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  1. 1. Model Based Systems Engineering NASA PM Challenge 2009 February 25, 2009 Sanford Friedenthal
  2. 2. TopicsMBSE Motivation and ScopeSystem Modeling Using SysMLSystem Model as an Integration FrameworkINCOSE MBSE InitiativeMBSE ObservationsSummary
  3. 3. MBSE Motivation and Scope
  4. 4. SE Practices for Describing SystemsPast Future Specifications ATC Pilot Airplane Interface requirements Request to proceed Authorize Initiate power-up System design Power-up Report Status Analysis & Trade-off Direct taxiway Initiate Taxi Executed cmds Test plans Moving from Document centric to Model centric
  5. 5. Model-based SystemsEngineering (MBSE) Life Cycle SupportFormalizes the practice ofsystems engineering throughthe use of modelsBroad in scope – Integrates with multiple modeling domains across life cycle from SoS to component Vertical IntegrationResults in quality/productivityimprovements & lower risk – Rigor and precision – Communications among system/project stakeholders – Management of complexity
  6. 6. MBSE BenefitsImproved quality – Early identification of requirements issues – Enhanced system design integrity – Improved specification of allocated requirements to HW/SW – Fewer errors during I&T – More rigorous requirements traceabilityIncreased productivity – Improved impact analysis of requirements changes – Reuse of existing models to support design/technology evolution – Auto-generation of documentationReduced risk – Improved cost estimates – Early/on-going requirements validation & design verification
  7. 7. System Modeling Using SysML
  8. 8. System Modeling Requirements Functional/Behavioral Model Performance Model Start Shift Accelerate Brake Control Power Vehicle Input Equations Dynamics Mass System Model Properties Model Structural Model Safety Model Cost Engine Transmission Transaxle Model Structural/Component Model Other Engineering Analysis Models Integrated System Model Must Address Multiple Aspects of a System
  9. 9. What is SysML? A graphical modeling language in response to the UML for Systems Engineering RFP developed by the OMG, INCOSE, and AP233 – a UML Profile that represents a subset of UML 2 with extensions Supports the specification, analysis, design, verification, and validation of systems that include hardware, software, data, personnel, procedures, and facilities Supports model and data interchange via XML Metadata Interchange (XMI®) and the evolving AP233 standard (in-process) SysML is Critical Enabler for MBSE
  10. 10. 4 Pillars of SysML – ABS Example 1. Structure sd ABS_ActivationSequence [Sequence Diagram] 2. Behavior stm TireTraction [State Diagram] m1:Brake interaction d1:Traction Detector Modulator LossOfTraction state machine detTrkLos()Gripping Slipping activity/ RegainTraction sendSignal() function modBrkFrc(traction_signal:boolean) modBrkFrc()definition use sendAck() 3. Requirements 4. Parametrics
  11. 11. OMG SysML™ Specification Specification status – Adopted by OMG in May ’06 – Available Specification v1.0 in Sept ’07 – Available Specification v1.1 in Nov ‘08 – Revision task force for v1.2 in process Multiple vendor implementations available Information can be found on the OMG SysML Website at
  12. 12. System Model as anIntegration Framework
  13. 13. System Architecture Modelas Integrating Model Requirements Mgm’t Repository System Architecture Model Verification Models Analysis Models U(s) G(s) ∫ & Req’ts Allocation Design Integration Hardware Models Software Models SET S Q R CLR Q
  14. 14. System Architecture Model Specifications Adaptive Resource Management Theater-Level Theater-Level Policy-Selected Mission Priority Resource Mission Priority Resource Allocation Control Control QoS Spec Manager Manager Algorithms QoS Spec Modifications Modifications Globus System / /QoS Host Load Host Load Network Load Network Load System QoS QoS Managers Specifications Analyzer Analyzer Analyzer Analyzer Specifications Monitor Control Collector / / Collector History Host Host Hardware Fault Hardware Fault Application Application Correlator Correlator Servers Discovery Discovery Detection Detection Control Control Application Quasar OS-Level Application UNIX and WinNT Remos Network Quasar OS-Level UNIX and NT App Remos Network Feedback UNIX and NT App Instrumentation OS Monitors Monitoring Feedback Control Agent Instrumentation Monitoring Adaptation Control Agent Adaptation Applications ApplicationsSystem Architecture Model Can Integrate Across Domains © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. Using the System Architecture Model to Flowdown RequirementsSystem-of-System Level Trade Studies, UC• 1st Level Of Decompositions• How Our System Contributes to Simulation, the Overall Mission Specification Reviews, System 1 ..... System 2 Spec etc. Spec Mission Concept of Operations Behavior,System Level Structure &• Derives Subsystems Requirements• Allocates Requirements to Subsystems Trade Studies, UC Simulation, Specification Reviews, Sub- Sub etc. System 1 ... System 2 A-Spec Spec SpecElement Level Behavior, Structure &• Derives Hardware and Software Components Requirements• Allocates Requirements to Components Trade Studies, UC Simulation, Specification Reviews, SW SW