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    Diffoot fayful Diffoot fayful Presentation Transcript

    • Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Lessons Learned and Applied, a Government and Contractor PerspectiveBryan Fafaul Roberto DiffootGlory Project Manager Director, Glory APS ProgramNASA Goddard Space Flight Center Raytheon Space & Airborne SystemsGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 1 Used with Permission
    • • Introduction / Agenda Fafaul / Diffoot• Glory Mission Overview Fafaul• APS Overview Diffoot• APS Contract Background / Summary Fafaul / Diffoot• APS Lessons Learned and Applied • NASA’s Perspective Fafaul • Raytheon’s Perspective Diffoot• Summary / Closure Fafaul / Diffoot• Questions and Answers Fafaul / DiffootGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 2
    • Glory Mission Overview Bryan Fafaul NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 3
    • Mission Overview • Mission Objectives • Increase our understanding of aerosols as agents of climate change by flying an Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS), and • Continue measuring the sun’s direct and indirect effects on climate by flying a Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) Instrument • Mission Design • 3 years (5 years of consumables) • A-train orbit (705 km Altitude, 98.2 degrees inclination; Sun-synchronous) • November 2010 launch readiness from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB)Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 4
    • Glory Science Summary APS will help to quantify the role of aerosols as natural and anthropogenic agents of climate change with much better accuracy than existing instruments TIM will continue measuring the 31- year record of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) with improved accuracy and stability to determine its direct and indirect effects on climateGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 5
    • The Road To Glory OverviewGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 6
    • Glory Observatory ConfigurationS-Band Omni & Mast APS Instrument TIM System Star Trackers (x2) Instrument TIM System Module Assembly Cloud Cameras (x2) GPS Dual Antenna GLORY Body Observatory Mounted Front Isometric Solar View GLORY Panel Observatory Rear Isometric ViewGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 7
    • Glory in the A-Train • Glory will be formation flying with the Afternoon Constellation (A-Train): • 705 km orbit altitude / 98.2° inclination (sun-synchronous) • Ascending node Mean Local Time (MLT) crossing of ~1:41 pm • Position relative to Aqua (based on nominal control box location) • ~ 11 minutes behind at MLT crossing • 215 km east offset (on Worldwide Reference System-2 grid) -- along track with CALIPSO • Coincident science observations with CALIPSO / CALIOP and Aqua / MODISGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 8
    • Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) Overview Roberto Diffoot Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS)Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 9
    • Glory Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor OverviewEarth Shield Aperture • The Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) Assembly MLI Blankets not shown Door supports a three year NASA mission Assembly Polarized • Measurements of global aerosols in Reference order to reduce the uncertainty in Assembly (internal) radiative forcing functions • Initiation of continuous global NADIR monitoring of aerosols in the atmosphere Unpolarized • The APS instrument description Reference Assembly • Size: 48 cm x 61 cm x 112 cm (internal) • Weight: 61kgs (134.2 lbs) Mainframe and • Operational Power: 55.0 WattsElectronics Module (internal) • The APS instrument scans the earth over a nominal field-of-view of +50/-60 degrees about Nadir Alignment Cube • The APS instrument generates along- Assembly Dark track, multiple angle radiometric and Solar Reference Reference polarimetric data with a 5.6 km (8 mrad) Assembly Scan Motor Assembly circular IFOV Assembly (internal) • APS collects data simultaneously in nine VNIR/SWIR spectral bands and four polarization states APS will help to quantify the role of aerosols • APS includes four on-board calibration as natural and anthropogenic agents of sources to maintain high polarimetric climate change and radiometric accuracy on-orbit Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 10
    • Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Aperture Door Assembly (ADA)Cryo RadiatorAssy (CA) Unpolarized Reference Assembly (URA) Optics & Detectors Module (ODM) Polarized Reference Assembly (PRA)Electronics Scan MirrorModule (EM) Assembly (SMA) Solar Reference Assembly (SRA) Dark Reference Assembly (DRA) Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 11
    • Optics and Detector Module (ODM) The ODM contains all 36 VNIR and SWIR detectors and 161 of 185 optical elements 218 mm (8.6 in) 356 mm 247 mm (9.8 in) (14.0 in) ODM Level Test Implemented As Early Risk Mitigation StrategyGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 12
    • Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Earth Cover Main Aperture Door Earth Shield EM Connector Interface Solar Reference Assembly Door Scan Mirror AssemblyGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 13
    • Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor Earth Shield Light Baffle Assembly Cryoradiator Solar Reference EM Radiator Assembly Door EM Connector InterfaceGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 14
    • APS Integration and Test Flow Mar 08 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan 09 Feb Mar Test Readiness Pre-Environment Delta Consent to Review (TRR) Review (PER) (PER) Ship Review (CTSR) 5/1 5/10 7/27 8/27 90- EM EM EMEM Integration Rework Complete AI&T and Test 9/9 E2 Cleanroom Vibe Table Weigh Verification 4/8 5/10 Final EMC/ TV ODM/EM Int, EMI Thermal Ano- O&M Integ & Int and APS B/L Tests Vib and Vacuum maly Ship, Test & Pre TV Test Resolu- Test Test Test tion 7/31 Integrate Cal, 8/8 4/7 Complete PM ODMPM Integration Integrated Test Facility (ITF) Top Loader Chamber Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 15
    • APS Contract Background / Summary Bryan Fafaul NASA GSFC Roberto Diffoot Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS)Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 16
