Cynthia W. House, ASRi                               Erika Andrews, ASRi                       Organization Development Sp...
1. Organization Development and why it is important to Project     Management  2. The Tuckman Model of Team Development an...
Organization Development / Effectiveness is …   “a strategically linked development effort designed to guide an     organi...
Organization Development in the form ofChange Management is joined at the hipwith Project Management to assess and managet...
For the purposes of this presentation,we will focus on the healthy start-up anddevelopment of the Project Team.According t...
Much research has been devoted to why project teams fail.A compilation of this research indicates that the mainreasons are...
1. Poor Project Planning and Administration   A Few Resulting Problems:     – Insufficient team and stakeholder communicat...
2. Inadequate Project Leadership   A Few Resulting Problems:     – Poorly defined leadership structure, project owners, an...
3. Inadequate Knowledge, Skills, & Experience   A Few Resulting Problems:     – Inadequate project planning and management...
4. Inadequate Team and Stakeholder Relationships   A Few Resulting Problems:     – Interpersonal conflicts, trust issues, ...
5. Inadequate Project Life Cycle Management   A Few Resulting Problems:      – Poorly defined requirements, resulting in w...
What is a Collaboration Agreement?The Collaboration Agreement is an innovative tool designed to account for whitespace not...
The Agreement• Facilitates the discussion of how the team will work together  before the problems happen rather than after...
What is included in a Collaboration Agreement?                                                    Defined critical issues ...
Topics Included                                                                                                          T...
Proactive Benefits of the What Section• Clearly defined vision and direction for the project and team• Clearly identified ...
Topics Included• Project Team Name                                                                                       T...
Proactive Benefits of the Who Section• Increased project team identity• Increased stakeholder communication• Improved unde...
Topics Included                                                                                                           ...
Proactive Benefits of the How Section• Clear Administrative procedures• Prioritization of operational activities• Improved...
Topics Included                                                                                           This Section is•...
Proactive Benefits of the When Section• Increased formal / informal project communication• Timely and decisive decisions m...
Topics Included                                                                                           This section is ...
Proactive Benefits of the Where Section• Appropriate physical arrangement to facilitate team coordination  and integration...
Degree of Empowerment the team and individual                                                               The Projectmem...
Proactive Benefits of the Bounds of Authority Section• Improved decision making• Clearer expectations• Improved management...
Formal and Informal Accountability Mechanism                                                                              ...
Proactive Benefits of the Accountability Section• Improved individual, team, organization and leadership performance• On-g...
Formal and Informal Mechanism Used to                                                                                     ...
Proactive Benefits of the Non-Compliance Section• Sends a clear message that the Agreement is to be taken seriously• Sets ...
• Will the Agreement work for a team already in place?• Do the Agreement sections have to be worked in a  certain order?• ...
Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011     ...
Center                     OD Lead                          Phone #                                 EmailARC              ...
Teams go through                                Forming                                                                   ...
The goal of the project team is to navigate the phasesof team development in ways that promote teamhealth and project succ...
WHAT section questions• What is the clear mission that gives meaning and direction to this project? Where is  the project ...
WHAT section questions• How will the Project Team choose Project Team membership?• What are the credentials and/or experie...
WHO section questions• Who will be involved in the formal and informal leadership functions of the organization  or team, ...
WHO section questions• Which members of the team are primarily responsible for coordination of activities,  meetings, and ...
How section questions• How will the organization or team be designed? What will the reporting structure, etc.?•   What wil...
How section questions• What are the reporting requirements within the team, with project management and  with groups exter...
When section questions• Where will the team reside? Is it commiserate of the organization’s / project team’s  structure or...
• Project Success and Failure: What Is Success, What Is Failure, and How Can You Improve Your  Odds for Success? Robert Fr...
