Project Management:Brazilian Experience   Himilcon de Castro Carvalho, AEB                                      Used with ...
“Classic”Project Phasing  & Planning           1 yr   2-3 yrs   ECSS or ISO
RealityActivity or $$                      1-2 yr   2-3 yr         4-6 yr                                                 ...
RealityActivity or $$                      1-2 yr      2-3 yr         4-6 yr                                              ...
Reality                                                   What was                                                   expec...
Project Organization                 Strong Matrix Structure                 (80 – 90)                               Mech....
Project Organization                   Weak Matrix Structure                   (90 – 00)                     Systems     M...
Planning     Scope         Scope                                                Schedule                                  ...
“out of control” variables                 Planning                                  “under relative control”             ...
“out of control” variables                 Planning                                  “under relative control”             ...
ImpactsPM under severe HR and Budget Restrictions Low responsivity Schedules not used as actual management tool Small n...
Thank you! Himilcon de Castro Carvalho Director of Space Policy and Strategic Investments Brazilian Space Agency himilcon@...
Mini-SARAn Imaging Radar on India’s Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon                                       Paul D. Spudis...
OriginsWaikaloa, Hawaii 2003  Dr. Narendra Bhandari talk on proposed Chandrayaan-1     mission (not yet selected for fligh...
ApprovalGetting the money from NASA   Technology interest from SOMD; exploration interest from ESMD   Technology developme...
Build and testMini-SAR (re-named Mini-RF) gets  underway May 2005; instrument  PDR Dec. 2005Chandrayaan/MSR ICD draft  wri...
Getting Ready to Go                      5
Launch and Mission                     6
Some First Results                     7
Moon Minerals and Particles                              8
Mini-SAR Experiment ObjectivesMap the deposits of both poles of  the Moon (> 80° lat.) at optimum  viewing angles (~40°) t...
Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR)Ratio of received power in both    right and left sensesNormal rocky planet surfaces =   ...
MSR Coverage from First Mapping Cycle                                        11
180˚                                         Plaskett                                                               Haskin...
North Polar CPR Map                      13
A Tale of Two Scatterers                  Main L   14
15
16
180˚                                         Plaskett                                                                   Ha...
180˚  Fresh cratersAnomalous craters                    90˚ W                            90˚ E                            ...
Water Equivalent Hydrogen (wt.%)                                   19
SummaryMini-SAR successfully mapped about 90% of both polar  areas; due to some operational issues, coverage is  not conti...
Some Lessons LearnedSensitivities about ITAR  US must recognize that foreign institutions may view    ITAR restrictions ne...
Some Lessons LearnedInteractions with the press  Other governments may have different relationships    with press  Keep qu...
Project Management Practices          for Indian Space Vehicles                        Dr. BN SureshDirector, Indian Insti...
ISRO Launch Vehicle Evolution                                                                       GSLV Mk III           ...
Management Structure                           (For Launch Vehicle Programmes) A Core Project team with overall          ...
Core Project ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities of the Core Project have been : Definition and implementation of project ma...
Programme Control Cycle           Used in Development                    • Generated programme plans,Establishing         ...
Techno- Managerial Review Mechanisms     Management of Scope, Time & Cost without compromising Quality Project Review Mee...
Technical Review Milestones followed                                     Preliminary                              Objectiv...
Overall Management ApproachManaging Technical         Schedule      Risks               Management             Launch Vehi...
Managing Technical RisksThe following procedures are strictly implemented.   Identification of single point failure   Re...
Project Schedule Management   Optimal sharing of resources between numerous operational and    development programmes   ...
Management Information System used                                Data Input                     From Work centres        ...
Quality Management Key processes and continuous Quality control during development  and realisation of all launch vehicle...
Project Cost Management Cost Estimation and Control   The costs of the resources needed to complete project activities i...
Managing Technology      Developments                                                                                     ...
Change Management Control of intersystem interfaces has been the major  responsibility of the project team. The evolutio...
Launch Campaign Management                  •   Launch vehicleIntegrated Team   •   Space craft                  •   Prope...
Conclusions. (Success through Team effort)  The Management Structure which is in vogue has been very effective .  The Pr...
