Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize

2,519

Published on

Victor Cal, Belize Indigenous …

Victor Cal, Belize Indigenous
Training Institute, Belize, CA
John Arnason, Jonathan Ferrier,
Brendan Walshe-Roussel, uOttawa
Todd Pesek, MD Cleveland State U.

Victor Cal, Belize Indigenous
Training Institute, Belize, CA
John Arnason, Jonathan Ferrier,
Brendan Walshe-Roussel, uOttawa
Todd Pesek, MD Cleveland State U.

NAHO 2009 National Conference

2 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Thanks Naveen
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • That was very informative and well written. Mentioned below is an excerpt of an article on Traditional Knowledge.



    'Misuse of traditional knowledge and measures to prevent the same have been attracting attention since the turmeric patent controversy. After successfully revoking turmeric patent claims that formed part of traditional knowledge, the Indian government has taken numerous initiatives ranging from legislative and policy changes to documentation and creation of a library of information (TKDL). With the press and media joining the effort, the awareness with respect to rights of traditional knowledge holders , actions against traditional knowledge misuse, policy initiatives and so on has been increasing. The TKDL has been playing an important role in revoking and preventing patents on traditional knowledge. Industry and public reaction with respect to patent filings involving traditional knowledge has been aggressive and many times emotional.......read more at http://www.patentpill.com/2010/10/traditional-knowledge-use-or-misuse.html
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,519
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
40
Comments
2
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Efficacy of traditional medicines: Maya traditional medicines and cultural development in Belize By Victor Cal, Belize Indigenous Training Institute, Belize, CA John Arnason, Jonathan Ferrier, Brendan Walshe-Roussel, uOttawa Todd Pesek, MD Cleveland State U.
  • 2. Indigenous Q’eqchi’ Maya in Belize • Inhabit 43 rural villages in S. Belize • Traditional healers provide primary health care needs
  • 3. Q’eqchi’ Maya villages
  • 4. Indigenous Q’eqchi’ (Kekchi) Maya Healers in Belize Central America
  • 5. The Q’eqchi are descendants of Ancient Maya: ex. Sacred Site Caracol Belize
  • 6. Maya Cosmovision • Tree of Life – Yaxche: Ceiba tree – Represents Heaven, Earth, Man, the Underworld – Interconnectedness of all things • Health and Disease – Mental, physical and spiritual balance – Culture bound syndromes • Awuas, Bilis, Pasmo, Susto, Evil winds
  • 7. Maya spirituality: ancients putting copal incense into sacred fire Copal
  • 8. Modern Maya ceremony
  • 9. Placing copal into sacred fire
  • 10. Maya Gods of Medicine – Several gods related to medicine • Itzamna: Founder of the Maya culture, showed people to grow maize and cacao, as well as writing, calendars and medicine. Itzamna Ixchel • Ixchel: Jaguar goddess of midwifery and medicine. Wife of Izamna Tikal Lord with Itzamna and Ixchel
  • 11. First scientists: Ancient Maya Ethnomedicine (Classic and Post-Classic Periods) • Herbal medicine – Priest practitioners – Hundreds of plants used – Medicinal plant gardens Dresden codex
  • 12. Maya healers today hold similar beliefs and ancient medicinal knowledge
  • 13. • Healers of S. Belize know the uses of hundreds of rainforest medicinal plants. • Their tropical forest is considered one of the “biodiversity hotspots” for world conservation.
  • 14. Belize Indigenous Training Institute : mission to create indigenous development and preserve culture Original BITI offices in Punta Gorda Town Kevin Knight - ICC helped start BITI
  • 15. In 1998 BITI formed the Kekchi Maya Healer’s Association Mission: to contribute to health and well being of people and to respect the harmony of nature and mankind
  • 16. Founding elder of Kekchi Maya Healer’s Association Albino Maquin
  • 17. Membership: Maya healers who possess traditional knowledge of plants and the art of traditional healing New Members are: • Indigenous persons • Have trained as traditional healers • Are practicing healers • Must be voted into association
