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    Lyver.john Lyver.john Presentation Transcript

    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Spaceflight End-of-Mission Preparations, Decommissioning, and Disposal NASA Headquarters Office of Safety and Mission Assurance John W. Lyver, IV, Ph.D. NASA MMOD Program Manager February 10, 2011
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Topics to be Discussed• Overview of Spacecraft Decommissioning/Disposal Process• Governing Polices and Requirements – National Policies – NASA Policies• Requirements to Limit Orbital Debris• Requirements for Program Close-Out• Proposed NPR 7120.5”E” Decommissioning/Disposal Process 2
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Need to Decommission and Dispose of a NASA Spacecraft Missions• A NASA mission and NASA’s responsibility lasts from “cradle to grave” for any space mission which includes: – The spacecraft, – The launch vehicles, – The science – The funds – The design engineering – The facilities with the mission – The NASA workforce … All while protecting the public.• Throughout NASA’s history, much attention has been paid to the “cradle to operations” phases of a program (Phases A thru E), but traditionally, little attention has been paid to Phase F, the end-of-the-mission (EOM).• With the National Space Policy of June 2010, and a tightening budgets, NASA spaceflight missions need to be prepared for the EOM. 3
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Policy• Program Management: – NPR 7120.5D (with NM 7120-81), NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements – NPR 7123.1, NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements• Mission Management – NPD 8010.3, Notification of Intent to Decommission or Terminate Operating Space Systems and Terminate Missions – NPR 8621.1, NASA Procedural Requirements for Mishap and Close Call Reporting, Investigating, and Recordkeeping – Plus NPDs & NPRs dealing with budget, personnel, facilities, data archival• Orbital Debris: – NPR 8715.6, NASA Procedural Requirements for Limiting Orbital Debris – NASA-STD 8719.14, Process for Limiting Orbital Debris• The process to decommission and dispose of space and ground assets begins with the acquisition Planning  “Design for Demise”. 4
    • National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationOrbital Debris: National Level Documents Page 1: “The growth and evolution of the global economy has ushered in an ever-increasing number of nations and organizations using space. … decades of space activity have littered Earth’s orbit with debris; and as the world’s space-faring nations continue to increase activities in space, the chance for a collision increases correspondingly. Page 4: GOALS: (3) Strengthen Stability in Space … strengthening measures to mitigate orbital debris. Page 7: Preserve the Space Environment. the United States shall: - Lead … policies to minimize debris … 5 http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/national_space_policy_6-28-10.pdf
    • National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationOrbital Debris: National Level Documents Page 7: Preserve the Space Environment. … the United States shall: - Lead … policies to minimize debris, such as the United Nations Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines; - Continue to follow the United States Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices, consistent with mission requirements and cost effectiveness, in the procurement and operation of spacecraft, launch services, and the conduct of tests and experiments in space; - … to mitigate and remove on-orbit debris, … - Require the head of the sponsoring department or agency to approve exceptions to the United States Government Orbital Debris Mitigation Standard Practices and notify the Sec of State. 6
    • National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationOrbital Debris: National Level Documents 7 http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/library/references.html
    • National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationOrbital Debris: National Level Documents Item #4: Post Mission Disposal of Space Structures: 4-1 Disposal for final mission orbits: A spacecraft or upper stage may be disposed of by one of three methods: a) Atmospheric reentry option: If a space structure is to be disposed of by reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere, the risk of human casualty will be less than 1 in 10,000. b) Maneuvering to a storage orbit: - Between perigee above 2,000 km and apogee below 35,300 km - Perigee altitude above 36,100 km - Heliocentric, Earth-escape: c) Direct retrieval 8
