PHARMACOGNOSY Presented by ,Mr. SHINDE N.G. (M. Pharm.)
CARMINATIVE DRUGS Definition: These are soothing medicaments act by relieving pain in the stomach and intestine and expel gas from GI tract by peristalsis.Examples- Coriander Fennel Ginger Black paper Cinnamon Nutmeg Clove Asafoetia
AJOWANSYNONAME- Bishop’s weedBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is dried ripe seed of Trychyspermum ammi belongs toUmbelliferae family.(2% volatile oil)GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- native to Egypt,cultivated in Iran ,Iraq, Afghanistan , Pakistan and India.CULTIVATION & COLLECTION- cultivated as rabbi crop in oct./nov. Harvestingdone in Feb../ March. (yield-300-350 KG fruits /hectare)CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- 2-4 % volatile oil- thymol, p-cymene, terpinene, pinene, dipentenes.21% fat, 17% proteins, 25% carbohydrates.USES- Antispasmodic, stimulant, carminative. Also in sore throat and bronchitis. Ajowan oil used as antiseptic, antifungal, insecticide. Also used as deodorant in mouth washes, tooth paste and flavoring agentin disinfectant soaps.
BLACK PAPERBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is dried unriped fruits of Piper nigrum belongs toPiperaceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- native to south india .cultivated in Indonesia, brazil, malaysia, shrilanka.CULTIVATION & COLLECTION- in western ghats-kerala, karnataka, part ofmahrashtra state. Cultivated at 1200m altitude, 250cm rainfall. (Temp-10-40degree C)Cultivated by sowing the seed/ cuttingCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- volatile oil(1-2.5%)- l-phellandrene, caryophyllene.Alkaloids- piperine(5-9%), Piperidine pungent resin ,starch.USES- stimulant, carminative, aromatic, stomachic, condiment.SUBSTITUENTS AND ADULTRANTS-1. Piper attenuatum2. Piper brachystachyum3. Piper longum
ASAFOETIDASYNONAME- gum asafoetida, Devil’s dung, hingBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is oleo-gum resin obtained by making incision from rhizomesand roots of Ferula foetida belongs to Umbellifarae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- native to central asia-persia, Afghanistan, India.COLLECTION- plant is collected after 4-5 year, dried and packed insuitable container.CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- resin 40-65%, gum 20-25%, volatile oil4-20 % umbelliferone, di& tri sulphides , pinene. Oil of asafoetida obtained from oleo-gum-resin by steam distillation.USES- carminative, nervine tonic, flavoring agent, intestinal antiseptic. also used in veterinary medicine.
NUTMEGSYNONAME- Myristica, jaiphalBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is dried kernels of seeds of Myristica fragrans belongsto Myristicaceae family.(5% volatile oil)GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- native to molucca islandcultivated in indonesia, west indies, india- kerala,TNCULTIVATION & COLLECTION- Plant contains male and female flower seperately. Drug is obtained from femaleplant. Warm humid climate,900m altitude, rainfall -200-250cm, sandy loam , clay loamsoil.Cultivate by sowing the seeds. Seedlings are raised in nursery beds, after 16-18months transplanted with distance 8-9m.sex of plant is determined and male trees reduced to 10% of total population.fruits produces throughout year but max at. Dec.-May.Yield 1ton/hectare.
NUTMEGCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- 5-15% volatile oil-myristicin, elemicin,saffrole.30% fat,fatty acids-myristic, palmitic, oleic, lauric acids. Protein and starch.USES- stimulant, carminative, flavoring agent, aromatic. In rheumatism and in soap industry.SUBSTITUENTS AND ADULTRANTS-1. Myristica malbarica2. Myristica argentea3. Myristica beddomei
ANTISEPTIC AND DISINFECTANTS Antiseptics are the agent that sterilize the living surface. while Disinfectants kills bacteria and spores from nonliving surface.Examples- BENZOIN MYRRH NEEM CURCUMA
BENZOINSYNONAME- Sumatra benzoin, gum benzoin, lobanBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is balsamic resin obtained from Styrax benzoin , Styraxtonkinesis belongs to styraceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION-Produced from trees grown in south easternAsia- Sumatra, Indonesia.COLLECTION-benzoin is pathological resin collected after 6 year from cultivated/wild treesby incision near the base of tree.The resinous material allow to solidified,sundried(yield-10kg/tree)
MYRRHSYNONAME- Myrrha, bol, gum myrrhBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is oleo-gum-resin obtained from Commiphora molmolbelongs to Burseraceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION-found in north east africa andsouthern arabia.COLLECTION-Burseraceae plants posses oleo-resinouscanals in their conducting tissue.Plant is small shrub-3m heightBy incision on bark it exudates yellowishcolored resin ,gradually hardens andbecomes reddish brown.This mass is collected in goatsskin and sent to market.
MYRRHCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS-10% thick VOLATILE OIL-Terpenes, cuminic aldehyde, eugenol.25-40% resins – alpha, beta and gamma commiphoric acid3-4% bitter principlesUSES- - stimulant, - used as antiseptic, - protective, - used in mouthwashes.ADULTRATION-Arabian myrrhYamen myrrhIndian bdellium(balsamoendron mukul)
NEEMSYNONAME- LIMBBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It consist of leaves and other aerial parts of Azadiracta indicabelongs to Meliaceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- it is indigenous and widely grown in India.CULTIVATION- The plant is propagated by seeds. it survive at hightemp. little rainfall , nutrient deficient soil. The plant bears fruitafter 5 years.CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS-Azadiractin, salanin, meliantriolLeaves- nimbosterol, quercetinSeeds- azadirtactin, salanin , meliantrol, meliacinBark- nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidin, nimbosterol, margosine.USES- Antiseptic, insecticide, antiviral,treatement of AIDS
CURCUMASYNONAME- turmeric, haldi, Indian saffronBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It consist of dried or fresh rhizomes of Curcuma longa belongs toZinzibrraceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- it is cultivated in pak ., Malaysia, china. india-MH, TN, WB, UP, PJCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS-5% VOLATILE OIL, RESIN, yellow coloring sub. CurcuminoidsCurcumin, turmerone, zingiberine, borneol, caprylic acid.USES-Antiseptic,Expectorant,In condimentColoring agent- ointment, creamsAntimicrobialantiinflammatory