  • 18. Objectives • To form an alliance of traditional healers to learn from each other and work on common problems and activities. • Preserve and protect traditional knowledge • Educate youth • To heal and to do no harm • To obtain government recognition of traditional healing • To establish a botanical garden
  • 19. The Itzamma botanical garden: Itzamma is the place of Itzamna, God of Wisdom Healers started garden to have medicinal plant near to patients 75 acres at Indian Creek Belize Healers replanted medicinal plants from remote forest sites More than 200 species All rainforest plants
  • 20. Plants were collected in pristine sacred places in Maya mountains then transplanted to the Izamma garden
  • 21. Rubiaceae (Coffee family)
  • 22. Remedy for men
  • 23. Remedy for women
  • 24. Collaboration with University of Ottawa and Cleveland State University Improving the garden for school visitors: installing water pump, shelter and outhouses.
  • 25. Two types of plants: 1: Plants for traditional use in healer ceremonies (ie prescription-like use) Ex: Used for mental health
  • 26. Healing ceremony combines spirituality and plant use: Spiritual leader celebrates four cardinal directions representing earth, air water and fire
  • 27. 2. Choosing Plants for Public Use Ex: Ginger (Xan xir) - not a sacred ancient traditional plant, but very safe and effective for nausea - can be given to public for self care
  • 28. Fevergrass (Mes iha) For colds & flu
  • 29. So saul pim For insect bites
  • 30. Phytomedicinal products Tea Repellent cream Bag for spices, incense or dye Tincture
  • 31. Teaching youth about traditional culture at Tumul K’in Maya school
  • 32. Handbook publication Handbook of Kekchi medicinal plants Provides a book to promote the transmission of the traditional knowledge and to teach the use of medicinal plants to younger Kekchi Book is copyrighted and details about the preparations are not provided to protect the intellectual property of the healers and to avoid the self medication
  • 33. Activities: research validating traditional medicines. Cat’s claw traditional use for pain and swelling Collected for lab tests as anti-inflammatory
  • 34. Part 2. Validating traditional medicine • KMHA & BITI • John Arnason, Virginie Treyvaud, Jonathan Ferrier • Brendan Walshe-Roussel
  • 35. 1. The ethnobotany: Ph.D. student Virginie Treyvaud Amiguet and 10 healers prepared the consensus Ethnobotany using Quantititative methods
  • 36. 169 plant species were collected in the Q’eqchi’ pharmacopoeia Usage category INF DIG NER MUS SKI RES POI PRE GEN CUL MEN CIR INJ SEN NUT MET END 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 No. of medicinal plant species
  • 37. Informant Consensus Factor M. Heinrich et al.2000., Phytotherapy Res. 14: 479-488. • Fic = nur - nt nur - 1 • Fic=informant consensus factor • nur = number of use-reports in each Usage Category • nt = number of taxa used
  • 38. Q’eqchi’ ethnobotany: Quantitative analyses Informant consensus factor (Fic) Category of disorders Fic Endocrine System Disorders (END) 0.81 Nutritional Disorders (NUT) 0.77 Genitourinary System Disorders (GEN) 0.76 Fic > 0.6 Poisonings (POI) 0.76 Muscular-Skeletal System Disorders (MUS) 0.72 Digestive System Disorders (DIG) 0.71 High consensus for ten Respiratory System Disorders (RES) 0.70 categories of disorders Nervous System Disorders (NER) 0.69 Infections/Infestations (INF) 0.68 Mental Disorders (MEN) 0.67 Culture-bound syndromes (CUL) 0.58 Skin/Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders (SKI) 0.58 Metabolic System Disorders (MET) 0.57 Pregnancy/Birth/Puerperium Disorders (PRE) 0.57 Circulatory System Disorders (CIR) 0.52 Injuries (INJ) 0.36 Sensory System Disorders (SEN) 0.25
  • 39. A Rainforest ethnobotany PRIMARY FOREST 31% SECONDARY FOREST 28% 6% RIVERSIDE & CREEK 22% 13% ROADSIDE & FIELD LATE SECONDARY FOREST
  • 40. Ethnobotanical Survey Healers recognize and treat a large number of mental health/neurological symptoms with herbs and prayers Bourbonnais-Spear et al. 2005. EB. 59(4):326-36
