NAHO is committed to influencing and advancing the health and well-being of Aboriginal Peoples by carrying out knowledge-based strategies.
Context of Inuit smoking: I was taught by Inuit early on in my involvement on the tobacco file that stigmatizing populations about their smoking rates is not helpful. Around the world many populations, especially developing ones, have higher rates than we see in mainstream Canada. Such populations often have lower status on many of the social and economic determinants of health including formal educational attainment and income. Many have suffered oppression and traumas in multiple forms. Initiatives must take historical contexts and current realities into account, engage populations and collaborate on an equal footing, be respectful and encouraging and focus on strengths, not deficits. Evaluation and culturally informed research are necessary to really know what will help individuals and populations become tobacco-free.
Acknowledgement: Co-authorDenise Rideout, former Communications Officer at Inuit Tuttarvingat.Many of the photos are from the videos and a photo contest the ITN held for its website.
The main incentive to participate was the free Flip video camera.
Co-Authors, GN-HSS staff:Alana Kronstal, Tobacco Reduction Specialist and Stephanie Chess, Health Promotion Specialist.Smoke Screening involved the screening of short international anti-smoking ads in classrooms. The most popular ad would be aired on CBC North. Individual students could win a prize such as a Chapters gift card through a draw.
Although all contest materials could be accessed on-line or by e-mail, Internet connectivity in Nunavut is intermittent and varies dramatically. The team decided a mailed hard copy package was more reliable.Teachers weren’t asked how many students attended the video screenings.At minimum, this adds between 3000 – 5000 viewings to the YouTube 4660 (380 min x 7 videos = 2660 + some viewed both languages).
84% - There was quite a bit of content focused on the challenges that many people face. This may be why some teachers mentioned that the content was repetitive/boring. Sharing information about the difficulties encountered when trying to quit, may be useful as a prevention message for those who haven’t yet started or have quit and want to stay that way.70% - Six out of seven videos mentioned quitting strategies.
62% - The videos did not focus on finding help, other than references to getting support from peers, buddies and others, and there was one mention of an on-line resource. (Videographers were not given many guidelines other than to be creative and gather people’s stories about tobacco use and quitting.) In hindsight, beyond the two help sources mentioned in the teachers’ guide, we could have provided a handout on where to find help in the community/on-line. 51% agreed or strongly agreed that the videos reinforced students’ decisions not to start smoking (13 of the 19 results represented classes with students between Gr. 7 and 9). 49% disagreed or strongly disagreed (6 of the 18 results represented classes with students between 7 – 9 only). One teacher said that all of the students in her class smoke already. Interpretation: Given available statistics for the North, the reality that most or all of a class smokes is more common as students reach the higher grades. While the videos were multi-purpose, as a prevention tool, they are more relevant for younger grades, where some or, in a very few cases, all still haven’t started.
Question was: What other resources could you use in your classroom in order to deliver Tobacco Reduction education?
“Quitting” English excerpt - Double click to show video
Engaging Youth in Tobacco Use and Reduction Using Video
Engaging Inuit youth in tobacco use reduction using video stories on quitting Authors: Catherine Carry, Kendra Tagoona,Denise Rideout, Alana Kronstal, Stephanie Chess 7th National Conference on Tobacco or Health Nov. 1-4, 2011
Background cont’d• Inuit Tobacco-free Network (ITN) developed in 2009-10 withfunding from Health Canada’s Tobacco Control Program (TCP).• Purpose: to increase sharing of knowledge and experiencesrelated to tobacco use reduction in Inuit communities.• Project guided by the National Inuit Tobacco Task Groupcoordinated through Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK).• Tools: Public website and e-mail listserv.• Engage in project activities, research and other partnerships. Hopedale, Nunatsiavut
Youth Video Project (Part I)• Hired Kendra Tagoona (co-author): Coordinate web research,develop web content incl. videos, do content management forITN website.• Had quizzes and other school relevant content, butwanted to engage youth in product development.• Using our networks incl. the National InuitYouth Council, identified five youth in the four Inuitregions and Kendra for filming Inuit in Ottawa. Kendra Tagoona, web and video project coordinator
Youth Video Project MethodsMailed/e-mailed to the youth:• A brief project overview and a contract to sign.• Consent forms for subjects.• A Flip video camera to use and keep loaded with a shorttutorial on how to get good footage and sound.• A USB stick for storing/returning footage.• One page of flexible guidelines for collectinginterviews on experiences about tobacco useand quitting in their respective communities. Nunavik high school student and videographer, Vicky Chevrier
Youth Video Project Methods cont’d• Video content: real life stories by Inuit who have beenaffected by smoking and/or quit or trying to quit.• Film editor: seven short videos in the Inuitlanguage/ English, an introductory clip anda public service announcement.>Added music, graphics and archivalpublic footage to increase appeal.• Videos: posted on YouTube, andInuit film site (ISUMAtv) with linkson the ITN website. Photo from the “Pangnirtung Youth” video