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  • Shows the integration across processes, functions, organizations, and division boundaries …. Especially when done horizontally
  • House.cindy

    1. 1. Cynthia W. House, ASRi Erika Andrews, ASRi Organization Development Specialists Office of Human Capital Marshall Space Flight Center 1Used with permission
    2. 2. 1. Organization Development and why it is important to Project Management 2. The Tuckman Model of Team Development and other learning opportunities at the conference 3. The top five reasons for Project Team Failures 4. The Business Case for a Proactive Approach to navigating Tuckman’s model 5. The Project Team Collaboration Agreement concept 6. The Sections of a Project Team Collaboration Agreement 7. The Importance of each section to avoiding Project Team Failures and increasing the likelihood of team success 8. Potential Collaboration Agreement development and implementation issuesOffice of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 2
    3. 3. Organization Development / Effectiveness is … “a strategically linked development effort designed to guide an organization from a current state to a desired future state utilizing business, organizational, and individual change expertise”.The Goal of OD Work … … help organizations make the changes necessary to improve and sustain health relative to its environment and purpose over the long term by informing strategic decisions, optimizing internal capacity, facilitating mission work, and increasing individual, team, and organizational effectiveness. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 3
    4. 4. Organization Development in the form ofChange Management is joined at the hipwith Project Management to assess and managethe people and culture impacts and associated changesthat result from Project Implementation and tofacilitate the healthy start-up and development of the Project Team. Project Management manages the technical side of the project while Change Management manages the people side of the project. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 4
    5. 5. For the purposes of this presentation,we will focus on the healthy start-up anddevelopment of the Project Team.According to research, Project Teams tend tofocus mostly on technical requirements atstart-up and do not give adequate attentionof teaming requirements which can lead toboth technical and people problems as theproject progresses. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 5
    6. 6. Much research has been devoted to why project teams fail.A compilation of this research indicates that the mainreasons are:1. Poor Project Planning and Administration2. Inadequate Project Leadership3. Inadequate Knowledge and Skills4. Inadequate Team and Stakeholder Relationships5. Inadequate Project Lifecycle Management Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 6
    7. 7. 1. Poor Project Planning and Administration A Few Resulting Problems: – Insufficient team and stakeholder communication – Inadequate resource planning, allocation and management – Unclear administrative procedures – how the project is managed, role definition, reporting relationships, responsibilities, plans of execution, work agreements with other groups, hiring criteria, etc. – Unclear or unrealistic expectations and goals – Lack of prioritization of operational activities, objectives Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 7
    8. 8. 2. Inadequate Project Leadership A Few Resulting Problems: – Poorly defined leadership structure, project owners, and decision makers – Indecisive and untimely decision making – Insufficient communication with strategic stakeholders – Poorly set and manage expectations – Lack of a strategic vision Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 8
    9. 9. 3. Inadequate Knowledge, Skills, & Experience A Few Resulting Problems: – Inadequate project planning and management – Inadequate interpersonal communication – Inadequate leadership, team and individual performance – Inability to manage a complex project or cope with changing project realities – Inability to establish appropriate metrics and track and measure project results Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 9
    10. 10. 4. Inadequate Team and Stakeholder Relationships A Few Resulting Problems: – Interpersonal conflicts, trust issues, and low commitment and morale within the project team and conflicts between project managers and team members – Inadequate integration and collaboration across organizations and levels and with contractors and other externals – Conflict between the project and impacted organizations – Difficulty recruiting and bringing on needed talent – Difficulty acquiring needed resources during difficult times Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 10
    11. 11. 5. Inadequate Project Life Cycle Management A Few Resulting Problems: – Poorly defined requirements, resulting in wrong or incomplete features – Inadequate resource planning and management – Unclear links between the project and the organizations strategic priorities – Scheduling and budget overruns – Changing requirements late in the project and continuing to accept change requests which cause the project to drift Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 11
