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  • Chart from Ken Poole, MSFC
  • Slide from Ken Poole, MSFC
  • Helps determine where margin goes
  • Transcript

    • 1. National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA Scheduling: The Path Forward NASA PM Challenge 2011 Long Beach California February 9-10, 2011 Heidemarie Borchardt, PMP NASA Independent Program Assessment Office Ken Poole, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Walt Majerowicz, MBA, PMP ASRC Aerospace Corporation Used with permission
    • 2. Purpose of Today’s Presentation The purpose to today’s session is to initiate a dialogue among NASA project planning & scheduling practitioners and stakeholders on the challenges and opportunities in the scheduling discipline at NASA.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2
    • 3. Managing Complex Projects “NASA program and project managers face a variety of challenges associated with risks introduced by fiscal constraints, schedule demands, and changing priorities. To meet these challenges, NASA program and project managers must adhere to the fundamentals of program and project management, fully implement acquisition strategies that share risks and rewards with contractors, and effectively use earned value management systems to help Agency managers identify and mitigate risks.” “Key Issues and Challenges Facing NASA” Statement of The Honorable Paul K. Martin Inspector General, National Aeronautics and Space Administration February 3, 2010National Aeronautics and Space Administration 3
    • 4. Agenda • NASA Planning & Scheduling Community of Practice • Scheduling Resources • Hot Topics in NASA Project Scheduling • Continuous Improvement in NASA Scheduling • Moving ForwardNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 4
    • 5. NASA Planning & Scheduling Community of PracticeNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 5
    • 6. NASA Planning & Scheduling Community of PracticeNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 6
    • 7. NASA Planning & Scheduling Community of Practice • Instructions for joining the P&S CoP are at: – • For P&S CoP technical assistance contact: – Jennifer Poston – – (301) 286-7492National Aeronautics and Space Administration 7
    • 8. Scheduling ResourcesNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 8
    • 9. NASA Schedule Management Handbook Chapters 1. Introduction 2. Schedule Management Overview 3. Schedule Management Tool Considerations 4. Pre-schedule Development 5. Integrated Master Schedule Development 6. Status Updates & Schedule Maintenance 7. Schedule Assessments and Analysis 8. Schedule Control 9. Schedule Reporting 10. Schedule Data Archival & Lessons Learned Download the NASA Schedule Management Handbook at: Aeronautics and Space Administration 9
    • 10. NASA Schedule Test And Assessment Tool (STAT) CS40 Schedule Health Check Overall Project Health Status Indicator Project Name: Project XYZ IMS 1.19a.mpp 2.1 Y 1.35 R Schedule Status Check for Improvements Description Current Previous Change (C-P) Current Start (Note: earliest activity Early Start Date) 4/5/2006 4/5/2006 Current Finish (Note: latest activity Early Finish Date) 7/27/2009 7/5/2009 22 0% Approximate Remaining Work Days 684 668 16 2% Is this schedule externally linked to other schedules? N N Status Date 10/31/2006 8/30/2006 63 Task and Milestone Count (Note: These counts exclude summary tasks) Is the Status Date Current? Description Count % of Total Count % of Total Change (C-P) Total Tasks and Milestones 3057 3021 36 Completed Tasks and Milestones 501 16% 387 13% 114 4% To Go Tasks and Milestones 2556 84% 2634 87% -78 -4% Logic (Note: These counts exclude summary and started/completed tasks) Missing Interdependencies & Number of Constraints Tasks and Milestones Without Predecessors 170 7% Y 290 11% R 120 -4% Tasks and Milestones Without Successors 393 15% R 425 16% R 32 -1% Constraints (Note: other than ASAP including deadlines) 235 9% G 403 15% R 168 -6% Summaries with Logic Ties (see note below) 5 0% G 8 0% G 3 0% Tasks and Milestones Needing Updates Incorrect Status 105 4% Y 235 9% R 130 -5% Actuals after Status Date 40 2% Y 52 2% Y 12 0% Tasks marked as Milestones (Note: having a duration of > 0) 0 0% G 3 0% Y 3 0% Note: The summaries with logic ties number is calculated as a percentage of tasks and milestones. Additional Schedule Information Additional Key Indicators Tasks with No Finish Ties 17 1% 25 1% Recurring Tasks 33 1% 38 1% Tasks and Milestones with Estimated Duration 1 0% 0 0% Schedule traceable to WBS (Y/N) Y Y Realistic Critical Path(s) (Y/N) N N Schedule Baselined Tasks 2783 91% 2569 85% Resource Loaded (Y/N) Partially N Tasks and Milestones with 10 days or less Total Float 724 28% 1533 58% -809 -30% Tasks with Total Float > 25% of remaining duration 793 31% 910 35% -117 -4%National Aeronautics and Space Administration 10
