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Lengyel dave


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  • 1. Project ManagementChallenge 2007Dave LengyelNASA Exploration Systems Mission DirectorateNASA Exploration Systems Mission DirectorateIntegrated Risk and Knowledge ManagementIntegrated Risk and Knowledge Management February 6, 2007 February 6, 2007
  • 2. Outline • Why Integrate Risk and Knowledge Management? • Lessons Learned on Lessons Learned • ESMD Integrated Risk and Knowledge Management Practices – Pause and Learn – Knowledge-Based Risks – Communities of Practice – Knowledge-Sharing Forums – Experience-Based Training • SummaryIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 2
  • 3. Why Integrate Risk and Knowledge Management? Designing a complex architecture of hardware, software, ground and space-based assets to return to the Moon and then go on to Mars will require: 1) an effective strategy to learn from past lessons, and 2) a set of processes to generate and share knowledge for reuse as we progress forward. ESMD risk and knowledge management communities have embarked on an effort to integrate risk and knowledge management (KM) over the lifecycle of the Constellation and Advanced Capabilities Programs using a set of inter-related strategies, which include: Practice 1: Establish Pause and Learn Processes Practice 2: Generate and Infuse Knowledge-Based Risks (KBRs) Practice 3: Establish Communities of Practice (CoP) Practice 4: Provide Knowledge Sharing Forums Practice 5: Promote Experienced-Based TrainingIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 3
  • 4. Practice 1: Pause and Learn (PaL)“The Need to Pause, Reflect, and Learn” PAL is modeled after the Army After Action Review (AAR) system by Dr. Ed Rogers KM Architect at the GSFC. While the AAR was developed to learn from training exercises, the 25 years of experience, theoretical foundations and practical tools make it a valuable source of lessons for NASA. The idea is to create a learning event at the end of selected critical events in the life of a project. End of project reflections are good but are too infrequent for the organization to learn in a timely manner. PAL meetings are intended to be integrated into the project life cycle at key points as a natural part of the process. PAL meetings are structured and facilitated by specialists who are not project membersIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 4
  • 5. Pause and Learn (PaL) Process Facilitator & Facilitator, Note-taker & Facilitator & Team Lead Entire Team Team Lead Investigation Phase Facilitation Phase Documentation Phase Research Literature Begin Non-attribution Review Non-attribution (Project Websites, Discussion Notes MSRs, Etc.) Discussion Points Create Hotwash Report Interview Stakeholders Facilitator and Note-taker (Projects Leader, Introduction Project Members, etc.) Ground Rules and Expectations Send Hotwash Report Brief High-Level Overview to Project Manager of Project Develop Areas of Facilitated Discussion Discussion Follow-up meeting with Facilitated Review of Major Project Manager Discussion Points Discuss Future of Hotwash Report Evaluate PaL ProcessIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 5
  • 6. Lessons Learned on Lessons Learned • Start Early • Need to Capture, Learn From and Repeat Successes--Need to Learn from and Prevent Failures, Mishaps, Near Misses • There was a limited number of useful lessons learned in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System database. The good ones are masked by the hundreds of poor ones, so that extensive effort is required to sort them out. • Lesson Learned – Well-understood mechanisms for “transfer of knowledge” during Program development are crucial to a successful long-term Program. • Flow all applicable Lessons Learned into Requirements, Processes, and Plans and Periodically Verify Compliance. Institutionalize the Use of Lessons Learned. • Provide Sufficient Resources, Planning, and Management Support to Analyze and Incorporate Lessons Learned. NASA and Contractor Must Work Together • The best lessons learned for running a major program should be captured in a living handbook of best practices. New lessons learned should be screened for applicability, and included in the handbook. Why ESMD Is Taking a New Approach to Lessons Learned? Why ESMD Is Taking a New Approach to Lessons Learned?IRKMO001_hq20061219awh 6