Inuit Tobacco-free Network (ITN) Youth Video Project (Part II) Smoke Stories: Quit Clips by Inuit Youth Video Screening Contestin Nunavut classrooms – February-March 2011 Iqaluit kids in an igloo
Smoke Stories: Quit Clips by Inuit Youth Video Screening Contest• Goals: Increase youth viewing of the quitting videos;Encourage students to think seriously about the decision tosmoke and to think about quitting, if they had already startedto smoke.• Partner: Government of Nunavut (GN-HSS) - Ainiak Korgak,Manager, External Public Health Relations and staff funded byHealth Canada (TCP).• Contest informed by evaluation of TerritorialSmoke Screening Program run for a number ofyears in YK, NWT and NU schools. Photo from ‘Selma’s Story’ video
Smoke Stories: Quit Clips by Inuit Youth Video Screening Contest cont’d• Developed promotional info and press release, and teacher’spackage: a teacher’s guide incl. a student viewing form, a classresults form, and prize structure.• Launched contest registration for Grade 7-12 classes inNunavut schools during National Non-Smoking Week in January2011.• Prizes were for classroom participation not individual students:31 Flip cameras; ten $500 and one $750Amazon gift certificates through a draw.• GN staff e-mailed and called schools:175 classes registered by the deadline;viewing packages mailed. Photo from ‘Elders’ Perspectives’ video
Video Screening Contest cont’d• For each video, the student viewing form asked if thevideo would be good for airing on CBC North TV or not?• Teachers were to:- screen videos in the Inuit language or English.- have students determine their favourite for TV.- hold a discussion with students.- rate statements on overall classresponses.- respond to statements/questions.- fax or e-mail results form. Photo from “Nain Youth” video
Video Screening Contest cont’dChallenges:• Funding period too short – allowed only one month forviewing/voting.• Results deadline extended one week due to: - Winter weather delayed postal delivery of viewing packages to many communities. - Many teachers attending conferences during voting period.Results:• 38 class viewing results received by the finaldeadline – less than 1/3 of the registration.• Averaged estimates indicate between380 and 760 students participated. Photo from winning video “Quitting”
Video Screening Contest Results cont’d From 37 completed results forms reflecting teacher impressionsTeachers agreed/strongly agreed that:• The videos made students aware of how difficult it is to quit – 84%.• The videos made students aware of the harmful effects of smoking – 76%.• Their students were interested in a discussion after watching the videos – 75%.• The videos made students consider thepossibility of quitting – 73%.• The videos made students aware of quittingstrategies – 70%. Fall in Nain, Labrador
Video Screening Contest Results cont’dTeachers agreed/strongly agreed that:• Their students related better to Northern made videos than tointernational anti-smoking ads – 62%.• The video made students aware of where to find help withquitting – 62%.• The videos reinforced students’ decisions not tostart smoking – 51%.• Watching these videos has made students decideto quit – 38%. Arctic cotton
Video Screening Contest Results cont’d• Do you feel that prize incentives are necessary to encourageparticipation in Tobacco Reduction education? Almost 60% ofteachers said ‘yes.’• Were the prizes appropriate? Almost 70% said ‘yes.’Teacher comments (30/37 gave comments):• More videos, personal perspectives.(The videos were awesome!)• Prizes & incentives of non-smokers &quitters.
Video Screening Contest Results cont’dTeacher comments cont’d• Live speech by someone severely affected by smoking.• Students expressed that graphic videos are more effectivethan personal stories, [the] videos are too long and too slow tokeep attention of youth.• Students … didn’t like any or choose a winning video.• More visits from Community Health Representatives to talkabout it.• Snuff is more of a problem than smoking (5/18 smoke, 9/18use snuff).
Video Screening Contest Results cont’d• More videos and worksheets that student from the Northrelate to – ALL my students smoke.• Videos not suitable as TV commercials.• More Smoking Sucks booklets – are using it now, andstudents say they want to quit.• Gum, patch, cold turkey, gym activities.• Incentives: not necessary but definitely a good use ofgovernment $.
Video Screening Contest Results cont’d Winning Video – “Quitting”• Announced through a press release to Nunavut.• CBC North TV ad space purchased.• Two minute excerpt broadcast in both the Inuit languageand English over two weeks in March 2011.• “Elders’ Perspectives” video almost tied with “Quitting.”
Video Screening Contest LearningsThings that went well:• Offering Inuit language and English versions.• Flip cameras and Amazon gift certificates.• Providing teacher’s guide and simple fax back class results form.• Class prizes spread benefit.• One class result form reduces administration.• Partnering with GN-HSS – they already had relationships withNunavut schools.• Media coverage.
Video Screening Contest Learnings cont’dThings to change:• Similar contest in the North needs six months, not three.• Make 1.5 - 2 minute video stories, not 3 - 5 minute ones.• Spend more time/money on ‘souping up’ the videos.• Include a handout on quitting strategy messages and info onwhere to get quitting help.• Target more Gr. 7-8 classrooms, if messages include prevention.• Engage an Inuk youth role model as a champion.
Videos, contest documents and results report available at:www.InuitTobaccofree.caJoin the ITN at: firstname.lastname@example.orgThank you.For more info:Catherine Carry, Senior Program OfficerInuit Tuttarvingat, National Aboriginal Health Organization220 Laurier Avenue West, Suite 1200Ottawa ON K1P 5Z9Direct Line: 613-760-3515E-mail: email@example.com