    • 11. NASA Schedule Test And Assessment Tool (STAT)National Aeronautics and Space Administration 11
    • 12. Continuous Improvement in NASA SchedulingNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 12
    • 13. Schedule Training from the NASA Academy of Program, Project and Engineering Leadership (APPEL) • Understanding Project Scheduling (1 day) • Beyond Scheduling Basics: Analysis, Control & Margin Planning (1 day) • Advanced Earned Value Management Topics: Recognizing EVM and Scheduling Gaming, Abuse and Data Manipulation (1 day) • Assessing Project Performance (2 days) • Training schedule • Additional schedule tool and process training is also available at most NASA centers – check with your HR training representative or SaternNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 13
    • 14. Hot Topics in NASA Project SchedulingNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 14
    • 15. Hot Topics in NASA Project Scheduling • Integrated Master Schedule – Are we really integrated? • Critical Path – It’s not just a methodology! • Schedule Margin – Do you have it when you when you need it? • Activity Constraints – They are not logical! • Schedule Risk Analysis – This is risky business! • Resource Loading – Show me the money!National Aeronautics and Space Administration 15
    • 16. Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) • The IMS is “an integrated schedule developed by logically networking all detailed project activities.” NASA Schedule Management Handbook, 2010. • IMS is built from the project Work Breakdown Structure, and captures the scope and known project risks. Time phased plan allowing for capturing Earned Value Management data. • Schedule hierarchy: the Master Schedule supported by intermediate level schedules and by detail-level schedules. If the IMS is correctly coded, master schedule, system-level, and subsystem-level schedules can be generated from one database.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 16
    • 17. Schedule Hierarchy Integrated Master Schedule (IMS) INTEGRATED MASTER SCHEDULE (IMS) Master Schedule Integration Vertical Intermediate Schedule I Detailed Schedules (Work Package Planning) Network Logic Included Horizontal Integration 122 •Code the schedule so that the Master Schedule can easily be extracted from the IMS •IMS Critical Path NASA Schedule Management Handbook NASA/SP-2010-3403, January 2010National Aeronautics and Space Administration 17
    • 18. Critical Path • Critical Path: “the sequence of schedule activities that determines the duration of the project. It is the longest path through the project.” PMBOK Guide 4th Edition • There is a difference between the critical path and critical activities. • To analyze the critical path, the schedule must have one start and one finish activity. All other activities, except potential receivables and deliverables from external sources, must have a predecessor or successor. Additionally, the schedule should have minimal constraints. • Filter for the lowest slack value in the schedule and organize the data by date. This will help determine the critical path. • It is important to monitor the top critical paths as paths can change as the schedule is updated. • Manage the critical path.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 18
    • 19. Critical Path ExampleNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 19
    • 20. Schedule Margin • Project Schedule Margin should be inserted into the IMS at strategic locations so that it satisfies its intended purpose as an overall risk buffer for project completion. To ensure this, it is recommended that the largest margin task be inserted at the end of the IMS logic flow, just prior to hardware delivery or project completion. Other suggested locations might include prior to PDR, CDR, I&T Complete, ORR, etc. • Schedule Margin is not the same as schedule Slack. Total Slack is the available time already included in the project duration based on the existing task interdependencies. Schedule Margin is a separately planned quantity of time over and above the planned project duration inserted into the IMS to reduce the impact of missing overall schedule objectives. • Schedule Margin is owned by the Project Manager and must be visible and controlled. • No known scope is associated with the Schedule Margin task, so no budget can be assigned. Therefore, an adequate amount of Management Reserve dollars must be held by the project to cover the cost of Schedule Margin.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 20
