A System for Innovation                            Jeffrey R. Davis, M.D.                        Director, Space Life Scie...
Presentation Overview• Background• The System for Innovation   – Human System Risk Management   – Collaborative Innovation...
System for Innovation• The Space Life Sciences Directorate’s  (SLSD) system for innovation involves two  key components:  ...
Change Drivers            • 2001, Institute of Medicine Safe Passage              published            • 2003, CAIB Report...
Institute of Medicine Recommendations • From Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for   Exploration Missions   – Develop and use a...
CAIB Report Recommendations• Establish an independent Technical  Authority, with responsibilities that include:   – Develo...
Institute of Medicine Recommendations• Review of Bioastronautics Roadmap  – Incorporate an evidence-based risk assessment ...
Human System Risk Management• Human System Risk Management  Process  –   Standards to deliverables  –   Master list of hum...
Standards to Deliverables Process• Standards to deliverables first developed 2005-  2006: first response to environmental ...
Standards to Deliverables Process                                2005-2006  Vision for Exploration       NASA Strategic Pl...
Risk Management:            An Evidence Based Approach• A risk management system was needed to implement  the standard to ...
Risk Management:          An Evidence Based Approach• Need to regularly collect/evaluate the accumulated  data and evidenc...
Developed Master List of             Human System Risks• Collected all risks currently being worked in SLSD  organizations...
Example from Master List                                                    Applicable                    ResponsibleID   ...
Risk Mitigation Analysis Tool (RMAT)• Collects the current status of work in developing and  addressing compliance with st...
Radiation Carcinogenesis: Risk Management Analysis Tool                                                                   ...
Human System Risk Board• Established at JSC – April 2008• Working group develops and brings to the HSRB   – RMAT   – Prese...
Human System Risk Board• Future work   – ISS international partners invited Jan 2010 (International     Space Medicine Sum...
Driving Innovation Through             Collaboration• Driving Innovation through Collaboration  – SLSD Strategic Plan  – W...
Driving Innovation Through            CollaborationSLSD Strategic Plan 2007• Four strategic goals:   • Manage balanced int...
Why Collaborate?• Collaborative innovation and alliances are used to:   – Innovate quickly and cost effectively   – Improv...
How Alliances and Collaborations                Drive Innovation•   Transfer of compatible competencies•   Joint research ...
Enabling Collaborative Innovation•       Critical Success Factors and Best Practices    –      Demonstrate senior manageme...
Optimizing Innovation Requires a    Deliberate, Structured Approach• Create a unifying vision and clearly defined goals an...
Challenges• Hurdles to creating a collaborative environment and  fostering innovation   – Conflicts between sourcing inter...
Results to Date• Strategy Execution and Implementation Office 2008• Human System Risk Board April 2008   – Multiple center...
Results to Date (cont.)• Alliances Benchmark Report July 2009   – Implementing recommendations and exploring partnerships ...
Forward work• Develop and execute a deliberate system for pursuing life  sciences alliances and collaborative innovation o...
Back Up Slides           Exploring Space, Enhancing Life
IDENTIFY                                                       ANALYZE                                    Identify Human  ...
Space Flight History, Research, Lessons learned                                                                           ...
