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Kotnour tim Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Using Project Reviewsto Your (Learning) Advantage Tim Kotnour, PhD Catherine Vergopia University of Central Florida February, 2007
  • 2. We’ll Share a Conversation about Learning-Based Project Reviews. Intent Agenda • Share a concept of “learning based • Why is learning important to projects? project review” – Success rates – Descriptive, not prescriptive • Who are we learning with? • Begin a conversation – CPRM, LSP/KSC, GSFC • Use this session to develop strategies • What is guiding us? to make project reviews more – Assumptions productive • What can we learn together today? • Rethink about our project review and – Questions learning practices • What can we do to improve our • Invite you to be part of the reviews? conversation – Improvement process • Working session • How can you participate? – Think about and share reflections TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 2© 2006 Kotnour
  • 3. Why is this Work Important? Project Success Rates 1994 1996 1998 2000 Succeeded 16% 27% 26% 28% Failed 31% 40% 28% 23% Challenged 53% 33% 46% 49% Standish Group’s Chaos Studies (Johnson, 2001) The questions become: • Why are we so challenged? • How can we become better? TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 3© 2006 Kotnour
  • 4. Why is this Work Important? Lessons Learned Percent of Project Managers What do you produce a lesson learned about? Tasks that failed to meet expectations or minor adjustments/problems 40% Tasks that met expectations 36% Tasks that had major problems 62% If you produce a lesson learned, when do you produce a lesson learned? Throughout the project as the opportunity arises 31% Throughout the project at regular review meetings 26% At the end of the project 69% How do you know what to produce a lesson learned about? Compare the actual results with the original or baseline plan for all 43% tasks The things they remember 45% (Kotnour, 1999) TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 4© 2006 Kotnour
  • 5. Why is this Work Important? Learning is More than Lessons Learned • Premise: – Recognize the importance and value of lessons learned – Projects are already learning (mission success shows this)—just raising awareness, appreciation, and viewing from a different perspective • How can we help the project team learn better? – Why do we build lessons learned primarily at the end? • What are we missing along the way? • Are we learning too late? • Why do we view lessons learned as an extra expense at the end of the project? – Why do we view lessons learned as a formal process? • How does this view restrict our thinking and impact? – How can we view our existing processes and tools from a learning perspective? How do we make learning an everyday occurrence? TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 5© 2006 Kotnour
  • 6. We’ll Share a Conversation about Learning-Based Project Reviews. Intent Agenda • Share a concept of “learning based • Why is learning important to projects? project review” – Success rates – Descriptive, not prescriptive • Who are we learning with? • Begin a conversation – CPRM, LSP/KSC, GSFC • Use this session to develop strategies • What is guiding us? to make project reviews more – Assumptions productive • What can we learn together today? • Rethink about our project review and – Questions learning practices • What can we do to improve our • Invite you to be part of the reviews? conversation – Improvement process • Working session • How can you participate? – Think about and share reflections TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 6© 2006 Kotnour
  • 7. We Are Partnering with NASA to Develop New Ideas. • NASA Center for Program/Project Management Research • Launch Services Program—KSC • GSFC TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 7© 2006 Kotnour
  • 8. NASA/USRA’s Center for Program/Project Management Research Supported this Research. • Purpose: – Engage universities in world-class research that addresses significant problems in the discipline of Program/Project Management – with emphasis on NASA’s aeronautics and space program challenges • Objectives: – Exercise leadership to significantly advance the state of knowledge of program and project management – Develop a cadre of professionals to conduct world- class research and serve as a major resource for project management knowledge – Improve collaboration and data exchange between project management professionals – Facilitate hands-on project management training and developmental opportunities – Provide an atmosphere for open examination of innovative program and project management concepts – Promote the direct application of CPMR research to real NASA program and project management challenges TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 8© 2006 Kotnour
  • 9. We’ll Share a Conversation about Learning-Based Project Reviews. Intent Agenda • Share a concept of “learning based • Why is learning important to projects? project review” – Success rates – Descriptive, not prescriptive • Who are we learning with? • Begin a conversation – CPRM, LSP/KSC, GSFC • Use this session to develop strategies • What is guiding us? to make project reviews more – Assumptions productive • What can we learn together today? • Rethink about our project review and – Questions learning practices • What can we do to improve our • Invite you to be part of the reviews? conversation – Improvement process • Working session • How can you participate? – Think about and share reflections TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 9© 2006 Kotnour
  • 10. We’re Understanding How to Make Learning within Reviews Routine. Organizational Learning Learning, PBLR Project, and Organizational Performance Project Management TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 10© 2006 Kotnour
  • 11. Assumptions 1. We learn through out a project. 2. Reviews are connected to the project delivery process. 3. Reviews helps us learn about different things. 4. Reviews provide many benefits. 5. We move from one level of learning to the next based on performance. 6. Reviews must be aligned to desired learning. 7. Formal reviews are a vital part of the process. 8. The right questions drive the right conversations and reviews. TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 11© 2006 Kotnour