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Inter approach to_spaceprogmgmt

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Inter approach to_spaceprogmgmt

  1. 1. Project Management:Brazilian Experience Himilcon de Castro Carvalho, AEB Used with Permission
  2. 2. “Classic”Project Phasing & Planning 1 yr 2-3 yrs ECSS or ISO
  3. 3. RealityActivity or $$ 1-2 yr 2-3 yr 4-6 yr Lack of: Budget Human Resources Infrastructure decision mobilization peak launch & ops
  4. 4. RealityActivity or $$ 1-2 yr 2-3 yr 4-6 yr Lack of: Budget Human Resources Infrastructure decision mobilization peak launch & Govt Changes ops Political OK! Economical crisis talks Lets go Changes in priorities
  5. 5. Reality What was expectedActivity or $$ 1-2 yr 2-3 yr 4-6 yr Lack of: Budget Human Resources Infrastructure decision mobilization peak launch & Govnt Changes ops Political OK! Economical crisis talks Lets go! Changes in priorities
  6. 6. Project Organization Strong Matrix Structure (80 – 90) Mech. Electr.. Ground AIT QA ... Eng. Eng. SegmentProject Office Project Office = Management + Systems Engineering QA, AIT, Ground Seg. completely dedicated to this single project
  7. 7. Project Organization Weak Matrix Structure (90 – 00) Systems Mech. Electr.. Ground AIT QA ... Eng. Eng. Eng. SegmentProject Office 1Project Office 2Project Office 3 Competition for project resources, human resources and budget
  8. 8. Planning Scope Scope Schedule WBS Planning Definition Devel. Risk Mgt. Cost HR Activity Activity Plan Estimating Planning Definition Resources Risk CostIdentification Budgeting Activity Activity Sequencing Duration Qualit. Quality Risk An. Planning Quant. Comm. Risk An. PlanningRisk Resp. Plan Purch. Plan Planning & Acq. Contracting
  9. 9. “out of control” variables Planning “under relative control” variables Scope Scope Schedule WBS Planning Definition Devel. Risk Mgt. Cost HR Activity Activity Plan Estimating Planning Definition Resources Risk CostIdentification Budgeting Activity Activity Sequencing Duration Qualit. Quality Risk An. Planning Quant. Comm. Risk An. PlanningRisk Resp. Plan Purch. Plan Planning & Acq. Contracting
  10. 10. “out of control” variables Planning “under relative control” variables and focus Scope Scope Schedule WBS Planning Definition Devel. Risk Mgt. Cost HR Activity Activity Plan Estimating Planning Definition Resources Risk CostIdentification Budgeting Activity Activity Sequencing Duration Qualit. Quality Risk An. Planning Quant. Comm. Risk An. PlanningRisk Resp. Plan Purch. Plan Planning & Acq. Contracting
  11. 11. ImpactsPM under severe HR and Budget Restrictions Low responsivity Schedules not used as actual management tool Small number of concurrent projects Low industry dynamics Focus on WBS Focus on Activity Definition & Sequencing Focus on Quality/Verification Planning Special focus on Risk Planning
  12. 12. Thank you! Himilcon de Castro Carvalho Director of Space Policy and Strategic Investments Brazilian Space Agency himilcon@aeb.gov.br
  13. 13. Mini-SARAn Imaging Radar on India’s Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon Paul D. Spudis MSR Principal Investigator Lunar and Planetary Institute Houston TX spudis@lpi.usra.edu www.spudislunarresources.com NASA Program Management Challenge 2010 February 2010 1
  14. 14. OriginsWaikaloa, Hawaii 2003 Dr. Narendra Bhandari talk on proposed Chandrayaan-1 mission (not yet selected for flight) I approach him to fly radar; he encourages it APL submits unsolicited letter proposal ISRO decides on open competition for foreign payloads (< 10 kg, < 100 W), Feb. 2004 Submit formal proposal, April 2004 Selected for flight, September 2004 2
  15. 15. ApprovalGetting the money from NASA Technology interest from SOMD; exploration interest from ESMD Technology development package developed and jointly fundedGetting approval from Dept. of State Present instrument concept/overview to DoS Dec. 2004 Formal application for export license Jan. 2005 State approval June 2005Getting final approval from ISRO TAA draft sent to ISRO in June 2005; no response Continuous delay; demand for change of title of TAA document TAA signed during May 2006 India visit by M. Griffin (NASA Administrator) 3
  16. 16. Build and testMini-SAR (re-named Mini-RF) gets underway May 2005; instrument PDR Dec. 2005Chandrayaan/MSR ICD draft written and approved Nov. 2005Mini-SAR CDR Sept. 2006Chandrayaan-1 CDR May 2007Mini-SAR ship to APL; calibration and test March-June 2007MSR ship to ISRO, August 2007I&T at ISAC, August 2007-July 2008 4