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Jeff davis

  1. 1. A System for Innovation Jeffrey R. Davis, M.D. Director, Space Life Sciences Elizabeth E. Richard Senior Strategist, Wyle Project Management Challenge February 9-10, 2010 Exploring Space, Enhancing LifeUsed with Permission
  2. 2. Presentation Overview• Background• The System for Innovation – Human System Risk Management – Collaborative Innovation• Human System Risk Management Process – Standards to deliverables – Master list of human system risks – Risk Mitigation Analysis Tool – Human System Risk Board• Driving Innovation through Collaboration – SLSD Strategic Plan – Why collaborate? – Critical success factors, best practices, and challenges• Future Work Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 2
  3. 3. System for Innovation• The Space Life Sciences Directorate’s (SLSD) system for innovation involves two key components: – 1) an evidence-based risk management system that continuously evaluates all human system risks across current and future operations, and identifies gaps in the research, technology, operations and service portfolios, and – 2) a strategic system to drive innovation through strategic alliances and collaboration to optimize SLSD research, technology, operations, and service portfolios.• SLSD’s change process was stimulated by internal and external changes to the environment Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 3
  4. 4. Change Drivers • 2001, Institute of Medicine Safe Passage published • 2003, CAIB Report issued • 2004, Vision for Space Exploration released • 2005, Exploration Systems Architecture Study • 2005, Institute of Medicine Report regarding the Bioastronautics Roadmap • 2006 NASA Strategic Plan2/19/2010 Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 4
  5. 5. Institute of Medicine Recommendations • From Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions – Develop and use an occupational health model for the collection and analysis of astronaut health data, giving priority to the creation and maintenance of a safe work environment Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 5
  6. 6. CAIB Report Recommendations• Establish an independent Technical Authority, with responsibilities that include: – Develop and maintain technical standards – Sole waiver-granting authority for all technical standards – Conduct integrated hazard analyses – Review and approve research deliverables Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 6
  7. 7. Institute of Medicine Recommendations• Review of Bioastronautics Roadmap – Incorporate an evidence-based risk assessment and communication process into the risk identification and reduction approach – Risks and mitigation strategies should be represented separately for assessment and comparison Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 7
  8. 8. Human System Risk Management• Human System Risk Management Process – Standards to deliverables – Master list of human system risks – Risk Mitigation Analysis Tool – Human System Risk Board Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 8
  9. 9. Standards to Deliverables Process• Standards to deliverables first developed 2005- 2006: first response to environmental changes• Standards - implement health and medical policy – The first step in risk mitigation is establishing standards to define an acceptable level of risk – Standards are based on the best available information and evaluated against the space flight environment – Operational experience is assessed to inform the standards – Research projects are defined to fill the gaps in knowledge• Deliverables – Desirable solutions to research and/or technology questions that mitigate human system risks Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 9
  10. 10. Standards to Deliverables Process 2005-2006 Vision for Exploration NASA Strategic Plan Human Exploration Human Rating Strategy Requirements Health and Med Policy Procedural Rqts Human System Exploration Standards Requirements Research Requirements Deliverables •Ops Experience •Countermeasures •Knowledge 2014 2015 2025 2030 Crewed CEV Human Lunar Human Expl Human Exploration Mars Vicinity Exploration of Transportation to LEO Mars2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 .... 2025 ... 2030 10
  11. 11. Risk Management: An Evidence Based Approach• A risk management system was needed to implement the standard to deliverables process – A master list of 90 human system risks was identified – A rigorous evidence-based system to mitigate the approximately 90 human system risks for space is tracked and monitored through a Risk Mitigation Analysis Tool (RMAT) – A flight activities control board and human system risk board manage all standards development, risks, and mitigation approaches to the 90 human system risks – When solution to mitigate risks are not readily available from the research and technology portfolios, gaps are identified that must be closed for successful risk mitigation – Gaps are evaluated for closure through innovative, collaborative approaches Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 11