    12. 12. What is a Collaboration Agreement?The Collaboration Agreement is an innovative tool designed to account for whitespace not addressed in NASA’s technical project documentation governance. Itprovides a structured way for project members to think through and makedecisions about how members will operate together in several areas critical toproject success from start-up.The Agreement saves the project team time, confusion, conflict, and wastedenergy and resources by eliminating trial and error efforts to work togethereffectively. Many costly, resource intensive work problems and interpersonalconflicts can be avoided by investing time up front when the cost is lowest and thepotential for return the greatest. The Project Team’s Collaboration Agreement defines its “operating white space” in the same way NASA 7120 defines the technical management of a project and the Charter defines the scope. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 12
    13. 13. The Agreement• Facilitates the discussion of how the team will work together before the problems happen rather than after facilitating much smoother technical and people operations• Gives the team a language for talking about issues or disagreements in the team when they do occur• Creates a forum for mitigation of team issues that takes personality out of the equation and encourages a much less emotional discussion• Prevents or diminishes the impact of many of the problems that are associated with common project team failing Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 13
    14. 14. What is included in a Collaboration Agreement? Defined critical issues about the organization and theWHAT work Defines critical issues about the formal and informalWHO roles Defines how the team will structure itself andHOW accomplish the work Defines time frames associated with the work andWHEN the agreementWHERE Defines space, facilities and equipment requirementBOUNDS OF AUTHORITY Defines team member limits for independent actions Defines how the team and individual members willACCOUNTABILITY be held accountable for project performance Defines how the team will manage non-complianceAGREEMENT NON-COMPLIANCE with the Collaboration Agreement Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 14
    15. 15. Topics Included This section is• Vision, goal, and purpose of the Project Team worked by• Strategy or broad actions used to achieve the vision Project Core Management at• Mission / Broad Deliverables project start-up• Goals / Objectives for Project Team accountability prior to on-• Core Values – What is most important to the team boarding the team.• Plans & Products the team must produce• Work Functions and Processes needed to accomplish the work Decision made• Roles & Responsibilities needed to accomplish the work here are foundational for• Team Culture needed to be successful other sections• Credentials / Skills Required for team membership of the Agreement.• Staffing Level (FTE/WYE) required to accomplish the work Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 15
    16. 16. Proactive Benefits of the What Section• Clearly defined vision and direction for the project and team• Clearly identified products, functions and processes needed• Clear and realistic project team expectations and goals set• Leadership structure, project owners, and decision makers well-defined• Prioritization of operational activities, objectives, etc.• Improved leadership, team and individual performance• Improved internal and external integration and collaboration• Improved recruiting and project team talent acquisition• Clearly defined team culture needed to guide team development Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 16
    17. 17. Topics Included• Project Team Name This section is typically worked• Project Team Type by Project Core• Project Leadership Names and Roles Management at project start-up• Names of those assigned to each Project Role prior to complete on-• Process / Functional Owners or Leaders boarding of the team, but can• Product Owners or Leaders be worked in• Deliverables Owners or Leaders collaboration with key project• Process / Function and Product Experts (SMEs) team members.• Coordination Activity owners Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 17
    18. 18. Proactive Benefits of the Who Section• Increased project team identity• Increased stakeholder communication• Improved understanding of Team leadership, members, project owners, decision makers, and stakeholders roles and responsibilities• Clearly defined and established roles in place for (internal and external) collaboration and coordination• Improved leadership, team and individual performance because of roles and responsibilities definition• Realistic expectations are set regarding roles and responsibilities for all team members• Understanding of the integration across processes, functions, organizations, and division boundaries Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 18