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orbital Debris: NASA Documents• NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8715.6, and NASA-Standard 8719.14 – Baselined and in full compliance with US & UN OD Std Mitigation Practices – Requires: • End-of-Mission Plan (EOMP) • Spacecraft passivation • De-orbit/re-orbit the spacecraft • Risk acceptance of the disposal method – Currently being upgraded to better address: • Small secondary payload satellites (aka: CubeSats) • NEPA compliance for reentries  1:10,000 Reentry human casualty risk being defined as from all reentry hazards, not just striking with falling debris, include chemical, biological, explosive, radiological, … risks  ODAR & EOMP requiring an added table to estimate quantity of hazmat onboard at launch, initial operations, planned end of operations, post passivation, & ground impact. • Adding OD assessment PRIOR to “Acquisition Strategy Meeting” to identify OD problems inherent in the acquisition. i.e.; reuse of old bus, won’t pay for controlled reentry, tethers, … • NSP 2010 notifications • Better defining what to passivate and how much passivation required • Increasing super-GEO disposal orbit to >GEO+300km 9
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orbital Debris: Disposal RequirementsSpacecraft Passivation: (From NASA-STD 8719.14) NASA-STD 8719.14 Paragraph 4.4.2.1.2 : “Requirement 4.4-2: Design for passivation after completion of mission operations while in orbit about Earth or the Moon: Design of all spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages shall include the ability to deplete all onboard sources of stored energy and disconnect all energy generation sources when they are no longer required for mission operations or post mission disposal or control to a level which can not cause an explosion or deflagration large enough to release orbital debris or break up the spacecraft.” – Includes: •Burning residual propellants to depletion •Venting propellant lines and tanks •Venting pressurized systems •Residual propellants and other fluids, such as pressurants, should be depleted as thoroughly as possible • Tanks depressurized at the end of use • Discharging batteries, other energy storage systems, and preventing recharging • Depressurizing/discharging pressurized gas filled batteries • Deactivating range safety systems • De-energizing control moment gyroscopes • Batteries completely discharged and disconnected from their charging circuits • Remove of electrical energy inputs from rotational energy devices – EOMP contains a full description of the passivation actions 10
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orbital Debris: Disposal RequirementsSpacecraft Disposal: (From NASA-STD 8719.14) 4.6.2.1 Requirement 4.6-1. Disposal for space structures passing through LEO: A spacecraft or orbital stage with a perigee altitude below 2000 km shall be disposed of by one of three methods: a) Atmospheric reentry option: ... natural forces will lead to atmospheric reentry within 25 years after the completion of mission but no more than 30 years after launch; or Maneuver the space structure into a controlled de-orbit trajectory. b) Storage orbit option: Maneuver the space structure into an orbit with perigee altitude greater than 2000 km and apogee less than GEO - 500 km (~35,500 km). c) Direct retrieval: Retrieve the space structure and remove it from orbit within 10 years after completion of mission. 4.7.2 Requirement 4.7-1. Limit the risk of human casualty: The potential for human casualty is assumed for any object with an impacting kinetic energy in excess of 15 joules: a) For uncontrolled reentry, the risk of human casualty from surviving debris shall not exceed 1:10,000. b) For controlled reentry, no surviving debris impact with a kinetic energy greater than 15 joules is closer than 370 km from foreign landmasses, or is within 50 km from the continental U.S., territories of the U.S., and the permanent ice pack of Antarctica. c) For controlled reentries, the product of the probability of failure of the reentry burn and the risk of human casualty assuming uncontrolled reentry shall not exceed 0.0001 (1:10,000) 11 From NASA-STD 8719.14
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orbital Debris: Disposal RequirementsEarth-Orbit Spacecraft Disposal: (From NASA-STD 8719.14) 4.6.2.2 Requirement 4.6-2. Disposal for space structures near GEO: A spacecraft or orbital stage in an orbit near GEO shall be maneuvered at EOM to a disposal orbit above GEO with a predicted minimum altitude of GEO +200 km (35,986 km) for a period of at least 100 years after disposal. 4.6.2.3 Requirement 4.6-3. Disposal for space structures between LEO and GEO: a) A spacecraft or orbital stage may be left in any orbit between 2000 km above the Earth’s surface and 500 km below GEO. b) A spacecraft or orbital stage shall not use nearly circular disposal orbits near regions of high value operational space structures, such as between 19,100 km and 20,200 km.Lunar Orbit Disposal: 4.6.2.a All NASA spacecraft and launch vehicles in Earth and lunar orbit shall be passivated at EOM to the extent necessary to prevent breakup or further generation of orbital debris. 4.6.2.e Spacecraft and launch vehicles not operating in orbit about Earth or its moon are not required to be passivated at EOM, however passivation is recommended. 12 From NASA-STD 8719.14
