Edges
Panel 8 Found with Significant Spatter Deposition and Erosion
Right Wing Leading Edges Exhibited No Significant Spatter
The NASA Impact Analysis Development EffortWith the Explicit Finite Element Code LS DYNA      Boeing, NASA GRC, JSC, LaRC ...
Impact Analysis Development Effort          For the Accident Investigation• Demonstrate valid impact analysis capability w...
LS DYNA Predicts Car Collisions                           Courtesy of LSTC
LS DYNA Predicts Fan Blade Containment
LS DYNA Predicts Water ImpactsSRB Aft Skirt Splashdown with TVC Upgrade Tank
The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Lab
The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Lab                          Large Vacuum Gun
The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Lab2 Inch Vacuum Gun
BX-250 External Tank Foam Characterization
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation            BX-250 External Tank Foam Characterization            ...
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation              LS DYNA - explicit finite element impact analysis   ...
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation           LS DYNA - explicit finite element impact analysis      ...
Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Characterization
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation              Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation              Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation               Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons   RCC Coupon ...
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation               Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons         Foam ...
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation               Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons              ...
Full Scale Impact Analysis with LS Dyna
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation              Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis     F...
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation             Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis       ...
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation             Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation             Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis       ...
Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation             Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis       ...
The Full-Scale Testing Effort
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests  Tests conducted at Southwest Research Institute
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests  Installation of internal high speed cameras
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale TestsLeading edge panels mounted after camera installation
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale TestsPhantom digital camerasset up inside of full scaletest article
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests                        High intensity lights required                        both in...
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests External View of RCC Panel 8 Test
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests  Barrel View of RCC Panel 8 Test
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests   External View of RCC Panel 8 Test
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests                         Internal View of                         RCC Panel 8 Test
Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale TestsPost Impact of Panel 8
Analysis Supporting Full-Scale Tests              Dyna – explicit finite element impact analysisLatest Dyna PredictionsCor...
LS DYNA Analysis of Panel 8 Full-Scale Test
Return to Flight
Impact Analysis Development Effort                  For Return to Flight• Full development of analysis capability with LS ...
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight               Impact Studies on RCC for Model Validation2 grams foam...
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight               Impact Studies on RCC for Model Validation2 grams foam...
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight          Impact Studies on RCC for Model Validation
Aramis Displacement Measurement SystemPhotogrametric Technique Determines Full 3-D displacements
Aramis Displacement Measurement SystemPhotogrametric Technique Determines Full 3-D displacementsPoint Displacement vs Time...
Aramis Adapted to Full-Scale Wing Leading Edge Tests
Aramis Adapted to Full-Scale Wing Leading Edge Tests    ARAMIS Validates LS-DYNA Analysis Models
Full-Scale Leading Edge Test Setup with Aramis at SwRI
Aramis Data Validates LS DYNA Analysis Predictions  Full Field Displacements of Wing Leading Edge Impact Test
Aramis Data Validates LS DYNA Analysis Predictions    Principle Strain Comparison to Bonded Gauges                        ...
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight       RT 455 ablator impact at approximately 300 ft/sec
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight        NCFI foam impact at approximately 800 ft/sec
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight           Tile Gap Filler Material Impact Testing
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight          Tile Repair Putty Material Impact Testing
Ice Formations on External Tank
Ice Research Supporting the Return to Flight       High Density Ice (no air bubbles entrained)
Ice Research Supporting the Return to Flight         Identification of Ice Microstructure
Impact Testing of IceHard ice impact at approximately 800 ft/sec
Hadland Camera Captures Fracture Wave Propagation      700 ft per second ice impact 280,000 frames per second
Cordin Camera Captures Fracture Wave Propagation     600 ft per second ice impact at 480,000 frames per second
Ice Impact Testing on Full Scale Leading Edge
External Tank Impact Testing
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight      External Tank Impact Test Article with Acreage Foam
Orbiter Windows Impact Testing
Orbiter Windows Testing at NASA GRC
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight               NCFI Foam Impact Test on Orbiter WindowRear ViewSide V...
Al3O2 Particles Measured and Weighed    Typical Aluminum Oxide Projectiles
Stereo Microscope Used to Load Gun
Tweezers Required to Place Particles in Gun Barrel
Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight               Aluminum Oxide particles impact orbiter windows70 degr...
July 26, 2005  Return to FlightThe most photographed mission
Forward and Aft SRB Cameras on STS-121
Chase Plane Video of STS-114 Launch
Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver
Orbiter Boom Sensor System
Orbiter Boom Sensor System
Additional Reading- The Columbia Accident                     - The Challenger Launch  Investigation Board                ...