  17. 17. Getting Ready to Go 5
  18. 18. Launch and Mission 6
  19. 19. Some First Results 7
  20. 20. Moon Minerals and Particles 8
  21. 21. Mini-SAR Experiment ObjectivesMap the deposits of both poles of the Moon (> 80° lat.) at optimum viewing angles (~40°) to characterize permanently dark areas and definitively determine their RF backscattering properties using both SAR and scatterometryComplete the global map of the Moon by mapping dark regions in lunar polar areasCharacterize the physical nature of the polar regolith and surfaceSAR mapping of other targets of Moon South Pole Clementine 750 nm base map opportunity as possible 9
  22. 22. Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR)Ratio of received power in both right and left sensesNormal rocky planet surfaces = polarization inversion (receive opposite sense from that transmitted)“Same sense” received indicates something unusual: double- or even-multiple- bounce reflections Volume scattering from RF- transparent materialHigh CPR (enhanced “same sense” reception) is common for fresh, rough (at wavelength scale) targets and water ice 10
  23. 23. MSR Coverage from First Mapping Cycle 11
  24. 24. 180˚ Plaskett Haskin Rozhdestvensky Lovelace Whipple Nansen90˚ W Hermite 90˚ E Peary Sylvester 88˚ N 84˚ N Byrd Gloja Main L De Sitter 80˚ N 0˚ 12
  25. 25. North Polar CPR Map 13
  26. 26. A Tale of Two Scatterers Main L 14
  27. 27. 15
  28. 28. 16
  29. 29. 180˚ Plaskett Haskin Rozhdestvensky Lovelace Whipple Nansen90˚ W Hermite 90˚ E Peary Sylvester 88˚ N 84˚ N Byrd Gloja Main L De Sitter 80˚ N 0˚ 17
  30. 30. 180˚ Fresh cratersAnomalous craters 90˚ W 90˚ E 88˚ N 84˚ N 80˚ N 0˚ 18
  31. 31. Water Equivalent Hydrogen (wt.%) 19
  32. 32. SummaryMini-SAR successfully mapped about 90% of both polar areas; due to some operational issues, coverage is not contiguousCalibration data from Earth and Moon have been acquired and partly processed; used to quantify radar responseNon-polar areas analyzed; results consistent with previous S-band radar mapping from EarthAreas of high CPR have been identified: Some high CPR is clearly associated with surface roughness (e.g., Main L ejecta blanket) Some deposits (e.g., near north pole on floor of Peary) show high CPR and are restricted to the interior of craters; these features are in permanent darkness. 20
  33. 33. Some Lessons LearnedSensitivities about ITAR US must recognize that foreign institutions may view ITAR restrictions negatively Foreign governments must realize that wording is not chosen by the flight partners ITAR issues did not materially interfere with MSR build, test, and operation ITAR compliance is simply an overhead lien that must be paid 21
  34. 34. Some Lessons LearnedInteractions with the press Other governments may have different relationships with press Keep quiet and let your lead partner set the tone “No comment” is a comment; it will not deter a determined reporter 22
  35. 35. Project Management Practices for Indian Space Vehicles Dr. BN SureshDirector, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, (Former Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre) Thiruvananthapuram, India. Used with Permission
  36. 36. ISRO Launch Vehicle Evolution GSLV Mk III March 2011 GSLV PSLV ASLV SLV-3Launch Vehicle SLV ASLV PSLV GSLV GSLV Mk IIILift-off weight (kg) 17 40 295 450 635 Payload (kg) 40 (LEO) 150 (LEO) 1800 (SSO) 2200 (GTO) 4000 (GTO)
  37. 37. Management Structure (For Launch Vehicle Programmes) A Core Project team with overall Matrix Management Structure responsibility Project Director System Projects in new / critical areas Asso. Project Director Distributed work environment (work centers all over India) System Project Directors System Projects System New technology development at ISRO units Projects System System Projects Projects System Large scale facility build-up Projects Projects  Launch complex, Propulsion systems development, Development Agencies testing, Avionics systems and Vehicle level testing Dy. Project & mock ups etc. Directors Large scale industrial production  Motor cases, Light alloy structures & Propellant tanks Project Managers Liquid / Cryo engine systems, Avionics system for various systems components, Propellants & chemicals, Sub assemblies integration etc. Implementation of change & configuration Project Engineers control