    19. 19. Topics Included The How• Organization Architecture / Design (Formal and Operational) Section is best• Interaction and Conflict Management Norms completed using• Prioritization Norms (Managing conflicts priorities) a collaborative process that• Coordination, Integration, Collaboration Norms (Internal & engages the External to Project) energies of the• Decision Making Norms entire Team.• Performance Standards Project• Reporting Requirements & Process Leadership may• Work Streams and Work /Process Flows retain the right• Organizational Learning and Change of final approval of decisions• Policy and Regulatory Compliance made.• Internal Communication & Info Sharing Norms & Bounds• External Communication & Info Sharing Norms & Bounds Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 19
    20. 20. Proactive Benefits of the How Section• Clear Administrative procedures• Prioritization of operational activities• Improved team and stakeholder communication• Clear expectations and performance requirements• More functional organization design• Improved decision making• Improved understanding of project requirements• Fewer and better managed interpersonal and team conflicts• Improved integration/collaboration across organizations, levels , contractors• Improved recruiting and retention Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 20
    21. 21. Topics Included This Section is• Timeframe for agreement best completed using a• Timeframe for projects related to this Agreement collaborative• Timeframe for project team membership process that engages the• Timeframe for matrixed team membership energies of the entire Team.• Timeframe for maintenance of the Agreement The team may want to make TIME a metric. Project Leadership may retain the right of final approval of decisions made. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 21
    22. 22. Proactive Benefits of the When Section• Increased formal / informal project communication• Timely and decisive decisions making• Improved Project Management• Improve management of changing project realities• Ability to track and measure project milestones and progress• Improved leadership, team and individual performance Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 22
    23. 23. Topics Included This section is best worked• Space Requirements using a• Space Location collaborative• Placement of team members based on work team process because• On-Site Requirements acceptance of• Tele-work Allowances results is• Tools and Equipment Requirements important to team success.• IT Requirements (hardware and software)• Timeframe associated with space and equipment Project requirements Leadership may retain the right of final approval of decisions made. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 23
    24. 24. Proactive Benefits of the Where Section• Appropriate physical arrangement to facilitate team coordination and integration and improved team performance• Adequate hardware and software availability for team members• Sufficient storage space• Decreased team conflicts• Improved integration and collaboration• Improved Project Management• Improved communication Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 24
    25. 25. Degree of Empowerment the team and individual The Projectmembers have to act independently regarding: Team should use a• Direction, Strategy, Plans, and Requirements changes collaborative• Responsibilities related to Role performance process that• Workforce Concerns & Practices (FTE & WYE) engages them in frank• Organization Structure and Infrastructure changes discussions• Work and Business Processes changes about needed• IT and other tools and equipment selection and changes authority to further the• Internal and External Integration and Collaboration mission.• Policy and Regulatory Compliance• Innovation and Change Project Leadership• Leadership & Management Functions retains the right• Cost and Schedule Tracking and changes to final• Reporting and Interaction with Boards approval of decisions made. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 25
    26. 26. Proactive Benefits of the Bounds of Authority Section• Improved decision making• Clearer expectations• Improved management of technical and team changes• Clearer expectations and performance requirements• Improved internal and external collaboration and integration• Improved individual, team and leadership performance• Decreased conflicts within the team and with other organization• Decreased leadership and team stress• Improved team interactions• Clearer administrative procedures Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 26
    27. 27. Formal and Informal Accountability Mechanism The ProjectUsed to Ensure: Team should• Organization Performance of Technical/Chartered use a Responsibilities and Collaboration Agreement decisions collaborative• Team Performance of Technical/Chartered Responsibilities process that and Collaboration Agreement decisions engages the team in open• Individual Performance of Technical/Chartered discussion Responsibilities and Collaboration Agreement decisions about true• Leadership Performance of Technical/Chartered accountability. Responsibilities and Collaboration Agreement decisions• External Communication & Info Sharing Norms & Bounds Project Leadership retains the right of final approval of decision made. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 27