    • 21. Schedule Margin • The preferred technique for including schedule margin in the IMS is to insert additional tasks that are specifically identified as “Schedule Margin.” These tasks should have durations assigned that provide the additional quantity of time deemed necessary to absorb the impacts of Project Schedule Margin should be inserted into the IMS at strategic locations so that it satisfies its intended purpose as overall risk buffer for project completion. To ensure this, it is recommended that the largest margin task be inserted at the end of the IMS logic flow, just prior to hardware delivery or project completion. Other suggested locations might include prior to PDR, CDR, I&T Complete, ORR, etc. (NASA, 2010, p. 45)National Aeronautics and Space Administration 21
    • 22. Activity Constraints • An activity constraint “is a fixed date assigned to a task to control when it starts or finishes”. NASA Schedule Management Handbook, 2010 – “SNET” can be used for receivables • Constraints, other than ASAP, will override schedule logic so they should not be used unless absolutely necessary. • Consider using resource calendars for facilities. • Constraints will impact slack calculations and limit the determination of the critical path.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 22
    • 23. Schedule with FNLT Constraint Logic ignored due to FNLT constraintWith the MS Project setting “Tasks will always honor their constraints” applied. A “FinishNo Later Than” date of 9/16 has been incorporated for Task 5. Note both forward andbackward pass was affected for the task, and the relationship between Task 1 and Task5 was Ignored. This is the definition of a hard constraint. Because of the change inlogic, the new forecasted early finish of the project has been advanced to 9/23, but it isartificial. (Note: a “Must Finish On” would have the same impact).The longest path above has been manipulated and reflects misleading schedule data.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 23
    • 24. Logic vs. Constraints By adding the task, “CDR Preparation” as a successor to all of the subsystem CDRs, the use of a constraint has been avoided and logic reflects work being done on the project.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 24
    • 25. Resource Loading • Assigning resources to a task is called resource loading. Resources are people (workforce), facilities (equipment), and materials (consumables). • Develop a resource pool. Identify all the resources that are required for the project. • Determine how many resources are required for a specific task and then assign them to the schedule tasks. • Activity durations are affected by resource skill levels. • Focus on high-risk items and critical path tasks first. Managing resources is key to completing the project as scheduled. • Program Analyst and Scheduler need to work together to ensure that there is consistency in resource planning and management.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 25
    • 26. Schedule Risk Analysis • Review schedule and assign duration uncertainty values as appropriate. • Monitor schedule risks. • Map risk id to schedule task that is affected by the risk. • Run simulations • Determine if mitigation is required (mitigation tasks, additional resources, use of margin) • Risk manager and scheduler work together to closely monitor risks and schedule impacts.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 26