etc. B-Spec Comp 1 ... Comp X Spec SpecComponent Design Behavior, Structure && Implementation Level Requirements UC(from John Watson/LMCSysML Info Days presentation) Comp 1 Software ... Comp X Software © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. System Decomposition Process UC ..... Analyze System Level Requirements Input SatComms Forward Message from Regional Command Weapon System Weapon Receive Order Evaluate Engagement Start Enagement Fire Weapon Monitor Weapon [Status Change] [Correction Needed] Analyze System Services [No] Weapon Intercept? Terminate Engagement Send Guidance Command Correct Course Forward Message to Send Status Change Regional Cmd Forward Message to Regional Cmd Identify the Subsystem SatComms Weapon System Weapon Forward Message from Regional Command Receive Order Evaluate Engagement Analyze Subsystem Collaboration to Start Enagement Fire Weapon Monitor Weapon [Status Change] [Correction Needed] [No] Send Guidance Command Weapon Intercept? Satisfy the System Services Forward Message to Regional Cmd Terminate Engagement Send Status Change Correct Course Forward Message to Regional Cmd UC Incorporate Additional Trade Studies, R&D, Analysis as Needed Simulation, Specification Reviews, etc. ..... Derive and Allocate The Subsystem shall .... Requirements to Subsystem The Subsystem shall .... Derived Requirements Yes Continue? No Complete Subsystem Specs (from John Watson/LMC SysML Info Days presentation) © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. Typical Specification Tree req.pkg.Specification.Tree «Requirements Diagram» «Requirement» «Requirement» Mission Requirements Specification Concept Of Operations «trace» «trace» «Requirement» System Requirements Specification ID = SC.00x «trace» «trace» «Requirement» «Requirement» Module A Requirements Specification Module B Requirements Specification ID = MB.00x «trace» «trace» «trace» «Requirement» «Requirement» Subsystem 1 Requirements Specification Subsystem 2 Requirements Specification ID = SS2.00x © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. Space Vehicle Doman bdd.pkg.Structure.SpaceVehicleDomain «Block Definition Diagram» «block» «block» Space Vehicle Domain Environment 1 1 1 «block,enterprise» Space Vehicle Enterprise 0..* Crew «block» «block» Ground Control 1 1 Ground Support «block» 1 1 «block» Launch Vehicle 1 Launch Stack 1 «block» «block» «block» 1 1 1 1 Space Vehicle Mission Control Ground Handling © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. Space Vehicle ContextExternal Interfacesibd.block.Domain.SpaceVehicleInContext «Internal Block Diagram» «block,enterprise» Space Vehicle Enterprise 1 sc:Space Vehicle 1 grndctrl:Ground Control Attributes mass:int center of mass:int 1 flghtctrl:Mission Control moment of inertia:int fuel:int 1 ghte:Ground Handling Operations Execute Burn():void Calculate Burn Parameters():void Evaluate Position():void 1 grndctrl:Ground Control Sense Position():void InitManeuver() 1 lv:Launch Vehicle © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. Typical System Use Cases uc_pkg_Domain_ControlOrbit SpaceVehicle System Crew Control Orbit «include» «include» Mission Control Translate Vehicle Rotate Vehicle © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. Translate Vehicle Activity Diagramact_uc_SpaceVehicle_TranslateVehicle cdh:CandDH gnc:GNC prop:Propulsion Crew Cmd targetPos:Quaternion Receive Calculate Command Burn for Burn Parameters currentPos:Quaternion [targetPos==CurrentPos]FlgthCtrl Cmd initAbort:Command «continuous» propCmds:Command pin_5:Quaternion Execute Evaluate Burn Position propCmds:Command thrust:Newtons currentPos:Quaternion Thrust «continuous» currentPos:Quaternion SenseSensor input Current sd:Data Position © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. Space Vehicle Hierarchybdd.pkg.Structure.Subsystems «Block Definition Diagram» «block» Space Vehicle 1 1 1 1 «block,Subsystem» «block,Subsystem» «block,Subsystem» «block,Subsystem» Propulsion GNC CandDH Electrial Power Supply © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  23. 23. Space Vehicle Internal Block Diagram ibd.block.Spacecraft.Subsystems «Internal Block Diagram» 1 DomainLevel::Structure::Space Vehicle Vehicle 1 eps:Electrial Power Supply elec1:Power elec2:Power elec1:Power elec2:Power 1 ct:CandDH 1 gnc:GNC cmd2:Command cmd:Command sd:Data sd:Data cmd:Command cmd2:Command propCmd:Command 1 prop:Propulsion thrust:Newtons propCmd:Command thrust:Newtons © Copyright Lockheed Martin Corporation All Rights Reserved
  24. 24. Georgia Tech Research ProjectIntegrating System Design Model with Simulation & Analysis Models
  25. 25. System Objective FunctionExcavator SysML Parametrics n nGIT Project f = ∑ k moe + ∑ k moe moe i i ij i j i =1 i , j =1;i , ≠ j
  26. 26. Excavator System BreakdownGIT Project
  27. 27. Simulation in Dymola GIT Project Modelica Lexical Representation (auto-generated from SysML)[Johnson, 2008 - Masters Thesis]
  28. 28. Typical Integrated ToolEnvironment Project Management SoS/Enterprise Modeling Requirements ManagementProduct Data Management UPDM Simulation & Visualization Verification & Validation Engineering Analysis System Modeling SysMLCM/DM Software Modeling Hardware Modeling UML 2.0 VHDL, CAD, ..