  • 12. Assumption 1: We Learn Throughout a Project. Plan Plan Act Project 1 Do Act Intra Do to Project 1 Study Study Lessons-Learned Sharing Process Set of Lessons Learned Plan Act Project 2 Do TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 Study 12© 2006 Kotnour
  • 13. Assumption 2: Reviews are Connected to the Project Delivery Process. PDSA as a Project P D S A A B C D E PDSA as a Time frame within a Phase PDSA as a Phase P D S A P D S A Types of Reviews 1. Initial review to determine if able to proceed 2. Phase gate 3. End of project—post mortem 4. Structured learning 5. Routine (e.g., weekly internal project review) 6. Routine (e.g., monthly external project review) TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 13© 2006 Kotnour
  • 14. Assumption 3: Reviews Helps us Learn about Different Things. Organizational Level of Project Status & Project Procedure Process Consistency Project Status Procedure Review Challenges Improvement Improvement • Process review • Status • Status and control • Improve current • Improve the • Understand how well • Understand the • Makes changes to project practices organizations core project is meeting project status project tasks, processes, process requirements • Share facts about schedule, resources capabilities, and Description the project • Adjust the project to tools • Gather good news evolving and “bad” news circumstances • Focus on managing by exception • Identifies process • Preparation readies • Drives out areas to • Change practices, • Change practices, gaps to improve within team for learning focus on processes, and tools processes, and the project and provides data within the project tools within the Benefit • Drives consistency for higher-level organization— learning across all projects • Checklists • Formal monthly • Formal monthly • Risk management • Risk management project reviews project reviews and • Engineering review • Engineering review the resulting boards boards working groups • Working groups • Working groups Example Processes • Informal monthly • Ad hoc lesson and Tools management learned sessions review—focus on shared understanding and conversation TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 14© 2006 Kotnour
  • 15. Assumption 4: Reviews Provide Many Benefits. Review Process Direct Outputs Direct Outcomes Long-Term Outcomes • Pre-Meeting • Project status • Pull the project team • Increase project • Meeting • Project scope together success • Post-Meeting • Questions • Tie up loose ends • Increase P( project • Issues • Share status success) • RFAs • Identify issues • Increase confidence • Work issues • Increase consistency • Identify process issues of practice to accepted procedures/behaviors • Assess goodness of • Increase focus on approaches and important issues processes • Identify any issues • Demonstrate have the people, process, and tools to be successful • Decrease risk • Changes to next phase • Impact TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 15© 2006 Kotnour
  • 16. Assumption 5: We Move from One Level of Learning to the Next Based on Performance. Status & Project Organizational Status Gap? Gap? Gap? Challenges Procedures Procedures TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 16© 2006 Kotnour
  • 17. Assumption 6: Reviews must be Aligned to Desired Learning. Learning Role Project Organizational Process Project Status & Project Status Procedure Procedure Consistency Challenges Review Type Improvement Improvement Initial review to determine if ready to proceed End of phase/gate End of project—post mortem Structured Learning Routine (weekly, monthly internal project review) Routine (weekly, monthly external project review) TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 17© 2006 Kotnour
  • 18. Example: Nature of Conversations Technical Systems Engineering Project Management Presenter Presenter Presenter • What is the technical • What are the requirements? • What are the cost, schedule approach? requirements? • What are the technical • Who is the team? trades? • What are the technical risks? Content Panel Questions Panel Questions Panel Questions • How well is the technical • How well are the • How well is the project plan approach? requirements defined? defined? • What are the risks with the • What are the risks with the • What are the risks with the technical approach? requirements? project plan? Presenter Presenter Presenter • How will it be designed, built, • How will the requirements be • How will the project be integrated, and tested? identified, allocated, traced, managed? verified, and validated? Process Panel Questions Panel Questions Panel Questions • How well is the process? • How well is the systems • How well is the project • What are the risks with the engineering process? management process? • What are the risks with the • What are the risks for the systems engineering project management approach? approach? TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 18© 2006 Kotnour
  • 19. Example: Nature of Conversations Systems Project Safety & Mission Technical Engineering Management Assurance Content 414 106 40 13 Process 52 12 6 14 TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 19© 2006 Kotnour
  • 20. Assumption 7: Formal Reviews are a Vital Part of the Process. • Formal reviews are needed because the day-to-day life of the project team creates a focus on – Problem solving, crisis, or risk management focus – The next milestone – Individual components • Formal reviews are – A conversation with people – A meeting – A needed opportunity for the project team to step back and see the big picture • Formal reviews create an environment to focus on – Seeing the big picture – Gaining new perspectives – Systemic issues and challenges in process and approach TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 20© 2006 Kotnour
  • 21. Assumption 8: The Right Questions Drive the Right Conversations and Reviews. Questions Conversation Information Decisions Actions • No changes • Changes to the project • Changes to project procedures • Changes to organizational procedure TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 21© 2006 Kotnour