  38. 38. Core Project ResponsibilitiesResponsibilities of the Core Project have been : Definition and implementation of project management plan & procedures. Communication of project objectives and plans to all levels Mission specification & interfaces with users. Launch complex and tracking network interfaces. Vehicle systems definition and specifications. Stage engineering and interfaces control. Vehicle / stage level configuration control & change management Direct monitoring of progress in all key areas Speedy execution without compromising performance and quality Programme management, cost/schedule monitoring and control. Organise project related reviews at micro and macro levels
  39. 39. Programme Control Cycle Used in Development • Generated programme plans,Establishing system development plans, Targets schedules & milestone plans. Monitoring • Monitored through weekly biweekly and monthly reviewPerformance meetings, progress reports.Programme • Compared actual progress with Analysis expected performance.Management • Identified solution options, implemented decisions & follow Reporting up of needed actions.
  40. 40. Techno- Managerial Review Mechanisms Management of Scope, Time & Cost without compromising Quality Project Review Meetings  Weekly review of project activity status Project Executive Reviews (PEX) : Tier - 1 Scope  Monthly reviews for resolving technical / managerial issues Quality Reviews by Centre Director Time Cost  Technical / managerial Reviews by Project Management Boards (PMB) : Tier - 2  General guidelines, budget approvals, schedules, facility & manpower Reviews by Project Management Council (PMC) : Tier - 3  Overall policy guidelines Reviews by Chairman, ISRO  Technical / managerial
  41. 41. Technical Review Milestones followed Preliminary Objectives are closely tracked System Design Concept In all milestone reviews. Review Critical Review Design PDR SCR Review Test CDR Readiness Normalised work load Review System TRR Readiness Review SRR Time in years 6-7 yearsObjectives SCR PDR CDR SRR System configuration.  Technical adequacy of  Approval of specs.  Detailed interface System /subsystem design approach and design. performance checks. specs.  Firm up specs. for  Approval of baseline  Certify system Manufacturing & test system / subsystems production performance meets facilities.  Physical and functional  Firm up interfaces requirements Schedule & resource interfaces definition.  Firm up detailed test  Finalise system projections  Clearance for detailed plan configuration design.  Approval for7 system commissioning
  42. 42. Overall Management ApproachManaging Technical Schedule Risks Management Launch Vehicle Project ManagementQuality management New Technology Cost Management Development
  43. 43. Managing Technical RisksThe following procedures are strictly implemented.  Identification of single point failure  Redundancy management for mission critical Avionics / Control systems  Vendor directory /Preferred part list  Well evolved part screening for electronic components  Process documents & QA / QC plans  Test & evaluation at different levels  Integrated system level checks  Detailed simulations at different levels  FMECA analysis /Fault tree analysis
  44. 44. Project Schedule Management  Optimal sharing of resources between numerous operational and development programmes  The following methodologies are strictly implemented throughout the Project phase  Work Break down Structures (WBS)  Schedule analysis (PERT/CPM) & simulations  Identifying ‘limiting factors’  Anticipating criticalitiesTime management  ‘Feed forward’ control– Real time correction of plans as work progresses, Work around plans  Fast tracking through Concurrent Engineering approach  Near critical paths & criticality index  Integrated Information network for faster communication
  45. 45. Management Information System used Data Input From Work centres Analysis/Processing By Project To Management Information/Output For decision making For progress monitoringProject Executives & Management Participating Agencies, Centre level Forums Forums
  46. 46. Quality Management Key processes and continuous Quality control during development and realisation of all launch vehicle subsytems are identified and carried out. The Strict Quality Assurance is ensured by meticulously following the various steps given below.  Approved specifications & design  Qualified materials, Process reviews  Inspection/Surveillance during production  Stage clearances Quality Quality  3 tier non conformance management Assurance Control  Batch testing for VOQ, Acceptance testing The Quality Audit is given utmost importance  Using appropriate equipments Quality  Reference Standards Audit  Monitoring of key characteristics  Maintenance of records & traceability  Verification through audits