    28. 28. Proactive Benefits of the Accountability Section• Improved individual, team, organization and leadership performance• On-going clarification of operational procedures• Improved internal and external integration and collaboration• On-going clarification of roles and responsibilities• On-going informal performance feedback• Improved decision making• Improved setting and tracking of metrics• On-going clarification of expectations Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 28
    29. 29. Formal and Informal Mechanism Used to The ProjectRespond to Non-Compliance with the: Team should• What Section of the Collaboration Agreement use a collaborative• Who Section of the Collaboration Agreement process that• How Section of the Collaboration Agreement engages the energies of the• When Section of the Collaboration Agreement entire Team.• where Section of the Collaboration Agreement• Bounds of Authority Section of the Collaboration Agreement Project Leadership• Accountability Section of the Collaboration Agreement retains the right• Non-Compliance Section of the Collaboration Agreement of final approval of decision made. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 29
    30. 30. Proactive Benefits of the Non-Compliance Section• Sends a clear message that the Agreement is to be taken seriously• Sets a high standard for technical and interpersonal performance• Gives appropriate weight to the “white space” issues facing the team Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 30
    31. 31. • Will the Agreement work for a team already in place?• Do the Agreement sections have to be worked in a certain order?• Since all projects and teams are different, can the Agreement be customized?• Does the Agreement work equally well for working groups and non-7120 projects?• Does the Agreement work equally well for short term and long term projects?• How much time does it take to develop the Agreement?• Does it take a lot of time to maintain the agreement? Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 31
    32. 32. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 32
    33. 33. Center OD Lead Phone # EmailARC Linda Jensen 650.604.6985 Linda.M.Jensen@nasa.govDFRC Paul Condon 661.276.2656 Paul.D.Condon@nasa.govGRC Adam Ross 216.433.2941 Adam.P.Ross@nasa.govGSFC Kathy Doyle 301.286.8319 Kathryn.L.Doyle@nasa.govHQ Kim Haney-Brown 202.358.0433 Kim.R.Haney-Brown@nasa.govJSC Paul Cruz 281.483.1158 Pablo.Cruz-1@nasa.govKSC Laura Gallaher 321.867.6830 Laura.C.Gallaher@nasa.govLaRC Myisha Tucker 757.864.6084 Myisha.Tucker@nasa.govMSFC Jim Andrews 256.544.6846 James.G.Andrews@nasa.govSSC Anita Douglas 228.688.3698 Anita.W.Douglas@nasa.gov Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 33
    34. 34. Teams go through Forming phases of development on their journey to becoming a high functioning unit. This process can be linear and orderly or can jumpPerforming Storming around. Key Learning: Intentional, Proactive Management of Project Team Development will net the Project the best Norming results. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 34
    35. 35. The goal of the project team is to navigate the phasesof team development in ways that promote teamhealth and project success and minimize potentialtechnical and people problems. To achieve this goalrequires a “proactive approach” to team developmentand managing the white space of the organization. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 35
    36. 36. WHAT section questions• What is the clear mission that gives meaning and direction to this project? Where is the project team headed? How will be know we have reached our milestones and end result?• How will the project team be managed?• What is the team going to look like when it grows up?• What will the team deliver? What is the team responsible for producing? What is the team accountable for achieving?• What broad strategies will the organization use to achieve its vision?• What things are important to the Project Team?• What are the core values for the team? What is important to them for operating as a team? What won’t they compromise?• What are the roles and responsibilities needed to realize the vision and accomplish the mission, goals, and objectives? What responsibilities will fall to each of those roles? Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 36
    37. 37. WHAT section questions• How will the Project Team choose Project Team membership?• What are the credentials and/or experience needed along with the skills required to be a member of this team?• What staffing level (FTE/WYE) or resource allocations are required to accomplish the work of the project team?• What are the priorities that will drive long-term plans and guide daily activities?• What strategic and related business or operational planning the Project Team will do and how they will do it?• Is professional development encouraged? If so, what will be req’d/expected, etc.• What do we want the personality of the team to be?• What policy and regulatory compliance requirements are needed for the team to work and function within its larger organization?• How will new members be communicated regarding the team, how it works, etc. Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 37
