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Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis
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Journal of Aboriginal Health, Communities in Crisis

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Health Canada collaborated with NAHO to commission 12 research papers on First Nations Communities at-risk and in crisis

Health Canada collaborated with NAHO to commission 12 research papers on First Nations Communities at-risk and in crisis

Published in: Health & Medicine
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  • ALL INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES IN CANADA ARE IN DANGER OF BECOMING EXTINCT. AT THE TIME OF CONTACT WITH EUROPEANS, ABOUT 450 ABORIGINAL LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS WERE BEING USED, CATEGORIZED INTO 11 LANGUAGE GROUPS ACROSS CANADA. IN THE LAST 100 YEARS, AT LEAST 10 OF CANADA’S ABORIGINAL LANGUAGES HAVE BECOME EXTINCT. NOW, ABOUT 60 LANGUAGES ARE STILL SPOKEN AS PART OF THE 11 LANGUAGE GROUPS. ONLY 3 OF THESE ARE PREDICTED TO FLOURISH AND REMAIN PART OF COMMUNITUY LIFE: CREE, INUKTITUT, AND ANISHNAABE.
  • LAND & HEALTH - A WAY OF SEEING THE WORLD, BASED ON THE USE OF THE LANGUAGE. IT ALLOWS PEOPLE TO GAIN A DEEPER SENSE OF IDENTITY AND LIVE A BALANCED LIFE AND THIS CREATES PATHWAYS TO HEALTH AND WHOLENESS. 2) TRADITIONAL MEDICINE - TRADITIONAL HEALING OFTEN MEANS DIFFERENT THINGS TO DIFFERENT COMMUNITIES. IT DEPENDS ON THE WAY TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IS USED AT THE COMMUNITY LEVEL. 3) SPIRITUALITY- SPIRITUALITY CAN OFTEN BE THE ENTRY POINT TO CULTURAL REDISCOVERY. ”LANGUAGES ARE THE WINDOW TO THE SOUL OF THE CULTURE” THE AUTHORS WRITE. 4) TRADITIONAL FOODS- SOME STUDIES SHOW THE CLEAR BENEFITS OF NATURAL AND UNPROCESSED FOODS. ANY ELDERS BELIEVE THAT EATING “TRADITIONAL FOODS” IS A WAY TO BE HEALTHY. BUT THE REALITY OF TODAY’S WORLD MEANS THAT FISH AND WILDLIFE MAY BE POLLUTED, ACCESS TO HUNTING AND HARVESTING LANDS MAY BE LOST, AND BOTH PLANT AND ANIMAL SPECIES MAY BE FADING AWAY. 5) TRADITIONAL ACTIVITIES - ABORIGINAL CULTURES ARE NOT STATIC – THEY CHANGE OVER TIME. COMMUNITIES NEED TO DEFINE FOR THEMSELVES WHAT CULTURE IS AND HOW CAN IT BE USED TO PROMOTE HEALTH AMONG THEIR PEOPLE. 6) LANGUAGE - IT’S A POPULAR BELIEF THAT LANGUAGE IS ESSENTIAL TO THE TRUE INDIGENOUS IDENTITY AND CULTURE. MORE STUDIES ARE NEEDED IN THE AREA OF LANGUAGE AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR.
  • TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE TRADITIONAL MEDICINE CAN BE A PRO-ACTIVE STRATEGY. THE PLACE WHERE HEALING MAY BEST OCCUR IS WITHIN THE CEREMONY - IDEAS AND BELIEFS EMERGE AND ARE SUSTAINED THROUGH PHYSICAL, MENTAL AND SPIRITUAL EXPERIENCES.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Journal of Aboriginal Health “ Communities in Crisis” Volume 5 Paulette C. Tremblay, PhD September 9, 2010
    • 2. First Nation Communities in Crisis <ul><li>Health Canada collaborated with NAHO to commission 12 research papers on First Nations Communities at-risk and in crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Journal of Aboriginal Health : 3 Issues of Vol. 5 Issue 1 – 4 Articles Issue 2 – 4 Articles Issue 3 – 3 Articles </li></ul>
    • 3. 9 Discussion Papers &amp; 3 Literature Reviews <ul><li>Colonialism &amp; State Dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Culture &amp; Language </li></ul><ul><li>Intergenerational Trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Justice &amp; Security </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Self Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Health &amp; Healing </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Social Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic Stress </li></ul>
    • 4. Definition of Crisis <ul><li>Crisis – a community is unable to mobilize its own natural problem-solving and coping skills and needs help to recover. </li></ul><ul><li>A shared history of colonization and its legacy of cultural trauma have put all First Nation communities in Canada at risk of crisis. </li></ul>
    • 5. Communities &amp; Protective Factors <ul><li>Every First Nation community is different. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all are in crisis–some are very successful. </li></ul><ul><li>Each possesses different protective factors that contribute to their balance &amp; stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Protective factors refer to conditions that build resilience, serve as buffers against risk &amp; may be able to prevent risk. </li></ul>
    • 6. Language and Culture as Protective Factors for At-Risk Communities Onowa McIvor and Art Napolean November 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp.6-25 Literature Review : Examined studies on the use of language or culture and the effects on the health of Aboriginal People.
    • 7. The Link Between Language and Culture <ul><li>Language is one of the most tangible symbols of culture and group identity </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of language is tied to a deep sense of loss of a group’s identity and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Language is one of the main ways to transfer a culture from one generation to another </li></ul>
