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Inter succes partnerships
Inter succes partnerships
Inter succes partnerships
Inter succes partnerships
Inter succes partnerships
Inter succes partnerships
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Inter succes partnerships

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  • 1. Executing successful partnerships with NASA - International Partners’ Perspectives ESA Remarks 2010 NASA PM Challenge 9-10 February 2010, Galveston, Tx Andreas Diekmann ESA Washington Office 955 L’Enfant Plaza SW – Suite 7800 – Washington, DC 20024 Tel: (202) 488 4158; Email: andreas.diekmann@esa.int
  • 2. • 2000 staff + 2000 on-site contractors • Strong international orientation (internally + externally) • Research and Development Agency -> Operations handed over to operators (Arianespace, Eumetsat,..) Approved programmes per field of activity 4500 Technology 4000 3500 Navigation 3000 TelecomM€ 2500 HSF + human exploration 2000 Earth Observation 1500 1000 Launchers 500 Science + robotic exploration 0 Basic Activities 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2
  • 3. M€ ESA Budget - Funding Sources450040003500 EC + others30002500 ESA Decided in 200820001500 ESA1000 Decided before 2008500 ESA Science & Basic Activities 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 3
  • 4. European public space players 18 ESA Member States 27 EU Member States ESA Space EU Council Council Councils European Space Policy nationalSpace agencies ESA EC national Inter-governmental supranational FP7, National other Space programs ESA Programs ESA/EC co-funded: space-related Galileo, GMES activities 4
  • 5. History of NASA-ESA/ Europe space cooperation• March 1959: US offer to European scientists to fly experiments on US satellites• 1960ies: Close relations between NASA and ESRO• 1969: NASA offers Europe to participate in post-Apollo activities (Shuttle, Space Station) -> resulting in Spacelab (Shuttle cooperation did not materialise)• 1983: First ESA astronaut on Space Shuttle (STS-9 Spacelab)• 1984: President Reagan’s invitation to participate in Space Station Programme• 1990ies: Cooperative science missions (SOHO, Ulysses, Hubble) 5
  • 6. Current NASA-ESA space cooperation• International Space Station• Space exploration (human, robotic)• Space Science (Cassini/Huygens, Hubble, JWST,…)• Earth Science (joint search for new cooperation opportunities)• Space Transportation (recent MoU)• Space Situational Awareness (exchange of info) 6
  • 7. P eculiarities of NASA-ESA space cooperation• NASA is ESA’s most significant cooperation partner (in terms of history and volume of cooperation).• ESA/European space engineering and management culture is based on NASA model.• In many cases, there is long continuity of personal contacts between ESA and NASA programme and project managers.• ESA is much smaller than NASA. Therefore, (a) NASA mostly in leadership role, (b) the prominent mode of cooperation so far: contributions to each others missions; new trend: more integrated cooperation. 7
  • 8. I ngredients of a successful cooperation – from a project m anager’s view (1/ 2)• “Collaboration in a project should be like a marriage, not like a business contract” – in terms of demands on trust, transparency and credibility – “surprises” to be avoided.• Nevertheless, early, clear and detailed formulation and documentation of the project baseline (programmatic, technical and management) and establishment of mechanism to control that baseline.• Early and clear definition of inter-Agency interfaces (minimize the number and complexity of interfaces!)• Regular and frequent communication. 8
  • 9. I ngredients of a successful cooperation – from a project m anager’s view (2/ 2)• Recognition/Acceptance of differences in the processes of ESA and NASA – do not invent specific processes just for the specific project (however PM see need for “common processes and standards”).• Joint teams are important, but should not result in blurring of the responsibilities of each partner.• International cooperation requires the involvement of various capacities on both sides in addition to project management (e.g. external relations, legal service). Good communication and careful distribution of roles are important. 9
  • 10. Conclusions• There is a strong cooperation heritage and fundament – often manifested in trustful and long-lasting personal relationships between project managers on both sides.• Programmatic decisions can sometimes complicate or disrupt matters.• The future may show – more integrated cooperative programmes/projects (not just a “contribution-mode” of cooperation). – More partners in a project (intern., commercial, academia) This may pose new challenges for project managers.• Our PM cultures are similar. This should help overcoming those challenges. 10
  • 11. Executing Successful Partnerships With NASA An International Partner’s Perspective: Lessons Learned 2010 NASA PM Challenge Galveston, Texas Graham Gibbs Counsellor Space Affairs - Canadian Space Agency Canadian Embassy Washington February 9, 2010Used with Permission
  • 12. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA OUTLINE• Overview Canada-United Civil Space Cooperation• The Big Picture• Space Science and Earth Observation• International Space Station Lessons Learned for PMs• Applying Lessons Learned to International Exploration• ConclusionsATTACHED: A more detailed version of the presentation
