Published on

satara college of pharmacy, satara. maharashtra, INDIA.

Published in: Health & Medicine
1 Comment
No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide


  1. 1. PHARMACOGNOSY Presented by ,Mr. SHINDE N.G. (M. Pharm.)
  2. 2. CARMINATIVE DRUGS Definition: These are soothing medicaments act by relieving pain in the stomach and intestine and expel gas from GI tract by peristalsis.Examples- Coriander Fennel Ginger Black paper Cinnamon Nutmeg Clove Asafoetia
  3. 3. AJOWAN
  4. 4. AJOWANSYNONAME- Bishop’s weedBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is dried ripe seed of Trychyspermum ammi belongs toUmbelliferae family.(2% volatile oil)GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- native to Egypt,cultivated in Iran ,Iraq, Afghanistan , Pakistan and India.CULTIVATION & COLLECTION- cultivated as rabbi crop in oct./nov. Harvestingdone in Feb../ March. (yield-300-350 KG fruits /hectare)CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- 2-4 % volatile oil- thymol, p-cymene, terpinene, pinene, dipentenes.21% fat, 17% proteins, 25% carbohydrates.USES- Antispasmodic, stimulant, carminative. Also in sore throat and bronchitis. Ajowan oil used as antiseptic, antifungal, insecticide. Also used as deodorant in mouth washes, tooth paste and flavoring agentin disinfectant soaps.
  5. 5. CARDAMOM
  6. 6. CARDAMOMSYNONAME- Cardamom seed/fruitBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is dried ripe fruit of Elettaria cardamomum belongs toZingiberaceae family.(4% volatile oil)GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- native to SL, Malaysia , Myanmar.cultivated India(musore,kurg district).CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- 2-8 % volatile- cineole, borneol, terpinene.Fixed oil, starch and proteins.USES- stimulant, carminative, flavoring agentSUBSTITUENTS AND ADULTRANTS-1. Long wild native cardamom2. Korarima cardamom3. Cardamom husk
  8. 8. BLACK PAPERBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is dried unriped fruits of Piper nigrum belongs toPiperaceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- native to south india .cultivated in Indonesia, brazil, malaysia, shrilanka.CULTIVATION & COLLECTION- in western ghats-kerala, karnataka, part ofmahrashtra state. Cultivated at 1200m altitude, 250cm rainfall. (Temp-10-40degree C)Cultivated by sowing the seed/ cuttingCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- volatile oil(1-2.5%)- l-phellandrene, caryophyllene.Alkaloids- piperine(5-9%), Piperidine pungent resin ,starch.USES- stimulant, carminative, aromatic, stomachic, condiment.SUBSTITUENTS AND ADULTRANTS-1. Piper attenuatum2. Piper brachystachyum3. Piper longum
  10. 10. ASAFOETIDASYNONAME- gum asafoetida, Devil’s dung, hingBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is oleo-gum resin obtained by making incision from rhizomesand roots of Ferula foetida belongs to Umbellifarae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- native to central asia-persia, Afghanistan, India.COLLECTION- plant is collected after 4-5 year, dried and packed insuitable container.CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- resin 40-65%, gum 20-25%, volatile oil4-20 % umbelliferone, di& tri sulphides , pinene. Oil of asafoetida obtained from oleo-gum-resin by steam distillation.USES- carminative, nervine tonic, flavoring agent, intestinal antiseptic. also used in veterinary medicine.
  11. 11. NUTMEG
  12. 12. NUTMEGSYNONAME- Myristica, jaiphalBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is dried kernels of seeds of Myristica fragrans belongsto Myristicaceae family.(5% volatile oil)GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- native to molucca islandcultivated in indonesia, west indies, india- kerala,TNCULTIVATION & COLLECTION- Plant contains male and female flower seperately. Drug is obtained from femaleplant. Warm humid climate,900m altitude, rainfall -200-250cm, sandy loam , clay loamsoil.Cultivate by sowing the seeds. Seedlings are raised in nursery beds, after 16-18months transplanted with distance of plant is determined and male trees reduced to 10% of total population.fruits produces throughout year but max at. Dec.-May.Yield 1ton/hectare.