    • 27. Risk Analysis Process Model Project Network* Risk Sensitivity, Cost Days, Facilities, Parts, People* WBS Probability Risk Sensitivity, Schedule Density Task 100 Function Task 101 5 1 3 Likelihood 4 1 4 Task 102 3 1 Task 103 2 Task 104 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 Task 105 Primary Risks Consequence Planned Launch 9/14/2012 Risk Case Name Mean Difference Mitigate Task 106 All Risks 7/8/2013 297 Risk 2 and 7 I&T Failure - Late ISIM 12/31/2012 189 Schedule Map Risks to Risk 2 Risk 7 I&T Failure Late ISIM 4/3/2013 5/2/2013 96 67 Create Cost & Risk 5 Cryo Cooler 7/2/2013 6 Health Schedule Risk 1 Fail to meet reqts 7/7/2013 1 Accept Risk 3 Insufficient Mass Margins 7/7/2013 1 Schedule Risk Analysis Risk 8 Risk 4 Mirror Damage 7/7/2013 TRL for machining mirrors 7/8/2013 1 0 Check Simulation Risk 6 SS Deployment 7/8/2013 0 Determine Uncertainty Models Values Results • Likelihood of completion date • Driver risks • Findings • Mitigation recommendationsNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 27
    • 28. Continuous Improvement in NASA SchedulingNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 28
    • 29. Continuous Improvement in NASA Scheduling NASA Scheduling Requirements: do we need them? Possibilities ?: • Documented project schedule management plans • Total project scope must be included within the IMS – (all WBS elements) • Documented schedule baseline and formal control process • Resource Integration - (resource loading or other approved integration technique) • Standard schedule formats • Complete identification of task/milestone sequence - (open-ends (danglers) allowed only with approved and documented rationale) • Document rationale for use of constraints, lags, leads, etc.National Aeronautics and Space Administration 29
    • 30. Continuous Improvement in NASA Scheduling GAO Scheduling Best Practices: what do they mean for NASA? • Best Practice 1: Capturing all activities • Best Practice 2: Sequencing all activities • Best Practice 3: Assigning resources to all activities • Best Practice 4: Establishing the duration of all activities • Best Practice 5: Schedule is traceable horizontally and vertically • Best Practice 6: Establishing the critical path • Best Practice 7: Reasonable total float • Best Practice 8: Conducting a schedule risk analysis • Best Practice 9: Updating the schedule • Best Practice 10: Creating a Baseline ScheduleNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 30
    • 31. Continuous Improvement in NASA Scheduling Are standard logic templates a possibility in IMS development for various project efforts that are typical? For Example: • Standard logic templates for Individual system and subsystem developments (ie; structures, Guidance & Control, software, propulsion, etc.) • Each template would contain the basic typical tasks and logic relationships as a starting point, then modify to project specifics • Combine completed templates to form project IMSNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 31
    • 32. Continuous Improvement in NASA Scheduling Would standard Agency scheduling tools and processes help or hinder NASA project management? Considerations: • Multiple scheduling tools and processes are the norm across NASA centers, programs & projects, and the contractor community • How much efficiency and accuracy is lost by conversions from one tool to another when integrating all schedules from responsible program/project partners? • How much additional cost is involved in allowing multiple tools across a program/project? • How much additional training is required due to the use of multiple scheduling tools?National Aeronautics and Space Administration 32
    • 33. Continuous Improvement in NASA Scheduling NASA Schedule Management Working Group: do we need one? Considerations: • Are we adequately communicating and sharing scheduling knowledge and information across the Agency? • Could it be used to enhance consistency in schedule products and practices across the Agency? • Could it serve as the owner of all formal schedule guidance documentation (e.g.; NASA Schedule Management Handbook, schedule requirements, and pocket guide for scheduling)National Aeronautics and Space Administration 33
    • 34. Moving ForwardNational Aeronautics and Space Administration 34
    • 35. Get Involved ! • Fill out the “NASA Scheduling Survey Card” on your chairs and return them to the Session Coordinator • Join the NASA P&S Community of Practice • Any questions?National Aeronautics and Space Administration 35
    • 36. Thank you ! Heidemarie Borchardt, PMP Lead Scheduler NASA Independent Program Assessment Office (757) 864-9753 Ken Poole Senior Project Controls Specialist NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (256) 544-2419 Walt Majerowicz, MBA, PMP Management Consultant ASRC Aerospace Corporation 301-286-5622National Aeronautics and Space Administration 36