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Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
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Diaz franklin
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Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
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Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
Diaz franklin
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Diaz franklin

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  • 1. Mapping a Path to the Solar System and BeyondFranklin R. Chang Díaz Ad Astra RocketCompany Houston, TX
  • 2. We have learned to live and work efficiently in spaceBut we are still very close to home
  • 3. And we long tomove outward
  • 4. And we long tomove outward
  • 5. And we long tomove outward
  • 6. Saturn Mission
  • 7. Titan closest approach Oct. 2004
  • 8. Titan Huygens Landing Jan. 14, 2005
  • 9. Enceladus March 2006 Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 10. How do we go to these places fast?Chemical rockets will not be suitable for these journeys
  • 11. Thrust and power of a rocket 1 T = m×u P = m×u 2THRUST POWER 2 Example: m = 400 kg/sec u = 5000 m/sec T = 2000000 Newtons P = 5, 000, 000, 000 Watts Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 12. The best chemical rocket Isp = 450 (limited by materials and the temperature of chemical reactions) To reach higher temperatures we move into plasma physics
  • 13. What is Plasma?• Plasma is a super heated gas made up of free electrons and ions. It is sometimes called the 4th state of matter and makes up 99% of the visible universe. Stars and Lightning The sun Plasma nebulae processing Many others Propulsion Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 14. Propulsion technologies ranked by specific impulse (Isp) higher is better Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 15. The Propellant IssueChemical rocket Electric rocket thrust thrust Solar panels fuelfuel oxidizer Electric rockets are electricity more fuel efficient. Use electricity rather than chemical combustion to produce hot exhaust gases. exhaust exhaust Low Low fuel High High fueltemperature efficiency temperature efficiency Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 16. The VASIMR Concept POWER RF generators Superconducting Magnet coils Magnetic field linesThrust Exhaust Plasma Propellant feed Ionizing antenna Heating antenna (helicon) (ICRF) Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 17. Physics of VASIMR Plasma Source Magnetic Nozzle RF waves establish a “helicon” When particles see an expanding discharge, which ionizes neutral gas magnetic field, they are accelerated to produce a dense plasma with an axially at the expense of their electron temperature of a few eV rotational motion.n -i n -i + - n -in -i Ions get extra kick from ICRF heating ambipolar electric field (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) Both ions and electrons Injected electromagnetic waves accelerate the ions by leave at the same rate resonating at magnetic beach with their fundamental cyclotron frequency (and associated harmonics.) Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 18. Important Advantages• No electrodes or other materials in direct contact with the plasma.• Therefore, potential for very high power density, high reliability, long life.• Multiple propellants: Helium, Hydrogen, Deuterium, Nitrogen, Argon, Neon, Xenon, others… Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 19. VX-200 prototype development CryogenicRF subsystem subsystem Thermal Plasma experiments subsystem Superconducting magnet subsystem Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 20. Ad Astra Rocket Company Formally Organized July 15, 2005Wholly owned subsidiary in Costa Rica Established October 2005 Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 21. Present Status• Conducting high power experiments with Argon• Major development of VX-200 prototype• Two new vacuum chambers to support new experimental facilities• New Houston location• Both companies fully operational• Negotiating Investment SPVs (special purpose vehicles) in Costa Rica, USA and Europe Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 22. VX-50 Experiment at JSC Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 23. VX-100 Installation, Nov 2006 Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 24. VX-50 Recent Results• Significant flow velocity with neon, about 4000 second equivalent Isp.• Three different measurement techniques. 7 4 x 10 fluxprobe/interferometer RPA 6• VX-100 will enable similar results with Argon 5 to achieve our specific impulse goal. velocity (m/s) 4 3 2 1 0 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 time (seconds) Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 25. VX-50 promising performance• Using flow velocity and measured flux we can calculate a jet power and efficiency of the acceleration process, 50 to 75%.• About 0.5 N of apparent thrust, with only about 30 kW of power.• This is agrees with predictions and validates predictions for VX-200 performance. Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 26. The Economics Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 27. Lower fuel launch costs• The cost of launching rocket fuel into space is a major driver in the cost of space operations.