    • APS Contract Background (1) • February 2004 – NASA issues letter contract to Raytheon Santa Inconsistent NASA Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS) in Goleta California Staffing Issues Funding / RTN • February 2005 – Preliminary Design Review (PDR) successfully completed • February to April 2005 – NASA redirects Glory Project to study possibly flying APS and the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) on NPOESS in lieu of stand alone Glory mission • July 2005 – NASA authorizes Glory as a full stand alone mission NASA Funding Improved / • November 2005 – Glory Project Confirmed, launch readiness RTN Staffing Issues set at December 2008 • December 2005 – APS contract definitized with instrument Continue delivery set for December 2006 • January 2006 – NASA Project Manager changed • April 2006 – APS Critical Design Review (CDR) successfully completed 2 months late • May 2006 - Raytheon Goleta General Manager ChangedGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 17
    • APS Contract Background (2) • August 2006 – APS Integrated Baseline Review (IBR) held 2 months late and not fully successful Raytheon Goleta Plant Closure / APS Program • September 2006 – Rumors of possible plant closure; Raytheon Moved to Raytheon SAS in El Segundo Goleta workforce exodus begins • September 2006 - Raytheon APS Program Manager changed • October 2006 – Raytheon announces Goleta Plant is closing and work will be transferred to Space and Airborne Systems in El Segundo; Raytheon Goleta loosing core competency as workforce exodus accelerates • November 2006 – NASA decision to move APS to El Segundo as quickly as possible; Raytheon Goleta workforce depleted and being augmented with El Segundo personnel • January 2007 – APS Program move to El Segundo complete • March 2007 – Raytheon APS Program Manager and Civil Space Director changed • April 2007 – APS Engineering Ownership / Delta CDR successfully completedGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 18
    • APS Contract Background (3) Control • July 2007 - Raytheon APS Program Manager Changed Takes Team • July 2007 to April 2008 – Significant program replan for both APS and Glory Mission which included implementations of many descopes; Implementation of early risk mitigation tests • May 2008 – Optics and Detector Module (ODM) assembly and NASA / Raytheon Team Performing as One / APS Integration and Test test (w/flight electronics) completed with excellent performance • August 2008 – Polarimeter Module (PM) and Electronics Module (EM) assemblies completed • September 2008 – APS integration complete • October 2008 – APS baseline performance testing completed with excellent results • February 2009 – APS environmental Testing successfully completed with excellent instrument performance • March 2009 – APS delivered to NASA • April 2009 – APS successfully integrated on the Spacecraft with no issuesGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 19
    • APS Performance Summary • Prior to testing the APS optics we defined expectations for the performance parameters ranging from poor to acceptable, expected and target. Of the 27 parameters evaluated 25 were in the desired target range with 2 in the expected range • The completed APS has excellent radiometric and polarimetric performance which was maintained throughout environmental testing at Raytheon • The APS optical performance was tested after installation on the spacecraft at Orbital and showed identical performance to that of a similar pre-ship test at Raytheon APS Scientific Performance Is Excellent!Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 20
    • APS Integrated w/ SpacecraftGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 21
    • APS Integrated w/ SpacecraftGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 22
    • Glory Observatory Fully IntegratedGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 23
    • APS Development Lessons Learned and Applied Bryan Fafaul NASA GSFC Roberto Diffoot Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS)Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 24
    • NASA Perspective (1) • Send the right message early … • provide strong commitment to the program by definitizing the contract quickly and providing consistent funding, no starts and stops • Demand “a” team… • recognize early the strengths and weaknesses of the “team” • make necessary personnel changes early and keep the team together, stability is key • senior leadership “commitment to succeed” is critical in making good personnel assignments • Stable requirements, strong Systems Engineering, and science understanding yields good designs… • Systems Engineers must challenge requirements to improve system complexity, performance, and system reliability • scrub requirements early and often, don’t wait to get in trouble • understand the science, it’s critical to making good system trades; unlike we are taught, all science requirements are not created equalGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 25
    • NASA Perspective (2) • Establish performance baseline early and keep the engineers doing engineering… • as soon as the contract is definitized, establish the baseline and get the team focused on engineering and execution • rebaseline when necessary, sticking with an obsolete baseline too long hurts everyone • Be prepared for anything and everything… • open communication between Raytheon and NASA was key for NASA to complete move risk assessment (security, loss of key personnel, schedule, contingency plans, etc) and provide concurrence in a timely manner • Management anomalies occur more often and linger longer than you think making root cause very difficult to identify and fix • as engineers, we do a great job troubleshooting, fixing, and regression testing hardware anomalies. The same rigor needs to be employed with program execution or management anomaliesGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 26
    • NASA Perspective (3) • System Engineering, Systems Engineering, Systems Engineering… • understanding the system, requirements, verification is key to remaining flexible when things go wrong • it’s not just checking the box, characterization is key to making trades • Timely design closure and critical expert review is key to execution… • designs that come together late require heroic efforts and may result in mistakes • follow through on post design review clean-up activities, they are key to staying on plan • employ the trust but verify philosophy by auditing drawings, procurement packages, and analyses; you can’t execute if the plan is always changing • Don’t forget the “ilities”, they have the potential to cripple progress… • make sure safety, reliability, and quality analyses are complete early; failure to do so may result in not meeting requirements, delayed procurements, and late design changesGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 27