  29. 29. INCOSE MBSE Initiative
  30. 30. INCOSE MBSE Initiative Charter Promote, advance, and institutionalize the practice of MBSE to attain the MBSE 2020 Vision through broad industry and academic involvement in: – Research – Standards – Processes, Practices, & Methods – Tools & Technology – Outreach, Training & Education
  31. 31. Integrated Systems Engineering Vision Hydraulic Fluid: SAE 1340 not- Power compliant Rating: 18 Amps Thermal/He at Dissipation: 780° Ergonomic/P edal Feedback: 34 ERGS Hydraulic Pressure: 350 PSI Sensor MTBF: 3000 hrsMinimum Turn Radius: 24 ft.Minimum Turn Radius: 24 ft.Dry Pavement Braking Distance atDry Pavement Braking Distance at60 MPH : 110 ft. 90 ft60 MPH: 110 ft. FIGURE NOT INCLUDED IN VISION
  32. 32. Challenge TeamsTelescope System Modeling – Robert Karban (ESO)Space Systems – Chris Delp *Mechatronics / Model Interoperability Team – Russell Peak (GIT)GEOSS Architecture Modeling – Larry McGovernIntelligent Enterprises – Jack Ring *INCOSE Enterprise Model – Michael Dee (Regina Griego)MBSE Applied to Urban Transportation – Larry Head (UofA)Avionics Systems and Software Integration – Leon Corley
  33. 33. INCOSE Telescope Modeling Challenge TeamRobert Karban – LeadAPE Project APE will be installed at the telescope in the Chile desert.
  34. 34. Model Organization Telescope MBSE Challenge Team Site to the INCOSE 2008 Symposium by Robert Karban
  35. 35. MBSE Observations
  36. 36. MBSE ObservationsTransition from document-centric to model-centricis a cultural changeWell defined MBSE method is essentialMultiple tool vendors providing a range of pricepoint, capability, and standards conformanceMBSE training should include language, method,and toolsEmploy pilots to validate your MBSE approachScope model based on program objectives andconstraintsA lot has been learned, but much more remains
  37. 37. Summary
  38. 38. SummaryMBSE is a key practice to advance complex systemsdevelopmentStandards such as SysML are critical enablers of MBSEMultiple tool vendors implementing the standardSystem architecture model and standards basedapproach facilitate Integration across modeling domainsGrowing interest and application of MBSEINCOSE MBSE helping to advance and promote MBSE
  39. 39. MBSE References(there are many more) INCOSE MBSE Connect Site – Multiple INCOSE Journal/Insight Articles, Symposium Papers OMG SysML Website – SE^2 Telescope MBSE Challenge Team Site – Estefan, Jeff “Survey of Candidate Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Methodologies”, Rev. B, May 23, 2008 Cantor, Murray, Rational Unifi ed Process ® for Systems Engineering, RUP SE Version 2.0, IBM Rational Software white paper, IBM Corporation, May 8, 2003 Hoffmann, Harmony-SE/SysML Deskbook: Model-Based Systems Engineering with Rhapsody, Rev. 1.51, Telelogic/I-Logix white paper, May 24, 2006 Lykins, Friedenthal, Meilich, Adapting UML for an Object-Oriented Systems Engineering Method (OOSEM), Proceedings of the INCOSE International Symposium. Minneapolis, July 15–20, 2000 Friedenthal, Moore, Steiner, ”A Practical Guide to SysML: The Systems Modeling Language” Morgan Kaufmann, 2008 Tim Weilkiens, “Systems Engineering with SysML/UML” Morgan Kaufmann, 2008 Wymore , W. , Model-Based Systems Engineering, CRC Press , 1993
  40. 40. Backup
  41. 41. INCOSE Telescope Modeling Challenge TeamRobert Karban – LeadAPE Project APE will be installed at the telescope in the Chile desert.
  42. 42. Model Organization SE^2 Telescope MBSE Challenge Team Site to the INCOSE 2008 Symposium by Robert Karban
  43. 43. System Context 3 modeling approaches for interfacesPresented to the INCOSE 2008 Symposium by Robert Karban
  44. 44. High Level Structure Example for system structure: “Product tree” of Opto-Mechanical BenchPresented to the INCOSE 2008 Symposium by Robert Karban
  45. 45. Traceability Example for automatic dependency matrix between objective and user requirements:Presented to the INCOSE 2008 Symposium by Robert Karban