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  • 1. Navigating Through ITAR Cross Currents Jim Frost,James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), International Project / Logistics Specialist / Export Control Manager, SGT, Inc. February 25th, 2009
  • 2. Who Am I• Since 2000, the Export Control Manager for the JWST Project at NASA Goddard – Graduated from the University of Maryland, 1984 – 25 years of experience in the Aerospace business • Mostly at GSFC/NASA and in Logistics (as opposed to Engineering & Law)• Previous project or management positions: – Logistics Manager, Hubble Servicing Missions No. 1 & 2 – Traffic Manager, NASA GSFC – Export Control Officer, NASA GSFC• Provided significant logistics and export contribution to success of the HST, UARS, EUVE, TRMM, POES, POES MetOp, COBE missions at NASA GSFC 2• Currently the GSFC Center Export Auditor (Since 2004)
  • 3. What is the ITAR?• International Traffic In Arms Regulations – It is the control of the export and import of items determined by the United States to be defense articles and services. – This is managed by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) of the U.S. Department of State 3
  • 4. Why Is the ITAR Important?• Lack of compliance can result in large fines and/or prison time to entities and individuals involved• Lack of compliance can result in difficulty obtaining project licenses through the U.S. Department of State• Compliance issues can result in negative publicity and negative press• ITAR issues can result in schedule risk and/or project delays 4
  • 5. JWST Mockup @ GSFC 2005 5
  • 6. JWST Overview & Points of International ExchangeIntegrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) – GSFC ISIM Radiators- NGST/Ball•Structure – GSFC/ATK•Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI)- JPL & ESA/European Optical Telescope Element (OTE) – NGST/BallConsortium•Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec)- ESA/Astrium•Near-Infrared Camera (NIRCam) – U of Arizona/LMATC•Fine Guidance Sensor / Tunable Filter (FGS)–CSA/COM DEV Backplane Structure – NGST/ATK ISIM Electronics Compartment (IEC)- GSFC Deployment Tower - NGST Sunshield – NGST Membrane – NGST/SRS Spacecraft - NGST MIRI Cryocooler – JPL/NGST Launch Vehicle & Adapter- ESA/Arianespace Instrument C&DH - GSFC Overall Observatory - NGST 6
  • 7. JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) 7
  • 8. Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) European Contribution ESA/ESTEC Customer JWST Project OfficeSSTL Integrated Field Unit (IFU)MSSL Calibration Assembly (CAA) Calibration & Illumination Light Sources (CLS) Auxiliary OGSECSL Cryotesting of Optics (subcontract to SAGEM) TERMA Data Handling & Analysis System (DHAS)SAGEM Fore Optics (FOR) Polishing TNO Calibration of CAA/CLS Collimator Optics (COL) Polishing (subcontract to MSSL) Camera Optics (CAM) Polishing Flat Spherical Mirror Polishing Astrium GmbH Prime ContractorCRAL Science Support OTE Simulator Instrument Performance Simulator (IPS) Zeiss Optronic Grating Wheel Assembly (GWA)BOOSTEC Silicon Carbide (SiC) Parts Filter Wheel Assembly (FWA)Astrium SAS SiC Design Support IABG EMC/Vibration Test Facility Cryogenic Test Facility AAE Grating and Filter Wheel MechanismsCRISA Instrument Control Electronics (ICE) (subcontract to ZEISS) ICE Application Software (ICSW)CASA Optical Assembly Internal Harness (OAIH) APCO Mechanical Ground Support EquimentIberEspacio Optical Assembly Thermal Hardware/Cover (MGSE) Optical Bench Kinematic Mount (OBKM)NASA/GSFC JWST Project Office GALILEO Refocus Mechanism Assembly (RMA) Spacecraft Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) Detector Subsystem 8 Microshutter Subsystem
  • 9. Mid- Infrared (MIRI) European Consortium Participation 9
  • 10. CSA Fine Guidance Sensor Participation Canadian Space Agency Canadian Space Agency University of Alberta University of Alberta (HQ) (HQ) Edmonton, Alberta Edmonton, Alberta MDA MDA Universite de Montreal Universite de Montreal Montreal Quebec Montreal Quebec Com Dev Com Dev University of Ottawa Bomem Bomem NRC of Canada University of Ottawa NRC of Canada INO INO (Herzberg Institute of (Herzberg Institute of CSA David Florida Lab CSADavid Florida Lab Quebec City Quebec Astrophysics) Astrophysics) Ottawa Ontario Ottawa Ontario Quebec City Quebec Victoria British Columbia Victoria British Columbia University of Toronto University of Toronto St Mary’ University Mary’s Toronto Ontario St Mary’s University Toronto Ontario Halifax Nova Scotia Halifax Nova Scotia Com Dev Com Dev Corning Netoptix Cambridge Ontario Corning Netoptix Cambridge Ontario Keene New Hampshire Keene New HampshireTeledyne Imaging SystemsTeledyne Imaging Systems Rochester University Camarillo California Rochester University Camarillo California Rochester New York Rochester New York AURA //STScI AURA STScI Baltimore Maryland Baltimore Maryland 10 University of Arizona University of Arizona Tucson Arizona Tucson Arizona
  • 11. ESA / Arianespace Launch Team Participation • 1. Oerlikon Space Switzerland Fairing • 2. EADS Astrium ST France Dual launch structure • 3. EADS CASA Spain Adapters • SAAB Space Sweden Adapters • 4. EADS CASA Spain 3936 cone • 5. EADS Astrium ST Germany Vehicle equipment bay • 6. EADS Astrium ST Germany Upper stage • 7. Snecma groupe SAFRAN France Engine of cryogenic upper stage • 8. EADS CASA Spain Inter stage structure 11