  13. 13. NUTMEGCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS- 5-15% volatile oil-myristicin, elemicin,saffrole.30% fat,fatty acids-myristic, palmitic, oleic, lauric acids. Protein and starch.USES- stimulant, carminative, flavoring agent, aromatic. In rheumatism and in soap industry.SUBSTITUENTS AND ADULTRANTS-1. Myristica malbarica2. Myristica argentea3. Myristica beddomei
  14. 14. ANTISEPTIC AND DISINFECTANTS Antiseptics are the agent that sterilize the living surface. while Disinfectants kills bacteria and spores from nonliving surface.Examples- BENZOIN MYRRH NEEM CURCUMA
  15. 15. BENZOIN
  16. 16. BENZOINSYNONAME- Sumatra benzoin, gum benzoin, lobanBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is balsamic resin obtained from Styrax benzoin , Styraxtonkinesis belongs to styraceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION-Produced from trees grown in south easternAsia- Sumatra, Indonesia.COLLECTION-benzoin is pathological resin collected after 6 year from cultivated/wild treesby incision near the base of tree.The resinous material allow to solidified,sundried(yield-10kg/tree)
  17. 17. BENZOINCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS-Sumatra benzoin- free balsamic acids(benzoic and cinnamic acids).also triterpenoid acids like suma-resinolic acid & siaresinolic acidSlam benzoin- ester coniferyl benzoate(75%)Styrol , vanillin, phenyl propyl cinnamate.USES-1. irritating expectorant2. carminative3. diuretic4.Antiseptic5.Protective6. Treatment of URT infection (as inhalation).
  18. 18. MYRRH
  19. 19. MYRRHSYNONAME- Myrrha, bol, gum myrrhBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It is oleo-gum-resin obtained from Commiphora molmolbelongs to Burseraceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION-found in north east africa andsouthern arabia.COLLECTION-Burseraceae plants posses oleo-resinouscanals in their conducting tissue.Plant is small shrub-3m heightBy incision on bark it exudates yellowishcolored resin ,gradually hardens andbecomes reddish brown.This mass is collected in goatsskin and sent to market.
  20. 20. MYRRHCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS-10% thick VOLATILE OIL-Terpenes, cuminic aldehyde, eugenol.25-40% resins – alpha, beta and gamma commiphoric acid3-4% bitter principlesUSES- - stimulant, - used as antiseptic, - protective, - used in mouthwashes.ADULTRATION-Arabian myrrhYamen myrrhIndian bdellium(balsamoendron mukul)
  21. 21. NEEMSYNONAME- LIMBBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It consist of leaves and other aerial parts of Azadiracta indicabelongs to Meliaceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- it is indigenous and widely grown in India.CULTIVATION- The plant is propagated by seeds. it survive at hightemp. little rainfall , nutrient deficient soil. The plant bears fruitafter 5 years.CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS-Azadiractin, salanin, meliantriolLeaves- nimbosterol, quercetinSeeds- azadirtactin, salanin , meliantrol, meliacinBark- nimbin, nimbinin, nimbidin, nimbosterol, margosine.USES- Antiseptic, insecticide, antiviral,treatement of AIDS
  22. 22. CURCUMA
  23. 23. CURCUMASYNONAME- turmeric, haldi, Indian saffronBIOLOGICAL SOURCE- It consist of dried or fresh rhizomes of Curcuma longa belongs toZinzibrraceae family.GEOGRAPHICL DISTRIBUTION- it is cultivated in pak ., Malaysia, china. india-MH, TN, WB, UP, PJCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS-5% VOLATILE OIL, RESIN, yellow coloring sub. CurcuminoidsCurcumin, turmerone, zingiberine, borneol, caprylic acid.USES-Antiseptic,Expectorant,In condimentColoring agent- ointment, creamsAntimicrobialantiinflammatory
  24. 24. THANK YOU