  • 7. Practice 2: Knowledge-Based Risks Definition Knowledge-Based Risk n. 1. A risk based on lessons learned from previous experience. 2. A closed risk with documented lessons learned appended. 3. A means of transferring knowledge in a risk context.IRKMO001_hq20061219awh 7
  • 8. Knowledge-Based Risks Strategy The ESMD KBR strategy is intended to convey risk- related lessons learned and best practices to ESMD personnel. This strategy integrates the existing Continuous Risk Management (CRM) paradigm used at NASA with knowledge management--with the primary focus on integrating transfer of knowledge through existing work processes and not adding an additional burden to the workforce to incorporate new KM tools and concepts.IRKMO001_hq20061219awh 8
  • 9. Knowledge-Based Risks Active Risk Manager® (ARM) Database Knowledge-Based Risks Knowledge-Based Risks ESMD Risk List ESMD Risk List - Orbital Space Plane - Orbital Space Plane - XXX - XXX - Space Shuttle - Space Shuttle - XXX - XXX - Space Station - Space Station - Next Gen Launch Technology - Next Gen Launch Technology ESMD Watch List ESMD Watch List - Other - Other Over Time: Orion, Ares Risks… - XXX - XXX Over Time: Orion, Ares Risks… - XXX - XXXIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 9
  • 10. Risk Management Assurance Mapping ARM = Active Risk Manager Risk Management Assurance Mapping CEV = Crew Exploration Vehicle CLV = Crew Launch Vehicle C3PO = Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Office 1 CxCB = Constellation Control Board NASA ECANS = Exploration Communications and Navigation Systems Administrator (Griffin) EVA = Extravehicular Activities IRMA = Integrated Risk Management Application LAS = Launch Abort System LCROSS = Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite TCB LRO = Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LPRP = Lunar Precursor Robotic Program OSPP = Office of Security and Program Protection RMWG = Risk Management Working Group SOMD = Space Operations Mission Directorate SR&QA = Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance 97 2 Manage Risk SOMD AA ESMD AA Manage Risk Data in (Gerstenmaier) (Horowitz) Data in ARM CxIRMA RMP ESMD RMWG ESMD Divisions / Orgs 3 7 6 8 9 4 5 10 ESMD Deputy ESMD Advanced ESMD Constellation ESMD Resource ESMD Strategic Manage Risk ESMD Chief ESMD Directorate ESMD Chief Associate Capabilities Systems Division Management Integration and Data in ARM Engineer Integration Office Chief Management Officer Information Officer Administrator Division Chief Officer (Lyles) (Woodward) (Stanton) (Allen) (McManus) (Cooke) (Walz) (Hunter)C3PO Advanced Capabilities Constellation Program SOMD Programs Mission Support Offices Programs and Projects Manage Risk Manage Risk 13 11 Data in ARM Data in CxCB Space Shuttle International 80 23 Infrastructure and 31 CxIRMA Space Station ECANS Project 110 111 Program (SSP) Administration Chief Health & OSPP 86 (ISS) Program Manager ARES-I Risk Mgt Constellation Constellation Manage Risk Manager (I&A) Manager Medical Officer (?) C3PO Project Manager (Ondrus) Constellation Program Office Working Group Program Manager Risk Manager Data in (Hale) (Dominguez) (Williams) Manager (Hanley) (Turner) (Suffredini) CxIRMA (Lindenmoyer) 102 98 104 38 40 42 44 46 48 Constellation 100 Constellation Test Constellation Constellation 106 108 Constellation RMP SSP RRB ISS RRB ECANS RRB Lunar Robotic Technology Centennial Lunar Precursor Operations Systems Engineering Constellation 24 32 LCROSS Program Human Research Program Planning & Verification Advanced Projects 14 Orbiter (LRO) Development Challenges Robotic Program Integration & Integration (SE&I) SR&QA Manager 12 Infrastructure and Chief Health & OSPP Risk Manager Program Manager & Control Manager Manager Manager International Space 81 C3PO RRB (Andrews) Program Manager Program Manager Program Manager (Laurini) (LPRP) Manager (Waddell) (Arceneaux) Manager Manager (Hansen) (Noriega) Space Shuttle Station (ISS) Manage Risk ECANS Risk Administration (I&A) Manage Risk Medical Officer Manager (Tooley) (Peri) (?) (Lavoie) (Castle) (Hardcastle) Program (SSP) Risk Manage Risk Program Risk Risk Manager Data in ARM Risk Manager (?) Data in Data in Manager (Hoyt) 87 Manager Manager (Turner) SSP_IRMA ISS_IRMA (Naves) (Liskowsky) C3PO Risk (Lutomski) Manager 39 41 43 45 47 49 99 Constellation 101 103 Constellation 105 107 109 RMP RMP RMP (Erminger) Lunar Robotic Technology Centennial Lunar Precursor Constellation Test Constellation Constellation