  12. 12. Risk Management: An Evidence Based Approach• Need to regularly collect/evaluate the accumulated data and evidence from space flight operations and space and ground-based research• Use evidence base to make recommendations to create/alter health and medical human system standards and/or requirements• The Human Research Program discipline reviews began the review of the best available evidence in 2006-2007• Evidence review is now weekly in the Human System Risk Board (HSRB began April 2008) Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 12
  13. 13. Developed Master List of Human System Risks• Collected all risks currently being worked in SLSD organizations• Re-worded to reflect proper risk statement: clear statement of condition and consequence• Categorized by threat – Hypo, hyper gravity environments – Closed and hostile environment – Remote deployment• Modified by missions – Length – Vehicle configuration – Distance from Earth Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 13
  14. 14. Example from Master List Applicable ResponsibleID Disposition RISK STATEMENT Mission Timeframe Program Risk of Inability to Adequately Treat an Ill or Injured Crew Member Given that there is limited mass, volume, power, and crew training time which therefore limits the amount of equipment and procedures available to treat medical Lunar Outpost7 Risk problems, there is a poss Mars During Mission HRP Risk of Compromised EVA Performance and Crew Health Due to Inadequate EVA Suit Systems Given the possibility that EVA Suit Systems are inadequate, the crew may be unable to perform mission objectives. Lunar Outpost8 Risk Given the possibility that EVA Suit Systems are inad Mars During Mission ESPO/HRP Risk of Error Due to Inadequate Information Given the condition of lack of adequate information CEV to ISS available to the crew, there is a possiblity that operator Lunar Sortie error could occur on critical tasks resulting in failure to Lunar Outpost11 Risk perform assigned tasks within required Mars During Mission HRP Risk of Behavioral and Psychiatric Conditions Given that behavioral issues are inevitable, there is a ISS possiblity that psychiatric conditions will occur on long Lunar Outpost12 Risk duration space flight. Mars During Mission HRP Given that the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrophotometer has Exceeded its Expected Lifetime, thus limiting our ability to monitor the radiation environment, there is a probability that34 Risk crews will exceed career radiation exposure limit ISS 14
  15. 15. Risk Mitigation Analysis Tool (RMAT)• Collects the current status of work in developing and addressing compliance with standards for identified risks and/or risk factors• Assesses the need for mitigation to stay within the standard for a particular mission• Facilitates documentation and base lining of the risk management approach - allows us to assess gaps and provide traceability of our work• The tool flows from a standard to a deliverable for a particular mission• Progress is assessed at the Human System Risk Board Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 15
  16. 16. Radiation Carcinogenesis: Risk Management Analysis Tool Architectures CEV ISS ISS Moon Moon Mars (CEV to ISS) (6 Months) (1 Year) (<14 days) (Lunar Habitat) Has the risk factor been Y Y Y Y Y Y verified? (Y/N)Probability of the adverse *PRA calculations: *PRA calculations: *PRA calculations: *PRA calculations:outcome (without current Females 0.7%, Females 1.3%, Females 1.5%, Females 5.0%, or proposed mitigation) Males 0.6% Males 1.2% Males 0.8% Males 4.5% Uncertainty associated 0.3-1.9% 0.5- 4.0% 0.5- 5.0% 1.5-18% with outcome 0.2-1.5% 0.4- 3.0% 0.5- 4.0% 1.5-15% 1) individual, acute 1) individual, acute 1) individual, acute 1) individual, acute 1) individual, acute Impact of the Adverse health health health health health Outcome 2) mission impact 2) mission impact 2) mission impact 2) mission impact 2) mission impact 3) program impact 3) program impact 3) program impact 1) shielding 1) shielding 1) shielding 1) shielding 1) shielding 1) shieldingMitigation, Current and/or 2) monitoring to 2) monitoring to 2) monitoring to 2) monitoring to 2) monitoring to 2) monitoring to reduce Proposed reduce SPE reduce SPE threat reduce SPE threat reduce SPE threat reduce SPE threat SPE threat threat 3) maximize 3) maximize surface 