  • 13. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASACanada – United States Civil Space Cooperation • Human Space Flight (Shuttle & ISS) • Astronaut Corps (Cdn astronauts embedded at JSC) • Life & Microgravity Science (Shuttle & ISS) • Earth Science and Observation (Instruments & RADARSAT) • Astronomy (JWST and Cdn MOST) • Heliophysics (THEMIS & International Living With a Star) • Exploration (Mars Phoenix & MSL et al) • Earth Science & Observation (RADARSAT) • Ice Monitoring & Cooperation with the Canadian Ice Service (RADARSAT) • Earth Science & Observation (RADARSAT)
  • 14. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASAThe Big Picture Lessons Learned From the Private Sector: The best agreements;  Might be difficult to negotiate but dont have to be referred to later.  Fair (profitable) for both/all parties. From the Public (Space) Sector:  Be prepared for national prerogatives,  Understand differing cultures,  Accept the risks as well as the benefits,  Funding; consistency & no-exchange,  Be prepared to seek compromises.
  • 15. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASASpace Science and Earth Observation 1 of 2 Some Realities to Consider - Positive and Negative  International collaboration among scientists,  International Announcements of Opportunity – most often competitive,  Projects usually on no-exchange-of-funds basis,  Obligations subject to "availability of appropriated funds",  Barters e.g. launch-for-data
  • 16. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASASpace Science and Earth Observation 2 of 2 Some Realities to Consider - Positive and Negative  Partners responsibilities are deliverables - not financial investment,  Agreements legally binding or political/morale commitments,  Data sharing,  National Security interests – technology transfer, data policies etc.
  • 17. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA ISS Lessons Learned Implications for Project Managers Managing the classical parameters (cost, schedule, performance) is no longer sufficient Must manage through political changes that can/will have fundamental impact on program Diplomatic skills are essential to the "first among equals" concept International cooperation takes considerable extra time & effort Flexibility and understanding are essential
  • 18. Applying Lessons Learned to International Exploration of Space We will not be able to identify every contingency in advance so structure for cooperation must allow for flexibility. High-level political leadership may be necessary to garner international support/participation e.g. the ISS & GEO examples. Recognize the many similarities in partners plans/aspirations for exploration. Exploration beyond Earth orbit is an intrinsically global enterprise. International partnerships provide tangible benefits e.g. broadening public & political support, sharing cost & risk, enrich scientific & technical content, sustainability.
  • 19. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA Conclusions• Agreements should be mutually beneficial and binding• Expect to share the risks as well as the benefits• Expect to compromise• Appreciate differing cultures, methods, national prerogatives• Cooperation most often on a no-exchange of funds basis• Barters work• Partners responsibilities are “deliverables” not financial• Be prepared to manage through political changes• Cooperation can be hard but going alone can be harder• Be a reliable and welcomed partner• US ITARS – live with it !!• NASA is a generous partner (though at times difficult!)
  • 20. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA Thank You Graham GibbsCounsellor Space Affairs - Canadian Space Agency Canadian Embassy graham.gibbs@asc-csa.gc.ca www.asc-csa.gc.ca
  • 21. HANDOUT Executing Successful Partnerships With NASAAn International Partner’s Perspective: Lessons Learned 2010 NASA PM Challenge Galveston, Texas Graham Gibbs Counsellor Space Affairs - Canadian Space Agency Canadian Embassy Washington February 9, 2010
  • 22. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA OUTLINE• Overview Canada-United Civil Space Cooperation• The Big Picture• Space Science and Earth Observation• International Space Station• Group on Earth Observations• The Global Exploration Strategy and the International Space Exploration Coordination Group• Conclusions
  • 23. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASACanada – United States Civil Space Cooperation • Human Space Flight (Shuttle & ISS) • Astronaut Corps (Cdn astronauts embedded at JSC) • Life & Microgravity Science (Shuttle & ISS) • Earth Science and Observation (Instruments & RADARSAT) • Astronomy (JWST and Cdn MOST) • Heliophysics (THEMIS & International Living With a Star) • Exploration (Mars Phoenix & MSL et al) • Earth Science & Observation (RADARSAT) • Ice Monitoring & Cooperation with the Canadian Ice Service (RADARSAT) • Earth Science & Observation (RADARSAT)
  • 24. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASAThe Big Picture Lessons Learned From the Private Sector: The best agreements;  Might be difficult to negotiate but dont have to be referred to later.  Fair (profitable) for both/all parties. From the Public (Space) Sector:  Be prepared for national prerogatives,  Understand differing cultures,  Accept the risks as well as the benefits,  Funding; consistency & no-exchange,  Be prepared to seek compromises.