    • 8. Language and Culture as Protective Factors in 6 Linked Themes <ul><li>Connection Between the Land and Health </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituality </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Foods </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul>
    • 9. Community Resilience: Models, Metaphors and Measures Laurence Kirmayer, Megha Sehdev, Rob Whitley, St éphane Dandeneau &amp; Colette Isaac November 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp.62-117 Assessed definitions of resilience,examined links between resilience and social capital, and considered interventions that promote resilience and well-being in Aboriginal communities.
    • 10. Definition of Resilience <ul><li>Individual resilience – a person’s ability to overcome stress and adversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Community resilience – how people overcome stress by drawing from cultural networks that constitute communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience is a dynamic interaction of individual and collective processes that contribute to adaptability, strength, the ability to surmount obstacles, meet challenges and recover from setbacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience exists at the level of families, groups, communities and larger social systems. </li></ul>
    • 11. Sources of Aboriginal Community Resilience <ul><li>Connections to family and community–interdependence &amp; caring </li></ul><ul><li>Oral tradition &amp; storytelling–ways to transmit cultural knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Connection to the land, environment &amp; nature </li></ul><ul><li>Healing traditions–paths for personal transformation &amp; conflict resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Ceremony &amp; spirituality-access collective wisdom, humility &amp; being connected </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural knowledge, identity &amp; language </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural continuity-way individual &amp; group moves from past through present to future with hope &amp; possibility </li></ul><ul><li>Collective &amp; political action-tools to challenge oppressive forces to create own future </li></ul>
    • 12. Ways to Promote Community Resilience <ul><li>Strengthen social capital, networks and support. </li></ul><ul><li>Find ways to revive language, culture and spirituality. </li></ul><ul><li>Support families and parents to ensure healthy child development. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance local control and group effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Build infrastructure at many levels (buildings, human resources). </li></ul><ul><li>Increase economic opportunity and diversification. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase human diversity. </li></ul>
    • 13. Traditional Medicine and Restoration of Wellness Strategies Dawn Martin Hill November 2009, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp.26-42 Literature Review – Examined traditional medicine and Indigenous knowledge as protective factors for Aboriginal populations and communities.
    • 14. Factors that Sustain Communities in Crisis <ul><li>Colonialism is the root cause </li></ul><ul><li>Education is a tool for assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of value and support for women </li></ul><ul><li>The prevalence of youth suicide </li></ul>
    • 15. Recommendations <ul><li>Traditional knowledge and medicine can be protective factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous knowledge and traditional healing are keys to empowerment and prevention. </li></ul>
    • 16. Emerging Themes Across Papers, #1 <ul><li>First Nations community imbalance in all social determinants of health can be traced to colonization as the root cause. </li></ul><ul><li>To deconstruct crisis an Indigenous world-view is essential in knowing how to move forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Take a strengths-based approach: understand resilience and how protective factors work. </li></ul>
    • 17. Emerging Themes Across Papers, #2 <ul><li>Balance, social determinants and an Indigenous world-view. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem of separate departments and programmatic silos – horizontality. </li></ul><ul><li>Community-Centredness – requires a team approach that is flexible and responsive to needs. </li></ul>
    • 18. Conclusions <ul><li>Investments in protective factors may promote resilience and increase the likelihood of community success: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural continuity (language, identity, traditional healing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self-determination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>economic sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spirituality </li></ul></ul>

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