3) maximize surface surface time to use time to use planetary time to use planetary planetary shielding shielding shieldingProbability of the Adverse Outcome (with current/proposed mitigation) 1) vehicle 1) cost impacts 1) cost impacts 1) vehicle design 1) vehicle design 1) vehicle design Cost/Benefit Trades design impacts 2) mission planning 2) mission planning impacts impacts impacts (Including risks of 2) cost impacts impacts impacts 2) cost impacts 2) cost impacts 2) cost impacts 3) mission 3) mission planning 3) mission planning 3) mission planning mitigation) planning 1) optimize modeling 1) optimize 1) optimize modeling 1) optimize modeling Current Work technique modeling technique technique technique 2) refine confidence 2) refine confidence 2) refine confidence 2) refine confidence interval interval interval interval Describe appropriate Describe mitigation Revision of the Revision of the standard Future Work mitigation for lunar for Mars mission; standard to conform to conform with ALARA habitat mission transit, & surface with ALARA operations 16
  17. 17. Human System Risk Board• Established at JSC – April 2008• Working group develops and brings to the HSRB – RMAT – Presentation of evidence base• HSRB chaired by JSC Chief Medical Officer (CMO) – Manager, Human Research program is a voting member – Divisions, technical specialties, operations and research – Ames, Glenn, KSC, Langley and KSC participate – Stops, starts and modifies research – Identifies gaps and assigns actions for research and technology development – Recommends updates to standards and transition to operations of new findings Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 17
  18. 18. Human System Risk Board• Future work – ISS international partners invited Jan 2010 (International Space Medicine Summit III recommendation) • Will participate quarterly – Develop RMATs for all 90 human system risks – Recommend future work for all gaps to a development control board to try new collaborative approaches – Risks can be modified to mission requirements • Suborbital to Mars – An example of organizational innovation • Operations and research integrated • Best available evidence continuously reviewed• Gaps are evaluated for closure through innovative approaches Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 18
  19. 19. Driving Innovation Through Collaboration• Driving Innovation through Collaboration – SLSD Strategic Plan – Why collaborate? – Critical success factors, best practices, and challenges Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 19
  20. 20. Driving Innovation Through CollaborationSLSD Strategic Plan 2007• Four strategic goals: • Manage balanced internal/external portfolio • Drive health innovations • Drive human system integration innovations • Education and outreach• Key strategies for implementation • Alliances (supported by benchmark report) • Risk management and research/ops integration • Open collaboration/innovation • Support commercial space for LEO Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 20
  21. 21. Why Collaborate?• Collaborative innovation and alliances are used to: – Innovate quickly and cost effectively – Improve quality of innovation – Address technical challenges in a rapidly changing environment – Enhance portfolios by supplementing internal core capabilities with external capabilities – Remain competitive (for profit or funding) – Transfer knowledge – Share risks – Grow and develop market – Leverage brand name “Alliances are crucial to driving growth and innovation” Exploring Space, Enhancing Life
  22. 22. How Alliances and Collaborations Drive Innovation• Transfer of compatible competencies• Joint research and development• Access to new technologies• Accelerated research• Knowledge acquisition• Variability resulting in novel ideas• New applications for existing technologies• Shared investment/cost efficiency• Facilities sharing resulting in enhanced innovation “Can we get there faster with a partner than by ourselves?” Exploring Space, Enhancing Life
  23. 23. Enabling Collaborative Innovation• Critical Success Factors and Best Practices – Demonstrate senior management commitment and support – Identify and manage cultural issues – Embed strategy into the overall strategic planning process – Adopt a structured approach for implementation – Establish a support structure to enable and facilitate alliances and collaborative innovation – Enhance communications • Internally: culture, skills, awareness, flexibility • Externally: improving ways to connect to outsiders – Institute a reward system aligned with strategy Exploring Space, Enhancing Life