  • 12. ESA / Arianespace Launch Team Participation 9. MT Aerospace Germany Forward skirt of main cryogenic stage and solid propellant motor cases 10. EADS Astrium ST France Main cryogenic stage 11. EADS Astrium ST France Solid Rocket Boosters 12. Europropulsion France Solid rocket motor 13. Avio Regulus Italy French Guiana Solid rocket insulation Solid propellant 14. SABCA Belgium Forward and rear skirts of boosters 15. Dutch Space Netherlands Main engine frame 16. Snecma groupe SAFRAN France 12 Engine of main cryogenic stage and nozzles of solid rocket motor
  • 13. ESA / Arianespace Launch Team Participation;JWST Launch Team Interfaces / TAA Signatory(s) 1. European Space Agency (ESA) 2. Arianespace (Launch Provider) 3. Astrium S.A. (System Studies/FSW Engineering) 4. Astrium Gmbh (Payload separation shock tests) 5. Astrium Ltd. (Launch services for auxiliary payloads) 6. Centre National d’ Etudes Spatiales (Coordinate activities of Guyana Space Center) 7. Dassault Aviation, SA (Pyrotechnical Equipment) 8. EADS-CASA Espaciao, S.L. (Payload Adapters and Separation Systems) 9. GECI Systems S.A. (Launcher / Satellite Coupled Analysis) 10. Intespace S.A. (Launch services for shock tests) 11. Oerlikon Space AG (Launch services for fairings) 12. Ruag Space AB (Clamp Bands and Adapters) 13
  • 14. Technical Assistance Agreements (TAA)• Defined: An Agreement (e.g. contract) for the performance of a defense service(s) or the disclosure of technical data, as opposed to an agreement granting a right or license to manufacture defense articles…• Defense Service (Technical Assistance): The furnishing of assistance (including training) to foreign persons, whether in the United States or abroad in the design, development, engineering, manufacture, production, assembly, testing, repair, maintenance, modification, operation, demilitarization, destruction, processing or use of defense articles 14
  • 15. JWST TAA TALLY• As of early January 2009, there are over 130 planned, approved, executed (and a few started and discontinued) TAA(s) for JWST• We currently have 8 hardware licenses in support of sub- assembly(s) and parts being acquired by our international partners 15
  • 16. So Why Are There So Many TAA(s) on JWST?• There are approximately 30-35 U.S. company(s) involved on JWST – These company(s) range from the Observatory team, Operations and Science, Support Service Contract Teams• The European Space Agency and Canadian Space Agency do not want to be on each other’s TAA(s) – A “reluctant” signatory from one of the teams could hold up exchange to the other instrument teams• The international instrument teams (consortiums) can be large – This makes putting two ESA instruments on the same TAA impractical 16
  • 17. So Why Are There So Many TAA(s) on JWST (cont’d)?• A JWST contractor who is active among all three international instruments would require a minimum of 3 instrument TAA(s)• Many of the embedded system engineering type support service contractors have subcontractors – Due to liability reasons, these prime contractors typically will not cover their subcontractors on their own TAA(s) – Therefore, each subcontractor has minimum of three TAA(s) 17
  • 18. So Why Are There So Many TAA(s) on JWST (cont’d)?• Due to the length of the JWST project, it is possible to have 3+ different GSFC support service contractors awarded the same contract over the life of JWST. – They would all have their own TAA(s) as well as their subcontractors 18
  • 19. Challenges Presented byFull Project Technical Meetings 19
  • 20. JWST Partner’s Workshops, Design Reviews, Technical Interchange Meetings 20
  • 21. JWST Partner’s Workshops, Design Reviews, Technical Interchange Meetings What are the considerations?• Everybody must register! No exceptions! – Individuals have dual and/or third country citizenship – Country of birth is a consideration• Do the necessary industry participants have TAA(s)?• Make all meetings “international” in nature• What you may not consider, i.e. facility staff nationality?• Expect cultural challenges• War stories 21
  • 22. Next Generation Integrated Network (NGIN),JWST’s Data Management Tool For ITAR Compliance 22
  • 23. Next Generation Integrated Network (NGIN),JWST’s Data Management Tool For ITAR Compliance, (Cont’d) 23
  • 24. Next Generation Integrated Network (NGIN),JWST’s Data Management Tool For ITAR Compliance, (Cont’d) 24
  • 25. Next Generation Integrated Network (NGIN),Sample Cover Sheet With Improved ITAR Banner 25
  • 26. ITAR: Final Thoughts & Observations• Interpreting and applying the ITAR regulations is hard! No two U.S. entities interpret the ITAR the same way• Always “have a good legal story” (legal authority) for all actions involving exchange with an international partner, as well as release into the public domain• Projects do not operate in a vacuum; if there are non-compliance issues with ITAR within an entity, it will reveal itself eventually 26
  • 27. ITAR: Final Thoughts & Observations (Cont’d)• Project personnel deep down understand the need for some measure of restriction of exchange of technical data – These are the individuals that I do not worry about with respect to ITAR compliance, and avoiding any large fines and/or jail• Compliance of the U.S. Export Control laws is not just for times of convenience; it really is mandatory always – To the credit of the JWST project at GSFC, JWST instilled a culture of compliance during Project Formulation 27
  • 28. ITAR: Final Thoughts & Observations (Cont’d)• Telephone participation in technical meetings can be a big challenge with respect to ITAR compliance• Consider a remark on top of standard ITAR statements to explain in laymans terms what the ITAR statement stands for. – Example: For U.S. Persons / U.S. Permanent Residents (“Green Card”) Holders Only• NASA International Partners do not think much of the ITAR 28