  47. 47. Project Cost Management Cost Estimation and Control  The costs of the resources needed to complete project activities including infrastructure are worked out.  More than 2000 line items with individual line item code for each launch vehicle project are identified to define the clear cut responsibilities  Methodologies adopted for cost control  Maximal use of available technologies, proven designs  Planning for contingencies & cost escalations in the initial stage itself  Standardization & stock piling standard parts in the beginning  Design for manufacture (DFM) & concurrent engineering methodologies.  Taking calculated risks - Realization of subsystems in numbers based on confidence in design / analysis without waiting for test results  Optimal hardware rotation plan for different test programme  Optimal sequencing of number of tests & test durations  ‘Make or buy’ decisions with focus on ‘comparative advantage’ S Curve Expenditure Control Methodologies  Through Periodic management reviews  Changes through department approved re- appropriation procedures & approval cycles  S-Curve analysis for schedule/cost
  48. 48. Managing Technology Developments Larger engines in future Indigenous 20 ton Cryo engine by 2010 Indigenous 7.5/ 9 ton Cryo engine (2008) GK Cryo (Russian) Adopt available technologies or near term One gigantic leap may lead to failure technologies Step by step approach for new technology Learning level development. Manageable learning steps. Identification of key improvement packages Feasible size jumps in terms of performance, reliability & cost & provide thrust for development Identification of key strategic areas for Initial level indigenization – e.g. Cryogenic technology strategic materials Time
  49. 49. Change Management Control of intersystem interfaces has been the major responsibility of the project team. The evolution and changes in the design are continuously monitored and the impacts assessed. Traceability of changes, decisions and inputs are utilised to assess the impacts of a new change. Design changes and requirements are closely monitored during development and changes are meticulously catalogued. Dissemination of the information across the system teams are done expeditiously using management information tools. Management of changes is given high priority to ensure the success of operational launches.
  50. 50. Launch Campaign Management • Launch vehicleIntegrated Team • Space craft • Propellant servicing / Safety Effort • Tracking & ground station • Logistics • Mission Director Campaign • Vehicle Director management • Satellite Director system • Range Director Countdown • Micro level scheduling on day to day 45 to 60 days & hourly basis activity at Planning • Orchestrated effort for resource Sriharikota methodology deployment • More than 100 people involved per launch at different phases of time • Technical /progress reviews • Stage clearances Reviews • Authorization reviews for launch Mission Readiness Review, Launch Authorization Board
  51. 51. Conclusions. (Success through Team effort)  The Management Structure which is in vogue has been very effective .  The Programme Control Cycle and the Overall Management approach have been very efficient , leading to successful space launches.  Indian Space ia able to implement programmes with shoe string budget through effective Schedule and Cost controls.  Focus has always been on achievement of collective results.  Time tested review mechanisms have helped to achieve technical excellence.  Some of the key factors for the effective management of Indian Space Programme are:  Engaging the teams into productive, constructive discussions around ideas and issues  Accepting and committing to decisions & plan of actions arrived at by the team.  Each identified team member is accountable for delivery as per the decided plans.  Creative leadership, rewards and recognitions to the deserving team member/s who make significant contributions.Source: Patrick Lencioni, The Five dysfunctions of a Team- A Leadership Fable; 2006

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