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Mellis.matt

  1. 1. Lessons from Columbia Ballistic Impact DynamicsProject Management Challenge 2009 Daytona Beach, Florida Matt Melis NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland Ohio
  2. 2. Contributions of Ballistic Impact Research in The Columbia Accident Investigation & NASA’s Return to Flight Project Management Challenge 2009 Daytona Beach, Florida Matt Melis NASA Glenn Research Center Cleveland Ohio
  3. 3. A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
  4. 4. A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
  5. 5. A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
  6. 6. A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
  7. 7. A Brief Overview of the Shuttle Launch System
  8. 8. The Columbia Accident
  9. 9. On January 16 2003, Columbia’s leading edgewas impacted by a piece of foam suspected tohave separated from the external tank bipodramp at 81 seconds into its launch.Columbia was traveling at Mach 2.46, at analtitude of 65,860 feet. The foam was calculatedto have hit the Orbiter at 700 – 800 feet persecond
  10. 10. Insulating Foam Separates from Bipod Ramp and Impacts Left Wing of Columbia
  11. 11. Insulating Foam Separates from Bipod Ramp and Impacts Left Wing of Columbia
  12. 12. Bipod Image Ramp from CAIB ReportShowing shuttle ramp and wing Impact Point
  13. 13. The Bipod Ramp
  14. 14. The Bipod Ramp
  15. 15. Redesign of the External Tank Bipod RampOld Design New Design
  16. 16. The Orbiter Leading Edges
  17. 17. Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Panels Protect the Leading Edges of the Orbiter 22 panels per wing
  18. 18. RCC Panels 6, 8 & 9 of Specific Interest
  19. 19. RCC T-Seals Seal the Gap Between Panels
  20. 20. Leading Edge Panel Used for Full Scale Tests
  21. 21. Efforts of theColumbia Accident Investigation Board Forensic Reconstruction Establish Probable CauseSupport Findings with Full Scale Testing
  22. 22. The Reconstruction Effort
  23. 23. The Debris Field
  24. 24. The Debris Hanger
  25. 25. The Debris Hanger
  26. 26. The Debris Hanger
  27. 27. Reconstructing the Left Wing Leading Edges
  28. 28. Reconstructing the Left Wing Leading Edges
  29. 29. Panel 8 Found with Significant Spatter Deposition and Erosion
  30. 30. Right Wing Leading Edges Exhibited No Significant Spatter
  31. 31. The NASA Impact Analysis Development EffortWith the Explicit Finite Element Code LS DYNA Boeing, NASA GRC, JSC, LaRC Extensive impact dynamics experience at Glenn & Langley
  32. 32. Impact Analysis Development Effort For the Accident Investigation• Demonstrate valid impact analysis capability with LS DYNA• BX-250 External Tank foam characterization• Reinforced Carbon-Carbon characterization• Develop finite element mesh of panels and T-seals
  33. 33. LS DYNA Predicts Car Collisions Courtesy of LSTC
  34. 34. LS DYNA Predicts Fan Blade Containment
  35. 35. LS DYNA Predicts Water ImpactsSRB Aft Skirt Splashdown with TVC Upgrade Tank
  36. 36. The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Lab
  37. 37. The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Lab Large Vacuum Gun
  38. 38. The NASA Glenn Ballistic Impact Lab2 Inch Vacuum Gun
  39. 39. BX-250 External Tank Foam Characterization
  40. 40. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation BX-250 External Tank Foam Characterization High Speed Video of 90 Degree Impacts No Vacuum 708 ft/sec Vacuum 693 ft/sec
  41. 41. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation LS DYNA - explicit finite element impact analysis LS DYNA Predicts 90 Degree Foam Impact on Load CellLS Dyna is an industrystandard commercial finiteelement analysis codetypically used to modelimpact events
  42. 42. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation LS DYNA - explicit finite element impact analysis LS DYNA Predicts 23 Degree Foam Impact on Load Cell
  43. 43. Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Characterization
  44. 44. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons
  45. 45. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons
  46. 46. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons RCC Coupon Shows No Damage After 397 ft/sec Foam Impact
  47. 47. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons Foam Fractures RCC coupon in half at 695 ft/sec
  48. 48. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Ballistic Impact Tests on RCC Coupons 700 ft/second Impact 400 ft/second Impact
  49. 49. Full Scale Impact Analysis with LS Dyna
  50. 50. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis Full Scale Panel Analysis
  51. 51. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis 43,000 Panel Shell Elements 147,000 Foam Brick Elements
  52. 52. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis
  53. 53. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis Panel 6 Edge Impact Case
  54. 54. Ballistic Research Supporting the Accident Investigation Dyna - explicit finite element impact analysis Panel 6 Edge Impact Case RCC Damage
  55. 55. The Full-Scale Testing Effort
  56. 56. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests Tests conducted at Southwest Research Institute
  57. 57. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests
  58. 58. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests Installation of internal high speed cameras
  59. 59. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale TestsLeading edge panels mounted after camera installation
  60. 60. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale TestsPhantom digital camerasset up inside of full scaletest article
  61. 61. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests High intensity lights required both in and outside of test article
  62. 62. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests
  63. 63. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests External View of RCC Panel 8 Test
  64. 64. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests Barrel View of RCC Panel 8 Test
  65. 65. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests External View of RCC Panel 8 Test
  66. 66. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale Tests Internal View of RCC Panel 8 Test
  67. 67. Orbiter Leading Edge Full-Scale TestsPost Impact of Panel 8
  68. 68. Analysis Supporting Full-Scale Tests Dyna – explicit finite element impact analysisLatest Dyna PredictionsCorrelate with Panel 9Test
  69. 69. LS DYNA Analysis of Panel 8 Full-Scale Test
  70. 70. Return to Flight
  71. 71. Impact Analysis Development Effort For Return to Flight• Full development of analysis capability with LS DYNA• Additional foams, ice, ablator material characterization• Begin advance RCC model development (coating)
  72. 72. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight Impact Studies on RCC for Model Validation2 grams foam 2 grams foam2054 ft/sec 2054 ft/sec8 grams ice 8 grams ice650 ft/sec 650 ft/sec
  73. 73. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight Impact Studies on RCC for Model Validation2 grams foam 2 grams foam2371 ft/sec 2371 ft/sec8 grams ice 8 grams ice858 ft/sec 858 ft/sec
  74. 74. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight Impact Studies on RCC for Model Validation
  75. 75. Aramis Displacement Measurement SystemPhotogrametric Technique Determines Full 3-D displacements
  76. 76. Aramis Displacement Measurement SystemPhotogrametric Technique Determines Full 3-D displacementsPoint Displacement vs Time Displacement Contour Plot
  77. 77. Aramis Adapted to Full-Scale Wing Leading Edge Tests
  78. 78. Aramis Adapted to Full-Scale Wing Leading Edge Tests ARAMIS Validates LS-DYNA Analysis Models
  79. 79. Full-Scale Leading Edge Test Setup with Aramis at SwRI
  80. 80. Aramis Data Validates LS DYNA Analysis Predictions Full Field Displacements of Wing Leading Edge Impact Test
  81. 81. Aramis Data Validates LS DYNA Analysis Predictions Principle Strain Comparison to Bonded Gauges Aramis Indicated 2100-2700 Microstrain Gauge Indicated 2100 Microstrain Note Much Higher Amplitude 2” From Gauge
  82. 82. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight RT 455 ablator impact at approximately 300 ft/sec
  83. 83. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight NCFI foam impact at approximately 800 ft/sec
  84. 84. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight Tile Gap Filler Material Impact Testing
  85. 85. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight Tile Repair Putty Material Impact Testing
  86. 86. Ice Formations on External Tank
  87. 87. Ice Research Supporting the Return to Flight High Density Ice (no air bubbles entrained)
  88. 88. Ice Research Supporting the Return to Flight Identification of Ice Microstructure
  89. 89. Impact Testing of IceHard ice impact at approximately 800 ft/sec
  90. 90. Hadland Camera Captures Fracture Wave Propagation 700 ft per second ice impact 280,000 frames per second
  91. 91. Cordin Camera Captures Fracture Wave Propagation 600 ft per second ice impact at 480,000 frames per second
  92. 92. Ice Impact Testing on Full Scale Leading Edge
  93. 93. External Tank Impact Testing
  94. 94. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight External Tank Impact Test Article with Acreage Foam
  95. 95. Orbiter Windows Impact Testing
  96. 96. Orbiter Windows Testing at NASA GRC
  97. 97. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight NCFI Foam Impact Test on Orbiter WindowRear ViewSide View
  98. 98. Al3O2 Particles Measured and Weighed Typical Aluminum Oxide Projectiles
  99. 99. Stereo Microscope Used to Load Gun
  100. 100. Tweezers Required to Place Particles in Gun Barrel
  101. 101. Ballistic Impact Research Supporting Return to Flight Aluminum Oxide particles impact orbiter windows70 degree, 127 ft/sec90 degree 359 ft/sec50 degree 118 ft/sec
  102. 102. July 26, 2005 Return to FlightThe most photographed mission
  103. 103. Forward and Aft SRB Cameras on STS-121
  104. 104. Chase Plane Video of STS-114 Launch
  105. 105. Rendezvous Pitch Maneuver
  106. 106. Orbiter Boom Sensor System
  107. 107. Orbiter Boom Sensor System
  108. 108. Additional Reading- The Columbia Accident - The Challenger Launch Investigation Board Decision Final Report by Diane Vaughan- To Engineer is Human by Henry Petroski - Organization at the Limit by William Starbuck and Moshe Farjoun- Lessons from Everest: The Interaction of Cognitive Bias,Psychological Safety, and System Complexity byMichael Roberto. Obtain from Harvard Bussiness Online
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