  • 25. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASASpace Science and Earth Observation 1 of 2 Some Realities to Consider - Positive and Negative  International collaboration among scientists,  International Announcements of Opportunity – most often competitive,  Projects usually on no-exchange-of-funds basis,  Obligations subject to "availability of appropriated funds",  Barters e.g. launch-for-data
  • 26. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASASpace Science and Earth Observation 2 of 2 Some Realities to Consider - Positive and Negative  Partners responsibilities are deliverables - not financial investment,  Agreements legally binding or political/morale commitments,  Data sharing,  National Security interests – technology transfer, data policies etc.
  • 27. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA Evolution of the ISS and Its Partnership Anticipate the Unexpected ! US Initiative-January 1984 (State of Union Address) A Cold War demonstration of U.S. leadership and alliances From Cold War instrument into post-Cold War cooperation All partners now providing "critical elements" instead of "enhancements"  Specific contributions – some duplication  Shared Operations  Long Term Science  "Single" Destination in Space
  • 28. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA Structure of the ISS PartnershipIGA Art. 1: "…, under the lead role of the United States for overall management and coordination …" Intergovernmental Agreement: • Legal Regime IGA • Top-Level Political Commitments • Multilateral (15 nations) NASA/CSA NASA/ESA NASA/GOJ NASA/FSA Memoranda of Understanding: • Detailed Implementation Implementing • Roles & Responsibilities Arrangements • Obligations & Rights
  • 29. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA ISS Lessons Learned Implications for Project Managers Managing the classical parameters (cost, schedule, performance) is no longer sufficient Must manage through political changes that can/will have fundamental impact on program Diplomatic skills are essential to the "first among equals" concept International cooperation takes considerable extra time & effort Flexibility and understanding are essential
  • 30. EARTH OBSERVATION SUMMIT I Launched at the Ministerial Level:Political Support and Commitment is Essential for any Mega ProjectWashington, D.C. July 31, 2003
  • 31. GEO Societal Benefit Areas BiodiversityEnergy Management Climate Ecosystems Disasters Health Weather Water Agriculture
  • 32. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination• August 2006, 14 space agencies discussed the definition of a vision for globally coordinated space exploration.• May 2007, release of
  • 33. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASAWhat is the Global Exploration Strategy?• A high-level compelling story of the value of exploration that can be used to explain this effort to policy makers and the general public• A blueprint that will serve as a starting point for: – Coordination: coordination among participants to maximize what can be accomplished – Collaboration: discussions between participants regarding areas of potential collaboration The strategy focuses on destinations within the solar system where humans may one day live and work
  • 34. Applying Lessons Learned to International Exploration of Space We will not be able to identify every contingency in advance so structure for cooperation must allow for flexibility. High-level political leadership may be necessary to garner international support/participation e.g. the ISS & GEO examples. Recognize the many similarities in partners plans/aspirations for exploration. Exploration beyond Earth orbit is an intrinsically global enterprise. International partnerships provide tangible benefits e.g. broadening public & political support, sharing cost & risk, enrich scientific & technical content, sustainability.
  • 35. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA Conclusions• Agreements should be mutually beneficial and binding• Expect to share the risks as well as the benefits• Expect to compromise• Appreciate differing cultures, methods, national prerogatives• Cooperation most often on a no-exchange of funds basis• Barters work• Partners responsibilities are “deliverables” not financial• Be prepared to manage through political changes• Cooperation can be hard but going alone can be harder• Be a reliable and welcomed partner• US ITARS – live with it !!• NASA is a generous partner (though at times difficult!)
