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James.smith

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  • 1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center Office of Strategic Analysis & Communication Performance Analysis & Integration Office Project Planning & Analysis Team Greg Smith (Smith & Associates, LLC) www.nasa.govUsed with Permission
  • 2. Would Clint Eastwood carry an unloaded gun? So why do you have an unloaded schedule? • What is resource loading? • Why would I want to resource load my schedule? • Why might I not want to resource load my schedule? • How would I resource load my schedule if I chose to do so? You’ve got to ask yourself one question: ‘Do I feel lucky?’National Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 2
  • 3. What is resource loading?  Resource loading is: o Building a list of resources (e.g. people or skills, materials, equipment, money) and o Allocating those resources to tasks in a schedule  Resources can have a rate (i.e. $ per unit) or not o Without a rate, one can partially assess the viability of a plan  Resource availability o With a rate, one can more fully assess the viability of a plan  Funding requirements  Cost and schedule integrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 3
  • 4. Why would I want to resource load my schedule?  Integrates the budget with the work – creates a better estimate  Creates an analysis tool for “what if” and directed changes  Provides cash flow and funding profiles  Identifies “what” you need, “how much” you need , and “when” you need it  Ensures you haven’t left out something necessary  Workforce planning & coordination  Balance workload versus workforce  Identify surplus & deficits  Generate inputs for PPBE process  Makes EVM implementation easier  Aids in Risk Management (e.g. effectiveness of mitigation, cost and schedule impacts)National Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 4
  • 5. Why might I not want to resource load my schedule?  Too early in Development / Formulation  Not sure what resources are needed  Too much effort required  Don’t have the skills or tools Dont just do something, stand there.  Don’t want anyone to know…  None of the reasons “why to” apply to meNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 5
  • 6. Questions to consider before resource loading  Will my tasks be fixed in duration? If not, what are the duration drivers?  Will the number of resources assigned to my tasks be fixed? If not, what are the assignment drivers?  Is the amount of Work fixed for each task? If not, what are the Work drivers?  Will adding or removing resources or overtime to my task affect the duration of the task?  What types of resources are at my disposal? If you intend to use costs when resource loading  What are my resource costs? This romantic stuff is  How will the costs for my resources be accrued? really tough. I cant wait to get back to shooting and killing.  Do I need to consider overhead costs? If so, then how? Quote made during the filming of “Bridges of Madison County”National Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 6
  • 7. Never trust anyone on an Italian movie. I know about these things. Stay away from special effects and explosives. Tools - Options Both methods facilitate assignments by fractional FTE or WYE Convention: Convention: 1.0 = 1 equivalent 100% = 1 equivalent person personNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 7
  • 8. Tools - OptionsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 8
  • 9. Tools - Options This option can also be set at the Task levelNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 9
  • 10. Tools - Options ‘Soft’ Option This option can also be set at the Task levelNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 10
  • 11. Tools - OptionsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 11
  • 12. Tools - Options Tools – Change Working TimeNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 12
  • 13. Resource Loading Method Examples  Resources can be created and defined by Person ID Resource Name T They say marriages are 1 Joe Blow W made in Heaven. But so 2 I. M. Cross W is thunder and lightning. 3 U. R. Knott W 4 Jane Doe W 5 Lois Lane W 6 Clark Kent W Skill ID Resource Name T 1 Structural Engineer W 2 System Engineer W 3 Mechanical Engineer W 4 Electrical Engineer W 5 Project Manager W 6 Admin Assis tant W ID Resource Resource Description T Group, Team, or Organization Name 1 ER00 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 2 ER01 Propulsion Sy stems Department W 3 ER02 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 4 ER21 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 5 ER23 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 6 ER24 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 7 ER30 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 8 ER31 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 9 ER32 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 10 ER33 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 11 ER34 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 12 ER41 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 13 ER42 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 14 ER43 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 15 ER51 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT W 16 ER52 PROPULSION SYSTEMS DEPARTMENT WNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 13