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orbital Debris: Noncompliance with NASA Documents• Prior to Acquisition: (updated requirements pending in NODIS to NPR 8715.6 & NPR 7120.5) – Must perform an Orbital Debris Assessment to identify potential nonconformances – Submit Deviation requests PRIOR to the Acquisition Strategy Meeting per NPR 8715.3 para 1.13 and NASA-STD 8709.20 • Must be approved by Chief/Safety and Mission Assurance and Chief Engineer • Risk is accepted by Mission Directorate Associate Administrator or higher – Noncompliances which exceed the requirements in the National Space Policy of 2010 or the US Government Orbital Debris Standard Mitigation Practices will require the NASA Administrator to notify the Secretary of State• Prior to Launch: – All noncompliances are documented in the ODAR – Waivers are submitted for all noncompliances per NPR 8715.3, para 1.13 – All waivers required to be approved by the SMSR (Safety & Mission Success Review)• After Launch – All nonconformances are documented in the EOMP – Waivers are submitted for all EOM noncompliances per NPR 8715.3, para 1.13 – All waivers required to be approved by the DRR (Decommissioning Review) 13
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Notice to Decommission• ND 8010.3, Notification of Intent to Decommission or Terminate Operating Space Systems and Terminate Missions: “This NPD establishes policy for notification of intent to decommission or terminate operating space systems and terminate missions. When it is determined that an operating space system has reached the end of its intended useful life, or a mission has reached the end of its usefulness, or the space system should be decommissioned or terminated for any other reason, or the mission should be terminated for any other reason, adequate notification will be given to assure proper coordination with all concerned parties internal and external to NASA.” Responsibilities of the Managing Mission Directorate Associate Administrator: 1) Determine reasons for continuing the operation of mission and/or space systems. 2) Forward to the Administrator a notification of intent to terminate a mission … 90 calendar days before the planned shutdown. 3) CITE copies of the notification to involved Headquarters & Center offices. 4) Obtain concurrence from Safety and Mission Assurance that the mission termination plan complies with approved safety standards at the time of launch. 5) For planetary missions, obtain concurrence from the Planetary Protection Officer 6) Inform the Office of External Relations … in a time frame that is consistent with the terms and conditions defined in the agreement with the international partner. 14
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Notional Management Requirements• During the decommissioning process to shut down a NASA Project or NASA Program: – Funding requirements: • Termination or contracts and agreements • Transfer of remaining funds • Budgeting for post-life operations (data or flight) – Personnel requirements: • Transfers • Re-training • Relocations – Asset Requirements: • Facilities • Hardware – Information Requirements: • Final analyses • Data archival – et al• Documentation of the actions associated with these requirements are done per the various documents. Reviews are individually done by community. 15
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Pending Update to NPR 7120.5”E”• NPR 7120.5, NASA Program Management (Rev D with NASA-Memo 7120-81) and NPR 7123.1, NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements • Apply to all space missions• NPR 7120.5 (draft Rev E) will: – Add overt pre-acquisition approvals for OD mitigation – Better implement NPR 8000.4, NASA Risk Management, processes – Improve decommissioning/disposal process by putting it all in one flowed process The following slides are from latest Draft update to NPR 7120.5 which will become Rev E. DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approved 16
    • DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approved National Aeronautics and Space Administration Decommissioning ProcessCurrent proposed draft of NPR 7120.5”E”: 17
    • DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approvedNational Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Project Life Cycle The image cannot be display ed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupt ed. Restart y our computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and the insert it again. n NASA Life Approval for Approval for Cycle Phases Formulation FORMULATION Implementation IMPLEMENTATION The image cannot be display ed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupt ed. Restart y our computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and the insert it again. n Project Pre-Phase A: Phase A: Phase B: Phase C: Phase D: Phase E: Phase F: Life Cycle - Concept Studies Concept & Technology Preliminary Design & Final Design & System Assembly, Int Operations & Closeout Phases Development Technology Completion Fabrication & Test, Launch & Sustainment Project Pre-Phase A: Phase A: Phase B: Phase C: Checkout Phase D: Phase E: Phase F: The image cannot be display ed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupt ed. Restart y our computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and the insert it again. n Project KDP A KDP B KDP C KDP D KDP E7 KDP F Life Cycle FAD Final Archival Gates & Launch End of Mission of Data Draft Project Preliminary Baseline Project Major Events KDP A Requirements KDP B Project Plan Project C KDP Plan KDP E KDP F The image cannot be display