    38. 38. WHO section questions• Who will be involved in the formal and informal leadership functions of the organization or team, which roles and people who fill those roles? Who is responsible for making decisions?• Who will the determine the team structure or design?• Who will be assigned to the roles established in the “What” section of this agreement• Who will be responsible for the processes or functions which run across the organization, crossing role and division boundaries so that horizontal integration happens? How will the expert in each of these processes or functions be identified?• Who will be responsible for the development and delivery of the products which run across the organization, crossing role and division boundaries so that horizontal integration happens? How will the expert in each of these products be identified? Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 38
    39. 39. WHO section questions• Which members of the team are primarily responsible for coordination of activities, meetings, and administrative demands?• What other groups do we need to interact with to implement the “WHO” section of this agreement?• Who will have signing authority?• Who will be responsible for communicating the team structure, team progress, the reporting structure, etc.? Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 39
    40. 40. How section questions• How will the organization or team be designed? What will the reporting structure, etc.?• What will be the team’s interaction norms?• How will the team manage conflicts between and among members?• How will the team prioritize its work? When conflicts arise, what norms will guide the reasoning and decision making of team members?• How will team members share information internally and what information can be shared externally and with whom?• How will the organization or team members integrate and collaborate with each other and with groups external to the team?• How will the organization or team members make decisions? What will be the degrees of freedom – empowerment – each role will have to make decisions?• What standards will be established for the organization, the team and for individual members – both technically and interpersonally? Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 40
    41. 41. How section questions• What are the reporting requirements within the team, with project management and with groups external to the project?• How will the work be conducted or flow through the organization? What are the major work or value streams for which the team is accountable and how will these be monitored? What work processes will be put in place to manage the chartered work?• How will the organization, team, and individuals grow and improve professionally, culturally, and personally?• How will the organization ensure that it is monitoring and responding to changes in the internal and external environment? Staying adaptable?• How will the project, team, organization meet and maintain procedural, policy, and regulatory requirements?• How will communication with entities outside the team, project or organization be handled? Other Centers Organizations? Other NASA Centers? Level II, HQ? Primes & Partners? Public/Media? HR Information Requests? Other?• With what other groups, organizations or individuals must we integrate to implement the decisions we have made in this section of the Agreement? Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 41
    42. 42. When section questions• Where will the team reside? Is it commiserate of the organization’s / project team’s structure or design?• Where will the team reside in correlation to its customer?• Where will any formal documentation take place?• Is there space for a war room, team meetings, training, etc?• Is the location accessible to all core and matrixed team members?• Is there space available for confidential and SBU project documentation? Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 42
    43. 43. • Project Success and Failure: What Is Success, What Is Failure, and How Can You Improve Your Odds for Success? Robert Frese, System Analysis and Dr. Vicki Sauter, UM-St. Louis, December 16, 2003.• My Management Guide - MyMG | Project Management Failure or Steps to Fail a Project Copyright - Mary Lewinson qwarh@ukr.net.• Govt failures: Engineering brain drain and bad leadership. Michael Krigsman | June 27, 2008. http://www.zdnet.com/blog/projectfailures/govt-failures-engineering-brain-drain-and-bad- leadership/863• Using Audits to Prevent Catastrophic Project Failure Paul Dorsey, Dulcian, Inc.• Project Management Failure: Why Projects Fail. Project Management Best Practices Release 4.1 Chapter 4. http://www.databasedesign-resource.com/project-management-failure.html• The Project Start-up Conundrum Authors: Lynda Bourne and Patrick Weaver www.mosaicprojects.com.au/Resources_Papers_003.ht• Failed IT Projects (The Human Factor). Sheila Wilson. University of Maryland Bowie State University. 16 May 1998• Project Failure—The Numbers, Why, and What It Means. Featured Authors - Jim Brown & Thompson - June 11, 2005. Originally published - September 20, 2004.• Office of Government Commerce, Trevelyan House, 26-30 Great Peter Street, London SWIP 2BY. http://www.ogc.gov.uk/documents/cp0015.pdf• IT Cortex Research. Project Failure Statistics http://it-cortex.com/Stat_Failure_Cause.htm Office of Human Capital, Organization and Leadership Development Office, Marshall Space Flight Center, February, 2011 43
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