Antimalarial Drugs

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Antimalarial drugs

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Antimalarial Drugs

  1. 1. ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS Prepared by, Mr. Namdeo Shinde M. Pharm SATARA COLLEG OF PHARMACY, SATARA (Maharashtra) India-415004.
  2. 2. Malaria parasites: Plasmodium vivax Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium malarae Plasmodium ovale Half lifecycle of Plasmodia is completed in body of mosquito and remaining half in human liver and RBCs.
  3. 3. Malaria lifecycle Sporozoites (in mosquito saliva) Primary schizonts Reinjected back into mosquito (Human liver) Merozoites In RBCs produces toxines Gametocytes Secondary schizonts (in RBCs) (Human liver)
  4. 4. Life cycle of Plasmodium
  5. 5. Symptoms of malaria Chill Fever Pain in joints Vomiting If malaria not treated early complicates into anaemia and jaundice.
  6. 6. Antimalarial drugs Drugs which kills P. Vivax and P. falciparum and used for prophylaxis and treatment of malaria are called antimalarial drugs. CLASSIFICATION PRIMARY SCHIZONTICIDES Primaquine SECONDARY SCHIZONTICIDES Chloroquine-Primaquine Blood SCHIZONTICIDES Chloroquine, Quinine GAMETOCITES Primaquine SPORONTICIDES Chlorguanil, Pyremethamine
  7. 7. Mechanism of antimalarials Chloroquine concentrates in RBCs and kills secondary schizontes by increasing basicity of plasmodial cell Artemisinin derivatives release highly reactive peroxide radicals which destroy plasmodial cell. Sporonticides inhibit plasmodial dihydrofolate reductase
  8. 8. QUININE CVS- Hypotension, Cardiac depression GIT- Bitter stomachic CNS- Anaesthetic Weak analgesic and antipyretic Uterus- Causes abortion Endocrine- Releases insulin and lower blood sugars
  9. 9. CHLOROQUINE THERAPEUTIC USES Acute malaria Prophylaxis of malaria Rheumatoid arthritis ADVERSE EFFECTS Epigastric distress, Nausea, vomiting, headache Loss of vision due to retinal damage, Skin rash Loss of hearing CONTRAINDICATIONS Eye dysfunction Heart diseases Cautiously used in liver diseases With antiarrythmic drugs
  10. 10. PREPARATIONS Tab. Primaquine 15mg daily/2weeks Tab. Quinine sulphate 600mg TDS oral for 5 days tab. Sulfadoxime 500mg+ Pyremethamine 25mg oral Inj. Artemether 80 mg BD i.m. 1st day then 80 mg OD oral

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