  • 36. Back-Up Charts Factors Contributing to Canada’s Success with NASA AndExamples of Niche Contributions
  • 37. Factors Contributing to Our Success• Recognition: Canada - small space faring nation• Ability to "identify" & "nurture" S&T niches• Focus on areas where Canada excels o Develop world-class expertise o Unique leadership and contribution o Desired and valued partner• Deliberate & focused investments• Anticipate the future through advanced R&D• “Space Team Canada” approach i.e. govt, industry, academia
  • 38. Examples of Niche Contributions RADARSAT- 1 • Launch for data arrangement with NASA and NOAA • Nov 1995 to May 2008 • Data for National Ice Service • Data for NASA, NOAA and USGS research • 1999 first mapping of Antarctica RADARSAT- 2 • Public-Private-Partnership • Some data sharing between Canadian and U.S. Ice Service • Opportunities for joint research RADARSAT-CONSTELLATION • Studies underway • Preliminary discussion for cooperation with NASA, NOAA and USGS EARTH OBSERVATION
  • 39. Examples of Niche Contributions James Webb Space Telescope U.S. with ESA and CSA instruments CSA CSA: Fine Guidance Sensor MOST (critical for pointing) Tuneable Filter ImagerASTRONOMYCSACassiope THEMIS HELIOPHYSICS Canadian ePOP Ground segmentinstrument
  • 40. MOSTCanadas "Humble" Space Telescope!Opportunities for U.S. Guest Principal Investigators
  • 41. Examples of Niche Contributions The Early Beginnings of Canadas Human Space Flight Program• 1969 NASA approached Canada and Europe to join the Shuttle program• 1969- 1975 technical studies led to Canadarm• 1975 Canada-US Agreement: • Canada to fund R&D and 1st flight unit • US to buy 3 flight units • US responsible for R&O • Canada granted privileged access to Shuttle• 1981 1st flight of Canadarm• 1983 Canadian astronauts corps established• 1984 1st Canadian astronaut mission HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT
  • 42. Examples of Niche Contributions HUMAN SPACE FLIGHTHUMAN SPACE FLIGHT
  • 43. Criteria for Canada’s Participation in Exploration Contributions • Early, Scalable,Transferable • Critical, Visible and Welcomed Decision Criteria • Visible to the Canadian Public • Meets Canadian science goals • Uses Canadian enabling/heritage technologies • Develops sustainable core competencies • Results in Canadians flying in space • Consistent with the Global Exploration Strategy
  • 44. Executing Successful Partnerships with NASA - International Partners’ Perspectives YOSHInori YOSHImura JAXA Washington Office Feb. 9, 2010 @NASA PM Challenge 2010
  • 45. JAXA Organization and Resources As of April 2009 President Total Personnel Annual Budget 1670 Executive 199 B yen (2 B US$) Directors Policy Coordination Admin. Management Technical Management Space Space Inst. of Space & Lunar & Human Space Aviation Aerospace R&DTransportation Applications Astro. Science Planetary Systems and Program Group Directorate Mission Mission Exploration Utilization Directorate Directorate Program Group Mission Directorate Contribution to Realization of Challenge to Research & “Safe and Secure Society" Unknown Frontier Development  Environment Observation  Space Science  Independent Ability for Space  Disaster Monitoring  Lunar and Planetary Activity  Satellite Navigation & Exploration  Contribution to Aerospace Industry Communication  International Space Station
  • 46. Outline of the 2nd Mid-term Plan (2008-2013)Two major areas of activities in the 2nd Mid-term Plan• Contribution toward a secure and prosperous society – to place a special emphasis on (1) Global environment observation (2) Disaster monitoring and communication (3) Navigation by satellites• Expansion of human frontiers – to utilize Kibo (Japanese Experiment Module) of ISS as a new platform for space activities of Japan and other countries; – to promote space science program with a special emphasis on the fields which Japan possesses advantage; – to formulate a Moon and planetary exploration program 2