ed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupt ed. Restart y our computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and the insert it again. n Agency Reviews ASP ASM The image cannot be display ed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupt ed. Restart y our computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and the insert it again. n Human Space Flight Project Life Cycle ASP MCR ASM SRR SDR PDR CDR / SIR SAR ORR FRR 7 PLAR CERR 3 End of DR DRR DR Reviews 1,5&6 (PNAR) (NAR) PRR 2 Inspections and Flightof Flight End Re-flights Refurbishment Re -flights Re-enters appropriate life cycle phase if modifications are needed between flights PFAR PFAR Robotic Robotic Mission Mission Life Cycle Project Project Reviews 11,5&6 Reviews MCR 4 MRB7 PLAR FRR CERR 3 DR MCR ASM SRR MDR 4 SRR MDR PDR CDR / CDR / SIR SIR ORR ORR CERR 3 DR DRR Launch (PNAR) (NAR) PRR 2 PRR 2 Readiness Other Reviews SMSR, LRR Reviews (LV), FRR (LV) SAR8 Supporting Reviews Peer Reviews, Sub -system PDRs, Sub -system CDRs, and System Reviews FOOTNOTES ACRONYMS 1. Flexibility is allowed to the timing, number and content of reviews as long as the equivalent ASP - Acquisition Strategy Planning Meeting ORR - Operational Readiness Review information is provided at each KDP and the approach is fully documented in the Project Plan. ASM - Acquisition Strategy Meeting PDR - Preliminary Design Review 2. PRR needed for multiple system copies. Timing is notional. CDR - Critical Design Review PFAR - Post-Flight Assessment Review 3. CERRs are established at the discretion of Program Offices. CERR - Critical Events Readiness Review PLAR - Post-Launch Assessment Review 4. For robotic missions the SRR and the MDR may be combined. DR - Decommissioning Review PRR - Production Readiness Review 5. Single-project programs will follow the Project lifecycle, but will include draft and final PCAs DRR - Disposal Readiness Review SAR - System Acceptance Review and Program Plans approvals at KDPs B & C respectively. FAD - Formulation Authorization Document SDR - System Definition Review 6. Life Cycle Review (LCR) objectives and expected maturity states for these reviews and the 18 FRR - Flight Readiness Review SIR - System Integration Review attendant KDPs are contained in Table 2-7. KDP - Key Decision Point SMSR - Safety and Mission Success Review
    • DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approvedNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Decommissioning Process Phase D Phase E Phase F KDP-E KDP-F Turn off Science Re-orbit/ De-orbit & SMSR DR DRR Passivation At least 90 days Transfer to ODAR Post- B/L Mission Notice to Monitoring Decom Org Decom Archive Data Plan & Close-out Project EOMP B/L EOMP EOMP Updates Final DR - Decommissioning Review DRR - Disposal Readiness Review EOMP - End of Mission Plan Mishap KDP - Key Decision Point Cont MCP - Mishap Contingency Plan Plan ODAR - Orbital Debris Assessment Report MCP MCP SMSR - Safety and Mission Success Review Updates Final 19
    • DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approved National Aeronautics and Space Administration Decommissioning ProcessPhase D Phase E Phase F Decommissioning Plan is a collection of sub-plans: KDP-E KDP-F• Updated Orbital Debris End-of-Mission Plan (EOMP) Turn off (NPR 8715.6) Science • Updated Mishap Contingency Plan (MCP) and pre-defined Re-orbit/ De-orbit & SMSR DR contingency/mishap scenarios DRR Passivation (NPR 8621.1) • Plans for notifying stakeholders of the intent to decommission At least 90 days Transfer toODAR Post- (NPD 8101.3)B/L Mission Notice to Monitoring Decom • Plans for archiving science, operations, and engineering data Org (methods, media, locations, etc.) (NPR 1441.1, et al) Decom Archive Data Plan • Plans for communications security & Close-out ProjectEOMPB/L • Plans for disposition of all hardware, software, and ground EOMP EOMP facilities DR - Decommissioning Review Updates Final DRR - Disposal Readiness ReviewMishapCont • Plans for closing out contracts, financial obligations, and EOMP - End of Mission Plan KDP - Key Decision Point MCP - Mishap Contingency PlanPlan MCP MCP project infrastructure and transferring project personnel ODAR - Orbital Debris Assessment Report SMSR - Safety and Mission Success Review Updates Final • Plans plans for long-term monitoring of on-orbit spacecraft Plan is reviewed at Decommissioning Review and approved at KDP-F 20
    • DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approved National Aeronautics and Space Administration Decommissioning Process J.3 The actual disposal of the spacecraft (re-orbit, de- Phase E Phase Fand passivation) must meet Agency orbital debris orbit requirements and is a critical event. As a result, this event KDP-F requires a Disposal Readiness Review (DRR). This review evaluates the readiness of the project and the Turn off Science flight system for execution of the spacecraft disposal event. (See Table 2-9.) In many cases, like small Re-orbit/ De-orbit & spacecraft, the decommissioning and disposal will occur Passivation DR DRR relatively closely together. In these instances the At least 90 days Decommissioning and Disposal Readiness Reviews may Transfer to Post- be conducted together. Mission Notice to Monitoring Decom Org J.4 Decommissioning and Phase F end when the project funding is finally terminated. For SMD projects, project Decom fundingArchive Data covers archival of the science data produced by Plan & Close-out the spacecraft (and the ancillary data for its interpretation) Project prior to project termination. This ensures that the scienceOMP EOMP community will have access to this data for follow-ondates DR Final Decommissioning Review DR - Decommissioning Review science research and data analysis. DRR - Disposal Readiness Review DRR Disposal Readiness ReviewEOMP - End of Mission Plan KDP - Key Decision Point 21 MCP - Mishap Contingency Plan ODAR - Orbital Debris Assessment ReportMCP MCP
    • DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approved National Aeronautics and Space Administration Decommissioning Process KDP-F Phase E Purpose/Goal: Phase F To evaluate the readiness of the project to conduct KDP-F closeout activities, including final delivery of all remaining project deliverables and safe decommissioning Turn off Science of spaceflight systems and other project assets; to determine if the project is appropriately prepared to begin Re-orbit/ De-orbit & Phase F. Passivation DR DRR At least 90 days Risk Assessment: Transfer to Post- Risks associated with decommissioning are documented, Mission Notice to credibly assessed and closed, or acceptable closure plans, Monitoring Decom Org including needed resources, are in place. Decom Archive Data Required Maturity: Plan & Close-out Overall KDP-F Expected State: Project decommissioning Project is consistent with Program objectives, and project isOMP EOMP ready for safe decommissioning of its assets.dates Final DR - Decommissioning Review DRR - Disposal Readiness Review EOMP - End of Mission Plan KDP - Key Decision Point 22 MCP - Mishap Contingency Plan ODAR - Orbital Debris Assessment ReportMCP MCP
    • DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approved National Aeronautics and Space Administration Decommissioning Process Turn-Off Science: Phase E Phase F • Planned in Decom Plan & approved at KDP-F KDP-F • All data is downloaded from spacecraft Turn off Science • Collection of science (or other Re-orbit/ engineering function) is turned-off De-orbit & Passivation • Data is passed for final analyses DR DRR and then archived At least 90 days Transfer to Post- Re-Orbit/De-Orbit/Passivation: Mission Notice to Monitoring • Planned in Decom Plan & Decom Org approved at KDP-F • Further detailed mission ops plan Decom Archive Data may be needed like any other Plan & Close-out Project maneuver • Mishap Control Plan updatedOMP EOMP • Result of execution is an inactivedates Final DR - Decommissioning Review spacecraft DRR - Disposal Readiness Review EOMP - End of Mission Plan KDP - Key Decision Point 23 MCP - Mishap Contingency Plan ODAR - Orbital Debris Assessment ReportMCP MCP
    • DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approved National Aeronautics and Space Administration Decommissioning Process Mission Monitoring Org: • This function now done ad hoc Phase E Phase F • Looking to establish single NASA KDP-F Office to be POC for inactive objects. • Project would provide small data Turn off Science package of Decom items to office Re-orbit/ • Plan is to establish in FY-13, De-orbit & possibly at GSFC using Agency vice DR DRR Passivation Mission Directorate funds At least 90 days Transfer to Post- Mission Notice to Monitoring Decom Org Decom Archive Data Plan & Close-out ProjectOMP EOMPdates Final DR - Decommissioning Review DRR - Disposal Readiness Review EOMP - End of Mission Plan KDP - Key Decision Point 24 MCP - Mishap Contingency Plan ODAR - Orbital Debris Assessment ReportMCP MCP
    • DRAFT – DO NOT CITE until approvedNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Decommissioning Process Phase D Phase E Phase F KDP-E KDP-F Turn off Science Re-orbit/ De-orbit & SMSR DR DRR Passivation At least 90 days Transfer to ODAR Post- B/L Mission Notice to Monitoring Decom Org Decom Archive Data Plan & Close-out Project EOMP B/L EOMP EOMP Updates Final DR - Decommissioning Review DRR - Disposal Readiness Review EOMP - End of Mission Plan Mishap KDP - Key Decision Point Cont MCP - Mishap Contingency Plan Plan ODAR - Orbital Debris Assessment Report MCP MCP SMSR - Safety and Mission Success Review Updates Final 25
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Proposed Actions after Approval of NPR 7120.5”E”• Future changes to NPR 7120.5”E” as the process is implemented: 1) Notice to terminate: • RELOCATE the requirements in NPD 8010.3, Notification of Intent to Decommission or Terminate Operating Space Systems and Terminate Missions into NPR 7120.5E section for KDP-F and Decommissioning Appendix • Cancel NPD 8010.3. 2) Decom Plan Definitions • Collect and better define all sub-plans to limit duplication and provide easier guidance 3) Provide better guidance for DRR, DR, and KDP-F administration• Update NPR 7123.1 reflecting changes• Update NPR 8715.6 and NASA-STD 8719.14 reflecting changes• Establishment of Inactive Spacecraft Monitoring Office (FY-13?) 26
    • National Aeronautics and Space Administration Thank you for your attention Questions and Concerns? 27