  • 14. Defining Resources Common fields used to describe, identify, sort, group, organize, or codifyNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 14
  • 15. Defining Resources  Resources types can be defined as Work – people and equipment Material – consumable supplies and bulk material Cost – dollars (or other currency)These resource types determine how resource calculations are performed depending upon the Task Type and ‘Effort Driven’ options selectedNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 15
  • 16. Defining Resources Aids in balancing work load  Max Units - the maximum units of a resource that is available at any given time during the project  Std Rate – the cost per unit displayed for standard time  Ovt Rate – the cost per unit displayed for overtime Aids in determining costs  Cost/Use – the cost for each resource assignment instance  Once only for each Material Type resource assignment  Per Unit for Work Type resourcesNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 16
  • 17. Defining Resources  Costs are accrued  At the start of a resource assignment  At the end of a resource assignment  Evenly across the duration of the resource assignment  Choose Base Calendar from the drop down box  Calendars are defined under Tools – Change Working Time  Applies to the resource assignmentNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 17
  • 18. Resource Loading Method Examples  Resources can be allocated to different types of schedule tasks Hammock Summary DetailedNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 18
  • 19. Assigning Resources Step 2. Select Resource Button Step 1. Select Task Step 3. Select Resource Repeat Steps 3 through 5 for each resource to be assignedNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 19
  • 20. Simplified Resource Loading Calculation Matrix Task Type Effort Driven? Resource Type Results Fixed Work Action Fixed Duration Fixed Units (1) Yes No Work Material Cost Work Units Duration Cost Assign Resource X X X X X X Calculated Enter Unchanged Calculated or X X X X X X N/A Enter Unchanged Calculated Remove Resource X X X X X X N/A N/A Unchanged Enter Change Units (2) X X X X Calculated Enter Unchanged Calculated X X X X Unchanged Enter Calculated Unchanged X X X Unchanged Enter Calculated Unchanged X X X X X X N/A Enter Unchanged Calculated Change Work (3) X X X X Enter Calculated Unchanged Calculated X X X X X Enter Unchanged Calculated Calculated Change Duration (3) X X X X Unchanged Calculated Enter Unchanged X X X Calculated Unchanged Enter Calculated X X X X Calculated Unchanged Enter Calculated (1) If selected, Effort Driven Yes selection is mandatory (2) Action has no impact on Cost Type Resources (3) Action has no impact on Material or Cost Type ResourcesNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 20
  • 21. Now what? After all that, what do I get for my efforts? Grouped by Resource, User selects what data items showing each task assignment to see here This film cost $31 million. With that kind of money I could have invaded some country. Red font indicates over allocation of resources In this example, we see the most people working at any one time (Peak Units), the percentage of time the total available resource is assigned (% Alloc), and the total hours to be worked by that resource (Work)National Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 21
  • 22. Over Allocated Amount Max Units from Resource Sheet Available for other work Peak number of this resource assigned during this periodNational Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 22
  • 23. What do I do with this information?  Determine if I have enough of the right type of resources available to do the work as scheduled  Justify a schedule shift to accommodate resource availability  Support decisions to acquire additional resources  Balance workload  Coordinate activities within a project and between multiple projects  Provide data to support annual budget process (i.e. PPBE)  Negotiate the addition of “unfunded mandates”  Analyze changes to schedule and resource requirements  And…National Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 23
  • 24. In Summary…  Resource loading isn’t for everyone  If you decide resource loading is for you, decide if you want resource management capability only or both resource and cost management capability  Ask questions to understand your resources, tasks, and desired data outputs (i.e. prepare)  Set up your software options and load your resource data  Make assignments and analyze data – adjust as necessary  You are now prepared to answer ‘what if’ questions regarding changes in funding, schedule, or resource requirements Go ahead, make my day.  DEFEND YOUR POSITION!National Aeronautics and Space Administration A Practical Approach for Resource Loading Your Schedule 24
  • 25. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Your Title Here 25