  • 47. Project Overview of the 2nd Mid-term Plan Environment Contributions toward a Secure and Prosperous Society (R&D) Global Precipitation Navigation Satellite Measurement Greenhouse Gases Satellite/ Observing Satellite Dual-frequency (GOSAT) Precipitation Radar Greenhouse Precipitation (GPM/DPR) effect gases 1st Quasi-Zenith Global Change Observation Satellite Cloud Aerosol Radiation Mission-Water(GCOM-W) Mission/Cloud Profiling Radar (EarthCARE/CPR) GPS Global Change Availability enhancement Moisture Observation Mission- Cloud/Aerosol ・Performance Climate(GCOM-C) enhancementInternational Space Station(ISS) Expansion of Human Frontiers Space Explorer Space Science Successor of ISS/Japanese SELenological and Experiment Module ENgineering (JEM) Kibo Explorer (SELENE) KAGUYA Int‟l Mercury Venus Climate Exploration Successor of Radio Astronomy Orbiter Project Asteroid Explorer X-ray Astronomy Satellite (ASTRO- (PLANET-C) (BepiColombo) H-ⅡTransfer Vehicle (HAYABUSA) Satellite (ASTRO- G) (HTV) H) Development of Advanced Technologies Aeronautics Space Transportation H-IIB Advanced Solid launch vehicle MHI Rocket Next Generation SST To Contribute toward LNG Propulsion System industry needs using fundamental (GX Rocket) tech 3
  • 48. International Cooperation with USA• International cooperation between the United States and Japan started in 1969, when "The Japan-U.S. Joint Communiqué" on cooperation in space development was signed.• Since then, JAXA has been participating in international projects, many of which are led by NASA. This includes the International Space Station as well as Earth Science, and Space Science missions. 4
  • 49. Current Cooperative Projects with NASA1. ISS Cooperation • Japanese Experiment Module “KIBO” and HTV/H2-B • ISS Development, Operation and Utilization2. Space Exploration Cooperation (exploring future opportunities) • International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG)3. Earth Science Cooperation • Aqua (AMSR-E), TRMM, DAICHI(ALOS), IBUKI (GOSAT), GPM , GCOM • Decadal Survey Missions & GEOSS (exploring future opportunities)4. Space Science Cooperation • Fermi, HINODE, SWIFT, NOZOMI, ASCA, ASTRO-H, KAGUYA, SUZAKU, HAYABUSA, HALCA, GEOTAIL • Astrophysics & Planetary Science & Heliophysics Cooperation Levels: – Level 0: Information & Data Exchange (Earth & Space Science) – Level 1: Payload Provision (Earth & Space Science) – Level 2: Joint HW Development (TRMM,GPM, etc.) – Level 3: Joint Program (ISS) 5
  • 50. Maintaining a close partnership with NASA has become indispensable for JAXA• Almost all JAXA programs and projects involve some level of cooperation with NASA.• JAXA uses almost identical development process and technical standards with NASA. Please note that:• JAXA covers almost same areas of activities as NASA does but with 1/10th the amount of resources (in terms of budget and JAXA staff).• When NASA makes changes to its programs, the changes can impact JAXA – quickly and severely!
  • 51. Lessons Learned (Things that should be done)• Enthusiasm and tolerance are the key traits to emphasize when one seeks to engage partners and to sustain a partnership.• Common goals and objectives need to be identified and shared among the partners to align their efforts.• Cooperation must be based on mutual benefits.• The best leaders are those who lead in a benevolent and reassuring fashion that supports partners‟ goals.• An effective partnership is one that emphasizes: – Mutual respect & trust - personal relationships are key – Commitment to meet responsibilities and to the success of the joint project• High level political endorsement is required to initiate large scale cooperation programs (e.g. future exploration initiatives).• Public support is the key to sustaining large scale cooperation program (e.g. ISS and future exploration initiatives).
  • 52. Lessons Learned (Things to avoid)• Keep overall program goals (including those of your partners) in mind – not just NASA‟s goals.• Don‟t try to do everything alone. Consider involving close partners in „critical path‟ roles (e.g. JAXA‟s provision of the HTV for the Space Station).• Avoid making unilateral decisions – try first to indicate a common path and build a consensus.• Listen to the suggestions of your partners – once in a while you may learn something!• In managing joint projects, don‟t be „exclusive‟ – try to be „inclusive‟ whenever you can.
  • 53. Conclusion As the world‟s largest and most successful space agency, NASA inspires and frequently leads space exploration and space applications programs throughout the world.“You can always count on Americans to do the right thing, after theyve tried everything else.” – Sir Winston Churchill I hope you do always the right thing… but without doing everything else!