Constellation LCROSS Risk Human Research Robotic Program Program Planning Operations Systems Engineering Orbiter (LRO) Risk Development Risk Challenges Risk & Verification Risk SR&QA Risk Advanced Projects Manager Risk Manager (LPRP) Risk & Control Risk Integration Risk & Integration (SE&I) Manager Manager Manager Manager Manager Risk Manager Manager Risk Manager (Squires) (Morrison) Manager Manager (Rad) (Cerro) (?) (Powell) (Schwarz) (Curiel) (Turner) (Dorris) (Holsomback) (Nise) Indicates risks are housed in IRMA (either CxIRMA, SSP Manage Risk IRMA, or ISS IRMA). Note Constellation Projects Data in IRMA that CxIRMA will be integrated with ARM 33 Shuttle Transition Orion (CEV) CEV RRB ARES-I (CLV) CLV RRB Other Constellation Projects Office Manager Indicates risks are housed in (Lightfoot) Manage Risk Data in ARM ARM 50 51 66 67 Manage Risk Orion Risk Mgt Orion (CEV) Orion (CEV) Risk Manage Risk ARES-I Risk Mgt ARES-I (CLV) ARES-I (CLV) Manage Risk Data in Working Group Project Manager Manager Data in Working Group Project Manager Risk Manager Data in Indicates a Risk Review CxIRMA (Hatfield) (Perera) RMP CxIRMA (Cooke) (Kulpa) EEV RMP CxIRMA 34 RRB Board Shuttle Transition Office Risk Manager Indicates that a risk (Araiza) 82 84 78 RMP management plan has been 88 ARES-V (CaLV) Ground Mission EVA Project 74 Operations Project Operations Project Manager created at this level 52 54 56 64 72 76 Project Manager 58 60 68 70 ARES-I Flight Test Manager Manager (Lutz) Orion Program Orion Vehicle Orion Safety and Orion Test & ARES-I Upper ARES-I Vehicle (Cooke / Kynard) Orion Crew Orion Service ARES-I First Stage ARES-I Upper & Integration (Talone) (Webb) Planning and Integration Mission Assurance Verification Stage Engine Integration Indicates Chain of Command Control Manager Manager Manager Module Manager Module Manager Manager Manager Stage Manager (J2X) Manager Office (FITO) Manager SSP Project ISS Project (Piatek) (Free) (Burt) (Davis) Manager interface that provides RM (Floyd) (Gahring) (Thiessen) (Hurlbert) (Snoddy) (Reuter) EVA RRB (Taylor) CaLV RRB GO RRB MO RRB status and escalated risks 53 73 75 83 85 55 57 59 61 65 71 77 89 79 Orion Program 69 ARES-I Upper ARES-I Flight Test Ground Mission Indicates information Orion Vehicle Orion Safety and Orion Crew Orion Service Orion Test & ARES-I Upper ARES-I Vehicle ARES-V (CaLV) Operations Risk Operations Risk EVA Risk Manager Planning and ARES-I First Stage Stage Engine & Integration Risk Manager interface that provides RM Integration Risk Mission Assurance Module Risk Module Risk Verification Risk Stage Risk Integration Risk Manager Manager (Mulligan) Control Risk Manager Risk Manager Manager Manager Manager Risk Manager Manager (J2X) Risk Office (FITO) Risk Manager (Kulpa / Coleman) EEV RMP Manager (Mabry) Manager Manager (Anderson) (Smith) status and escalated risks (Manuel) (Jenkins) (Peterson) (Gibson) (See) (Jasper / Ogle) (Kulpa / Wood) (Floyd) (Byrd / Ogle) (Cole / Wood) 62 63 LAS Manager LAS Risk Manager (Stover) (Wood / Cole) Multiple KBR Capture Points – Multiple Delivery Points IRKMO001_hq20061219awh 10
  • 11. Knowledge-Based Risks (Continued) Standalone Program Risks More access to risk information is Number of Documented Risks in ARM required to close “knowledge gaps” L&MS CLV CEV Integrated and Knowledge- L&MS Based Risks in ARM Number of Documented Risks CLV 2012 2013 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 CEV KBRs Integrated Program Risks Number of Documented Risks in ARM L&MS 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 CLV CEV 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013IRKMO001_hq20061219awh 11
  • 12. Knowledge-Based Risks (Continued) NASA Standard WBS ARM allows automated delivery of new KBRsIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 12
  • 13. Knowledge-Based Risks (Continued) • Embedded 3-8 min Video Nugget with Transcript • Related Knowledge Bundles • Related Content – reports, documents, etc. • Threaded discussion (blog) feature to be added to comment on each KBR • To be hosted on ESMD R&KM portalIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 13