  • 22. We’ll Share a Conversation about Learning-Based Project Reviews. Intent Agenda • Share a concept of “learning based • Why is learning important to projects? project review” – Success rates – Descriptive, not prescriptive • Who are we learning with? • Begin a conversation – CPRM, LSP/KSC, GSFC • Use this session to develop strategies • What is guiding us? to make project reviews more – Assumptions productive • What can we learn together today? • Rethink about our project review and – Questions learning practices • What can we do to improve our • Invite you to be part of the reviews? conversation – Improvement process • Working session • How can you participate? – Think about and share reflections TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 22© 2006 Kotnour
  • 23. What questions do we need to ask? Level of Project Organizational Process Project Status & Review Project Status Procedure Procedure Consistency Challenges Type of Review Improvement Improvement “Initiate” Review Phase Gate Post-Mortem (Lesson Learned) Structured Learning Routine (Weekly, Monthly) Internal Routine (Weekly, Monthly) External TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 23© 2006 Kotnour
  • 24. We’ll Share a Conversation about Learning-Based Project Reviews. Intent Agenda • Share a concept of “learning based • Why is learning important to projects? project review” – Success rates – Descriptive, not prescriptive • Who are we learning with? • Begin a conversation – CPRM, LSP/KSC, GSFC • Use this session to develop strategies • What is guiding us? to make project reviews more – Assumptions productive • What can we learn together today? • Rethink about our project review and – Questions learning practices • What can we do to improve our • Invite you to be part of the reviews? conversation – Improvement process • Working session • How can you participate? – Think about and share reflections TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 24© 2006 Kotnour
  • 25. Process to Improve the Review Process Define organizational context Understand Understand Understand Decide where Set priorities on current level of enablers & Define actions to Define reviews current maturity want/need reviews to learning in barriers to change reviews level in reviews reviews to be improve reviews reviews Cross-cutting change management (leadership, involvement, specific sessions) TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 25© 2006 Kotnour
  • 26. The Reviews are a “System of Learning”. Review Activities Readiness Reviews Launch Review Review Review Review Review Program External Review Review Review Review Review Program Internal Review Review Review Review Review Project Formal Review Review Review Review Review Informal Project Review Review Review Review Review Individual Individual Experiences Before During After We need to understand how to better connect reviews and learning. TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 26© 2006 Kotnour
  • 27. Tools to Use to Improve the Review Process. Tool: Overall Review Assessment Review performance = (Type) (Focus) x (Practices) x (Maturity Level) x (Learning Level) Type Focus Practices Maturity Learning Gap Level Level Review 1 Review 2 Review n Gap LBPR_Phase_II_Products_v3 40 Tool: Review “Type” Assessment Tool: Review “Focus” Assessment Tool: Review “Practices” Assessment Tool: Review “Learning Level” Assessment Tool: Review “Maturity Level” Assessment Characteristics Logistics Managerial Human Knowledge Culture Gaps Focus Buy-in Dynamics Sharing Learning Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Summary Gaps Maturity Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Summary Gaps Initial Routine Phase/Gate Post-Mortem Gap Systems Technical Project ? Gap Level Level Status Status & Team Organizational Engineering Management Review Problem Practices Practices Review 1 Solving Review Review 1 Review 1 Review Review 1 Review 1 Review 2 Review 2 Review 2 Review n Review 2 Review 2 Review n Gap Gap Summary Summary Summary Gaps Gaps Gaps LBPR_Phase_II_Products_v3 41 LBPR_Phase_II_Products_v3 42 LBPR_Phase_II_Products_v3 44 LBPR_Phase_II_Products_v3 45 LBPR_Phase_II_Products_v3 47 Tool: Individual Review Description Question Response What is the review? How is the review conducted? What is the trigger event for the review? How are the results shared? What part of the life-cycle is the review associated with? What is the intent of the review (status, problem solving, team practices, organizational practices)? What is the focus (systems engineering, technical, project management)? What are the enablers and barriers? What is the review performance? Who participates in review process? When is review process conducted? What tools are used? What products are used? What is the level of review? 18 TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 27© 2006 Kotnour
  • 28. We’ll Share a Conversation about Learning-Based Project Reviews. Intent Agenda • Share a concept of “learning based • Why is learning important to projects? project review” – Success rates – Descriptive, not prescriptive • Who are we learning with? • Begin a conversation – CPRM, LSP/KSC, GSFC • Use this session to develop strategies • What is guiding us? to make project reviews more – Assumptions productive • What can we learn together today? • Rethink about our project review and – Questions learning practices • What can we do to improve our • Invite you to be part of the reviews? conversation – Improvement process • Working session • How can you participate? – Think about and share reflections TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 28© 2006 Kotnour
  • 29. Questions to Leave With • How do we now learn in our projects? • What energy are we devoting to learning? • How well are we managing our enablers and barriers to learning? • What do we need to start, stop, continue doing to drive learning in our projects? TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 29© 2006 Kotnour
  • 30. You are Invited to Participate! • Why – Help improve the ideas – Help improve NASA • What – Share observations – Share processes and tools you use – Share names of people with “best practices” – Participate in on-line survey • How – Contact me – 407-823-5645 – tkotnour@mail.ucf.edu TK_NASA_PM_Challenges_2007 30© 2006 Kotnour