  • 54. Backup Charts
  • 55. Space Strategy and Organizations Cabinet Secretariat The SpaceCabinet Basic Law The Strategic Headquarters (May 2008) for Space Policy * Headed by Prime Minister Cabinet Office Council for S&T Policy (CSTP) The Space Basic Plan Space Panel Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Space Activities Commission (SAC) Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Ministry of Internal Affairs & Communications Ministry of the Environment JAXA Mid-term Plan
  • 56. Basic Space Law of Japan Japan’s Space Basic Law was enacted on 26 May, 2008. Pillars of the Law are Diplomacy on Space, Industrial Development, and Security Secretariat of Strategic Headquarters for Space Development was established on 26 August, 2008. set up in the Cabinet Secretariat as the governmental space development management office. Space Basic Plan will be established in May 2009 approved by the Prime Minister. Review and modify the HQs for Space Policy, JAXA, and SAC within the next year 12
  • 57. Outline of Basic Space Law✔ Peaceful Use of SpacePromotion of Space Development and Utilization in line with internationalagreements for space activities. (i.e. Space Development and Utilization shall be carried out pursuant to the treaties and other international agreements on space development and utilization in accordance with the idea of pacifist principles in the Constitution of Japan.)✔ Improvement of Citizens Lives, etc.Utilization of Satellites contributing to Improvement of Citizens’ Lives, NationalSecurity, etc.✔ Promotion of IndustriesEnsuring Autonomous Launch Capability Satellites, etc.Promotion of Private Businesses on Space Development and UtilizationMaintenance and Improvement of Reliability of Technologies on SpaceDevelopment and Utilization✔ Development of Human SocietyPromotion of Space Science to contribute to realizing dreams of, and thebetterment of lives for, humankind.✔ Promotion of International Cooperation, etc.Promotion of International Cooptation for contributing to enhancing Japan’s rolein the international society and to the furtherance of Japan’s interests.✔ Consideration of Environment PreservationPromotion of Space development in harmony with the Environment,and Ensuring International Cooperation on preservation of the Environment. 13
  • 58. JAXA Field Centers Reason Offices Kakuda Space Ctr. Noshiro Testing Ctr. Washington, DC, USA Huston, TX, USA Paris, France Tsukuba Space Center Bangkok, Thailand Earth Observation Ctr. Usuda Deep Space Ctr. Katsuura T & C Stn. JAXA Tokyo OfficeKagoshima Space Center Aerospace Research Ctr. Sagamihara Campus Okinawa T & C Stn. Ogasawara Downrange Stn.
  • 59. 100M JAXA Budget Trend 3000 JAXA NASDA 2500 NAL IA S S 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Establishment of JAXA October, 2003 15
  • 60. JAXA Budget for FY 2009 Ratio for each field of program in JAXA Budget from GOJ Space Science Others $179M Reliability 41.1B $411M Improvement 17.9B 21% $92M Program 9% 9.2 B 5%Space Technology $165M 16.5B 9% Space Flight And OperationSpace Applications $312M $364M 31.2B 36.4 B 16% 19% $402M ISS 40.2 B Total : $1.925B $1= 100 21% (Total : 192.5B) ※ Budget was increased 2.6% from FY2008 (Total 187.5B) 16
  • 61. ISS KIBO/Japanese Experiment Module•KIBO means “hope” in Japanese•JAXA’s share of Utilization and Operation= 12.8% (in US Segment) 17
  • 62. ISS HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle)- Unmanned cargo transfer spacecraft that will deliver up to 6 tons of supplies to ISS- Key space transportation system technology of Japan together with the H-IIB launchvehicle- Successfully launched on Sep. 11, 2009 and disposed on Nov.1, 2009 HTV (Proto-flight model) HTV (Image) December 25, 2008 18
  • 63. H-IIB Launch VehicleHTV -JAXA and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, LTD (MHI) are jointly developing H-ⅡB in order to launch HTV and to increase international competitiveness by providing wider range of launch capacity. -H-IIB has 2 liquid rocket engines ( LE-7A) in the first stage -Its first stage body is expanded from 4m to 5.2m in diameter from H-IIA Comparison of H-IIA and H-IIB H-IIA202 H-IIB Specifications Length (m) 53 56 Mass (t) 289 551 SRB-A 2 4 Maximum Launch GTO 4.1 8 Capacity (t) Orbit for HTV - 16.5 19