  24. 24. Optimizing Innovation Requires a Deliberate, Structured Approach• Create a unifying vision and clearly defined goals and objectives• Evaluate strategy and objectives annually• Conduct gap analysis to determine areas of greatest need• Conduct core competencies assessment to determine the greatest opportunities for partnerships• Clearly articulate and communicate gaps/innovation needs• Assess and map gaps/needs to optimal collaboration mode• Establish processes to scout for ideas and scan/access the external environment for emerging technologies and collaborations• Pursue open innovation models and/or strategic alliances based on overall assessment Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 24
  25. 25. Challenges• Hurdles to creating a collaborative environment and fostering innovation – Conflicts between sourcing internally v. externally • “Not Invented Here” syndrome • Risk/change averse culture • Limited interaction with potential resources/problem solvers – Limited external network (serendipitous partnerships/opportunities) – Bureaucratic barriers to collaboration (policies, regulations, security) – No overarching process to analyze gaps at strategic/organizational level – Misaligned job expectations and/or performance evaluations Exploring Space, Enhancing Life
  26. 26. Results to Date• Strategy Execution and Implementation Office 2008• Human System Risk Board April 2008 – Multiple centers participate (Ames, Glenn, KSC, Langley, HQ) – Expanding to international and academic partners 2010 – Evidence driven, manages all 90 human system risks• Rice Business Plan Competition for Earth/Space Innovation prizes began 2008• Ongoing student projects with Dr. Karim Lakhani, Harvard Business School (HBS) – MBA Project: Leveraging Collaborative Innovation for SLSD April 2009 – Collaboration/innovation course winter 2010 Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 26
  27. 27. Results to Date (cont.)• Alliances Benchmark Report July 2009 – Implementing recommendations and exploring partnerships with GE and Philips based on best practices• Portfolio mapping July 2009 – Dr. Gary Pisano (HBS) – Determine best collaborative strategy to address portfolio gaps• Open Innovation Service Providers/Competition September 2009 – TopCoder (ongoing, 3500 lines of code to date) – InnoCentive (training Nov 18-20, launch Dec 15) – Yet2.com (training Dec 2-3, launch Jan 2010)• Strategic communications/education on collaborative innovation processes and benefits (ongoing) – SLSD Innovation Lecture Series – Lunch with Director – Tagline: Exploring Space, Enhancing Life – Weekly Newsletter Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 27
  28. 28. Forward work• Develop and execute a deliberate system for pursuing life sciences alliances and collaborative innovation opportunities• Restructure Boards Jan 2010 • Current board architecture manages 90 human system risks • Gaps are identified and novel approaches considered through development control board • Assures knowledge management and lessons learned (flow chart draft in backup)• Continue to enhance communication – Internally: Website 1Q 2010, Quarterly Focus Groups – Externally: Website 1Q 2010: human system and innovation needs/gaps, contact info re: partnering• Continue to evaluate collaborative innovation models/new ways of doing business – GE – reverse innovation: smaller, lower cost technical solutions for space flight Exploring Space, Enhancing Life 28
  29. 29. Back Up Slides Exploring Space, Enhancing Life
  30. 30. IDENTIFY ANALYZE Identify Human Analyze Human Health & Health & Validated Risk SFHS Master Performance List Performance Acceptable Standards Risks by Mission Risks by Mission Level (V1, V2,) Evidence Base Analysis Exploration Invalidated Risk Validated Risk Data Collection: or Risk Factors Unacceptable Performance, Medical, Mission needing research Mitigation Research, Terrestrial Operations Concepts Research RequirementsResearch Data Research Reviews (Quantify/Substantiate) Research Requirements (CM/Technology Development) Cx Vehicle Requirements MissionMed Ops Data Countermeasure ImplementationEnv. Data Medical Operational Program Monitoring Requirements (MORD, Flt Rules) TRACK/ Environmental CONTROL Monitoring PLAN 30
  31. 31. Space Flight History, Research, Lessons learned Knowledge CaptureKnowledge Capture 3 Threats: μG, remote deployment, closed environment Health and Medical Technical Authority Standards SLSD Ops HRP (STS, ISS, Cx, Commercial Space) Integrated Research Plans 90 Human System Risks Pre-board Working Group FACB HSRB ↑ Continuous Process ↑ CPI/I Solution? Solution? Improvement Innovation YES NO NO YES ↓ N/DI ↓ Novel/Disruptive Gaps Innovation SEIO (Mapping ; Novel Approaches) Development Control Board Open Innovation Prizes Commercial Collaborations

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