  • 14. First Closed Risk KBR – Lunar Recon Orbiter LRO Spacecraft Delta II Booster Atlas V Booster LCROSS Spacecraft • The design of the LRO propulsion tanks was influenced by a number of factors including launch vehicle characteristics. The Delta II Expendable Launch Vehicle’s (ELV) spin stabilized upper stage made the Nutation Time Constant (NTC) a key parameter in assessing the stability of the spacecraft. The uncertainty in predicting the effects of liquid propellant motions and the relatively large propellant load and mass fraction for the LRO tank resulted in the identification of a potential risk. Close coordination and communication with all levels of management early in the design trade study process allowed for the effective mitigation of the risk and provided additional lunar exploration opportunity.IRKMO001_hq20061219awh 14
  • 15. Practice 3: Communities of Practice (CoPs) Knowledge resides with people and is often lost via actions like: • Downsizing • Retirements • Shuttle Transition • People Movement (Job Changes, Project Realignment, etc.) 5 2 1 L CoPs allow the capture of I 4 K 4 8 1 knowledge which enables risk E 3 mitigation strategies to be L 2 3 3 developed or enhanced in I H 1 multiple discipline areas O O D 1 2 3 4 5 CONSEQUENCEIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 15
  • 16. Communities of Practice • “Communities of Practice (CoP) are groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on an ongoing basis” • “CoPs share information, insight and advice. They help each other solve problems.” • “They may create tools, standards, generic designs, manuals, and other documents —” • “Cultivating CoP in strategic areas is a practical way to manage knowledge as an asset, just as systematically as companies manage other critical assets.” Communities of Practice. Wenger, et alIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 16
  • 17. Communities of Practice ESMD CoPs… • Risk & Knowledge Management • Risk & Reliability Analysis • Earned Value Management • Technology Protection • Systems Engineering & Integration • Human Research • Research and TechnologyIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 17
  • 18. NASA CoP Tool – PBMA Example Process-Based Mission Assurance (PBMA) PortalThe PBMA toolkit providesNASA CoPs with a secureenvironment to sharedocuments, conduct threadeddiscussions, polls, managecalendars, locate expertise,collaborate and learn.PBMA boasts over 7,500 usersin 275+ communities ofpractice, communities ofinterest, and workgroups Information Security – ESMD KM Artifacts Must Be SecureIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 18
  • 19. NASA CoP Tool – Wiki ExampleRisk & Reliability Analysis Wiki • Wiki software selected - Confluence • Several CoPs or Offices using Wiki (CxP avionics/software, ESMD risk and reliability analysts, DIO…) • Establishing Wiki training capability Information Security – ESMD KM Artifacts Must Be SecureIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 19
  • 20. KM Practices Integration Portal CoP s ka ges age d Liin k Ln an d n an iio n o eg tte rat gra t h IIn h n Riic Rc Wiki Knowledge- Sharing ForumsIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 20
  • 21. Practice 4: Support Knowledge-Sharing Forums ESMD Alumni Sharing Events • Engage NASA Alumni • Utilize APPEL Forums • Will utilize Webcast to broaden audience • Post Videos on ESMD IRKMS portal APPEL Master’s Forums Knowledge Sharing Workshops and SeminarsIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 21
  • 22. Practice 5: Experience-Based Management and Technical Training APPEL NESC Leverage the existing infrastructure of training courses throughout NASA, but with the emphasis on transferring knowledge across its projects and across ESMD. ESMD will help shape existing courses by providing ESMD-related lessons, gleaned from case studies, PaLs, KBRs, and other sources of lessons. NASA SATERN Safety CenterIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 22
  • 23. Summary “ESMD faces exciting opportunities and formidable challenges. To reduce risk and apply knowledge more effectively, ESMD should integrate its KM, RM and OL initiatives into a comprehensive plan that will accomplish more with less bureaucracy. The goal is not compliance with detailed processes and procedures but compliance with intent: the intent to learn, to share and probe every possible angle so ESMD’s missions have the highest possible chance of success. ESMD must take risks with ‘eyes wide open’ and ‘minds fully engaged’ at every decision, every trade and with every residual risk.” From: Strategy for Exploration Systems Mission Directorate Integrated Risk Management, Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Whitepaper Dave Lengyel & Dr. Ed RogersIRKMO001_hq20061219awh 23