    • NASA Perspective (4) • Planning is king, but don’t go overboard because time is money… • know your instrument and understand how to integrate it • make sure the paper is ready to go, practice makes perfect; the flight hardware shouldn’t be your first time • Ground Support Equipment is just as or more important than the flight hardware to keep things moving • Get ready, set, ship it and don’t forget it’s gotta fit… • ICDs don’t guarantee anything; identify risk reduction activities early and often • maximize risk reduction every where you can (hardware, software, procedures, test tools, etc)Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 28
    • Raytheon’s Perspective (1)Environmental Tests• Hardware safety is the first priority • Don’t over-test (know the limits of the hardware) • Ensure the test team is ready for each test phase• Preparation is key to success • Customer concurrence with the test plan is a “must have” • Rigorous review and analysis of special test equipment is as important as with the flight hardware• All environmental test engineering work products need an in-depth reviewed … Specially if not validated • Be sure “best practices” for margin management and safety factors are implemented • Un-validated work products are prone to discovery during test• EMI/EMC test driven by local knowledge and tradition • Subject matter experts (customer, contractor and consultants) not fully aligned on test methodology and implementation • Coordinated test planning, implementation and execution is imperativeGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 29
    • Raytheon’s Perspective (2)• Implementation of Raytheon/NASA “Best Practices” – Strong linkage between fabrication and verification activities (over arching systems engineering approach) – Avoid “not invented here” mentality – use the best personnel, equipment and processes no matter where it comes from – Optimized fabrication and assembly activities to achieve high performance margins as a risk mitigation for unknown/unknowns – Take advantage of “lessons learned” from other programs• NASA programs demands both requirements liquidation and extended characterization – Need to have the flexibility to implement characterization testing beyond just requirements liquidation• Early integration test events – Performance verification prior to starting final integration and test sequences – Fit checks, dry-runs of test procedures and peer reviews – accelerated learningGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 30
    • Raytheon’s Perspective (3)• Implementation of automation tools and inventory control processes – Benefit of electronic data bases – remote access, better archiving and protection, electronic links – Better suited for mature designs … Some benefits on development programs – Discipline of process is driven by user – Proper personnel training is a must• Cross integration of engineering products must be performed during the design and development processes – Design and hardware verification is not completed without the model validation – You will always have an engineering model o The question is: Would it be Flight 1? … Plan accordingly!Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 31
    • Raytheon’s Perspective (4)• Implementation of Raytheon/NASA best practices• NASA programs demand both requirements liquidation and extended characterization• Early integration test events• Implementation of automation tools and inventory control processes• Cross integration of engineering products must be performed during the design and development processes Be flexible … Early leaning mitigates risk … Careful deployment of new tools … Cross integration of engineering products and design is a mustGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 32
    • Summary / Conclusion Bryan Fafaul NASA GSFC Roberto Diffoot Raytheon Space Systems (SAS)Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 33
    • Summary / Conclusions • APS significant cost overruns and schedule delays were due to planning and execution, not technical issues • Raytheon and NASA teams never quit, senior leadership on both sides were committed to completing APS • Be prepared for anything, the decision to close the Goleta facility was a significant impact to the program • Loss of key personnel, loss of ownership, loss of corporate knowledge can be over come, but it requires a good team that is committed to success, lot’s of hard work, and then more hard work • Don’t be afraid to work together, leverage resources wherever it makes sense, flexibility is critical • Badgeless teams, government furnished equipment and parts, and streamlined processes • Empower the people. If you have good engineers, use them, don’t just rely of processes • Don’t be committed to only your way of doing things, there are many ways to get the job doneGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 34
    • Summary/Conclusions (2)• Strategically selected risk reduction initiatives can bring major benefits to the program • Early learning at the proper level of assembly • Maximizes reaction time to fix problems and/or provides for timely opportunity to leverage results• Establishing trust within the team is pivotal • Direct, open and honest communication - Say what you are going to do, do what you say • The first sign of gaining control on a red program is to eliminate surprises – Predictability is a wellness indicator• Give the team an opportunity to succeed • Challenging but achievable schedule and cost requirements • Be passionate and relentless about what needs to be done • Instill pride on everything your team does … Even during the dark days … Hardware will make you humble … Never, never give upGlory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 35
    • A well integrated government / contractor team that values communication, commitment, and respect is the key to SUCCESS!Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 36
    • Questions and Answers http://glory.gsfc.nasa.gov/Glory APS Lessons Learned NASA PM Challenge 2010 37