  • 64. ISS HTV (H-II Transfer Vehicle)HTV plays a significant role in ISS operation and utilization HTV unique capabilities  HTV transports external equipments indispensable for sustaining ISS system functions such as attitude control (ISS gyro) and electrical power (batteries); external experiment payloads; large (standard rack size) internal system equipments and experiment payloads; water and food for astronauts. ISS Gyro Batteries Internal Standard Racks  After rendezvous flight to the ISS, HTV is docked to the ISS US-side port. The HTV pressurized section is the area where astronauts work for internal cargo transfer. HTV launch schedule 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 One launch per year 20
  • 65. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) 10 year Implementation Plan 9 Societal Benefit Areas Disasters Climate Water Health Agriculture Weather Ecosystems Energy Biodiversity 21
  • 66. “IBUKI”GOSAT Greenhouse gases observing satellite(GOSAT) To monitor the distribution of the density ofcarbon dioxide, etc. and contribute to theactivities for the prevention of globalwarming. Monitoring at 3-day intervals. “IBUKI” was successfully launched onJan.23, 2009 (JST) and is now carried outthe initial calibration and validationoperations including comparing IBUKI dataand data acquired on the ground, confirmingthe data accuracy, and makingcompensations based on the data. Successfully Deployed The photo taken by FGAN, Germany Current terrestrial observation points GOSAT’s observation points (standard mode:56,000 (257points) points) 22
  • 67. GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)-NASA and JAXA are working together to build and launch the GPM Core Satellite-The core is the central precipitation-measuring observatory of GPM Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) a high-resolution, multi-channel passive microwave (PMW) rain radiometer known as theGPM Microwave Imager (GMI)-The Core will also serve as the calibration reference system for a constellation of supportsatellites. 23
  • 68. GCOMTo continue global-scale observations of sea water temperatures and soil water, etc.for the purpose of elucidating the global climate change and water circulationmechanisms. Distribution of sea ice in Global Change Observation Mission north polar region (GCOM) The Advanced Water cycle observation satellite 24 September 2007 (the smallest on record) (GCOM-W) Microwave Scanning 【scheduled to be launched in the period Radiometer 2 of the 2nd Mid-term Plan】 Precipitation Vapor amounts Distribution of Sea surface Sea ice sea ice on 22 temperatures September Soil water Snow depths 2005 Monitoring of vegetation change Climate change observation satellite multi-wavelength Autumn 2005 Autumn 2006 (GCOM-C) optical radiometer Vegetation index during vegetation Land surface growing season is low temperature sea surface seawater temperatures color wheatland clouds, Crops yields of wheat was reduced low high by half in 2006 because of dry aerosol weather. Vegetation index 24
  • 69. International Charter - Space and Major Disasters to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural disasters through Authorized Users to support the provisions of the Charter to help to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and propertyJAXA joined in February 2005 25
  • 70. Space Science and Space ExplorerEx)-Fermi-HINODE-SWIFT-NOZOMI-ASCA-ASTRO-H-KAGUYA-SUZAKU-HAYABUSA-HALCA-GEOTAIL 26
  • 71. KAGUYA- To obtain data and information necessary for elucidating the Moon’s origin and its evolution as well as for exploring the possibility of utilizing the Moon in the future.- To Acquire core technologies relating to the full-scale exploration of the Moon in the future.- Launched Sep. 14, 2007, nominal operation during December 21, 2007 – October 30, 2008, extended operation till early summer, 2009.- Collaboration with NASA for KAGUYA tracking for critical operation, KAGUYA data delivery for NASA LRO/LCROSS and future lunar mission planning, and KAGUYA data promotion and public outreach. Lunar Explorer 3D image 「KAGUYA」 by Terrain Camera KAGUYA has 15 missions and observes the Moon from a lunar polar orbit at the altitude of 100km. 27
  • 72. HAYABUSADemonstration of the technology needed for sample return from asteroid, using electricpropulsion, autonomous navigation, material sampling in small gravity field, and direct re-entry from interplanetary orbit.Launch on May 2003Touch-down and Lift-off from Asteroid on Nov. 2005Earth return on Jun. 2010JPL supports telemetry, command, tracking operation, and orbit determination in criticalphases such as launch, earth swing-by, rendezvous with asteroid, and Earth reentry. Roundtrip between Earth and Asteroid Explorer Touch-down and Lift-off Asteroid Hayabusa from Asteroid surface Earth return on June 2010 28

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