  • 41. Epilepsy and Susto Epilepsy • Seen as “spirit loss” by the Maya and a serious condition needing intervention with plant medicines, ceremony • 41 plant used! By 10 healers Susto • A culture bound syndrome in which a fright can cause disease symptoms- we hypothesized a relation to generalized anxiety • 14 plant species used
  • 42. The GABA system • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain • Low GABA levels are associated with anxiety and epilepsy • GABA Hypothesis - Increasing GABA and/or GABAergic activity in the brain may help to alleviate these conditions
  • 43. Presynaptic Glutamate Succinic Vigabatrin terminal 3-MPA acid (antiepileptic) GAD GABA (convulsant) -T GABA Tiagabine (antiepileptic) Glial GABA transporter Cl- cell Phenobarbital GABA-T (anxiolytic; antiepileptic) Succinic β acid Diazepam α α γ β (anxiolytic) β GABAA receptor Cl- Cl- Postsynaptic neuron Cl- Adapted rom Suzdak and Jansen, 1995.
  • 44. Quantitative Ethnopharmacology: • Informant Consensus Used to identify plants with high potential for activity Relative frequency (RF) of use for epilepsy: % RFepilepsy = # healers using a species for epilepsy x 100 total # healers interviewed • Pharmacolotical target for epilepsy GABA-T inhibition – Tested ethanolic extracts; rat brain tissue
  • 45. Number of species Pi pe 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ac rac an eae th Ad ac ia ea nt e ac 16 plant families Ru ea bi e ac As ea te e ra ce Se ae Ar la ac gi n e eae Sc llac hi ea za e ea So ce la ae Family V na ce M er b el en ae as to ace Ar m ae is at to ac lo e ch ae M ia (IC50 1 mg/ml) on ce Ph im ae yt ia ol ce ac ae G ca es c ~25% of extracts were ne eae r Plant families used for epilepsy by the Q'eqchi' Healers potent GABA-T inhibitors Ap iac oc eae yn ac Plant families used in epilepsy ea e
  • 46. Traditional knowledge vs. biological activity Piperaceae correlation (8 species) is very high • For all families, a 100 significant moderate 80 positive correlation (34 % inhibition 60 plants) between 40 R2 = 0.6333 %GABA-T inhibition * p = 0.018 20 and relative frequency r = 0.795 0 (RF) of use. 0 20 40 60 r = 0.36, p < 0.05 % RF epilepsy GABA-T inhibition: extracts tested at 1 mg/ml
  • 47. Piperaceae Pepper family • Piper species have also been traditionally used for epilepsy & related neurological disorders in other cultures – Kava, Piper methysticum (South Pacific islands) – Black pepper, Piper nigrum (TCM) • Contain nitrogen compounds: piperamides, e.g. piperine • Piperamides are the antiepileptic agent
  • 48. Epilepsy Summary • Anti-Epileptic plant use by Maya has a pharmacological basis in GABA T inhibition
  • 49. Anxiety: La tentacion de San Agustino -- Diego Riviera
  • 50. 2 1 GABA system 1 &O Valium Adapted from Treiman 2001
  • 51. Correlation analysis of GABAA activity (% displacement) and % relative frequency (RF) of plants used by healers Epilepsy plants Susto plants for (A) epilepsy, r = 0.383, r2= 0.147, p< 0.05 (n= 31) and (B) susto, r = 0.728, r2= 0.530, p< 0.02 (n= 10).
  • 52. Souroubea spp. of the Marcgraviaceae : among the most promising anxiolytics and targeted as a rare family by Poveda &Sanchez
  • 53. Anxiety Summary • Anti-Anxiety plant use by Maya has a pharmacological basis in GABA A receptor binding
  • 54. Plants used in inflammation • Brendan Walshe-Roussel • Collaboration with healers to identify plants used for symptoms of inflammation • Test in lab assays – Anti-inflammatory bioassay • Bacterial LPS stimulation – TNF-alpha ELISA
  • 55. Healer Interviews Ethnobotanical Results Headache Fever Stomach cramps Evil spirit swelling Arthritis and rheumatism Fast breathing/heart Hot/cold swelling Ulcers and heartburn Rash Snake bites Insect bites Boils Common cold Allergies 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Number of healer citations
  • 56. Anti-inflammatory Plants
  • 57. Hot and Cold Ankli, 1999
  • 58. Antidiabetic plants KMHA and Jonathan Ferrier: 15 symptoms used
  • 59. Acknowledgements • Q’eqchi’ Healers Association • Belize Indigenous Training Institute – Victor Cal • Funding Agencies
  • 60. Maya Calendar Long Count Glyphs represent periods of time k'in = day winal = 20 day month tun = 360 day long count year (18 winal) katun = 7200 days (20 tun) baktun = 144000 days (20 katun) The next long counts end in 13.0.0.0.0, or Dec 21, 2012 Representing a new age
  • 61. In Memory Of Kevin

×