• Plasma rockets require much less fuel to operate Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 28. Cost effective Moon cargo capability VASIMR delivers the highest fraction of the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) to the Moon vs. a chemical thruster or the Hall thruster, thereby reducing the cost per kg. Cargo ship elements see slide 32• Here, VASIMR can deliver 39% of IMLEO to the Moon’s surface.• Hall thruster: 32%.• Chemical: 17% Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 29. Lower intrinsic fuel costs• VASIMR uses less expensive and more abundant fuels: hydrogen, argon, neon, potentially ammonia.• Competing electric rockets such as the ion engine and the Hall thruster use Xenon, a rare and expensive gas. Propellant Earth abundance Market Price (listed by increasing (by weight) ($/kg) weight) Hydrogen 0.11 of seawater 1,010.0 Deuterium .00015 of seawater 7,700.0 Nitrogen 20 (ppm) 4.0 Neon 5.0x10-3 (ppm) 250.0 Argon 3.2 (ppm) 42.0 Xe 3.0x10-5 (ppm) 2120.0 Ammonia Manufactured 50 Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 30. The PlanAd Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 31. The Plan• Near term goals: – demonstrating VASIMR in space – developing a generic electric power and propulsion test platform for attachment to the International Space Station (ISS). Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 32. The MarketAd Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 33. Electric Power Requirements• For missions near Earth and The Moon, the electricity will come from solar panels. Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 34. Collaboration with ENTECH Inc.• Advanced solar power technology for space applications – ENTECH to build 100kW solar array for the VF-200-1 VASIMR engine – Electric power density is 300 Watt/m2 (technology improvement expected to 400 Watt/m2 Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 35. Electric Power Requirements• For missions to Mars and beyond, the electricity must come from nuclear reactors. Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 36. Space Nuclear Power VASIMR configuration with Vapor Core Reactor SystemVapor Core Reactor withMHD power conversion Concept by Prof. Samim Anghaie, Director, Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute, INSPI; University of Florida, Gainesville. Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 37. Radiation is a big problem• Not from the nuclear reactor…but from space itself• Solar flares (eruptions)• Cosmic rays Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 38. Potential solutions• We go fast! 0.7• Magnetic shielding GCR Dose, mSv/day 0.6 Aluminum• Material shielding 0.5• All of the above 0.4 Water 0.3 0.2 Polyethylene 0.1 Liquid hydrogen 0.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Depth, g/cm 2 Liquid hydrogen shielding. Magnetic shielding. Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 39. 115day Mission ArchitectureHigh thrust Heliocentric Robotic Mars orbitEarth spiral (30days) Trajectory(85days) insertion Departing LEO May 6, 2018 Crew Lander 188 mT IMLEO (60.8 mT Payload)12 MW power plant 31.0 mT Habitat α = 4 kg/kW 13.5 mT Aeroshell Isp profile for 16.3 mT Descent System piloted segment Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 40. High Power dramatically reduces trip time 200MW Earth to Mars Missions α = 0.5; Maximal Isp = 30,000 Payload Mass 22 MTTotal Initial Spiraling around Earth Heliocentric trajectory Final relative Total trip Mass (mT) fuel (mT) time (days) fuel (mT) time (days) velocity (km/s) time (days) 600 180 7 298 34 0 41 350 117 5 111 42 0 47 250 88 4 40 49 0 53 600 152 8 324 31 6.8 39 Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 41. Other Ship Architectures Superconducting toroidal radiation shieldCrew compartment Lander Liquid hydrogen tanks Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 42. System Design• Modularity• Suitable for both cargo and piloted missions• Redundancy Power and Propulsion Module Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 43. Asteroid MissionsAd Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 44. Collaboration International Government• National Center for High • NASATechnology (Costa Rica) • DOE: ORNL, LANL• Australian National University• Alfvén Laboratory (Sweden)• kyushu University (Japan)• University College Dublin (Ireland) Academia • UT-Austin Strong participation of • Rice U Industry students at both graduate • U of Maryland • MEI Technologies and undergraduate levels • U of Houston • Creare Inc. • U Alabama H. • TYR • MIT • ManSat (Isle of Man) • U Florida • Entech Inc. • U Michigan • Nautel Ltd. (Canada) • Everson Tesla • Scientific Magnetics (U.K) Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 45. Costa Rica subsidiary• Established Oct. 28, 2005• Formally incorporated Nov. 15, 2005 to support USA operation• Initial engineering tasks: – Helicon plasma source thermal management – Life testing of VASIMR components – Engineering support of hazardous waste processing using plasma technology• Initial 700 m2 laboratory facility in EARTH La Flor campus Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 46. Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 47. Architectural concept Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 48. Construction Initiated Feb. 16, 2006 12/28/05 Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 49. Facility Inauguration July 15, 2006 Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 50. Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 51. The TeamAd Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A
  • 52. First Plasma Dec 13, 2006 Ad Astra Rocket Company, U. S. A

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