Cafe Scientifique: Cultural Competency and  Safety
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Simon Brascoupé Senior Adviser, Aboriginal Relations and Initiatives Unit

Simon Brascoupé Senior Adviser, Aboriginal Relations and Initiatives Unit
National Aboriginal Health Organization

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  • How social determinants matter; education and income are markers of health. NAHO social determinants of health Access – hospitals, clinics, technology, healthcare practitioners being available within the community. Colonization – the legacy of poor health choices, and social dependency.  Cultural continuity – the cultural foundation of traditional knowledge and cultural practices in the community to sustain healthy lifestyles. Globalization Migration – relocation of communities to make way for logging, mining or hydro-electric damming. Poverty – unemployment and poor quality of life. Self-determination – Aboriginal People taking control over their own decisions as individuals and communities. Territory – the loss of traditional territory and occupations on the land, including the capacity to sustain a community through agriculture, fishing and hunting. NAHO 2007 TO CONCLUDE: Social Determinants of Health: economic & social conditions that influence health Health Inequity: difference that is unnecessary, avoidable, unfair and unjust Health Disparity: difference in incidence
  • Historical Trauma: Recognize the impacts of colonization and historical trauma as significant impacts on the health of First Nations people Stereotype: Address the challenge of communication, by better understanding culture and cultural difference.  Respect: First Nations culture and traditional knowledge as important to First Nations health and well-being. Trust: Overcome the challenge of trust, for many, authority figures are immediately mistrusted.
  • CULTURAL DESTRUCTIVENESS is characterized by attitudes, policies, structures, and practices within a system or organization that are destructive to a cultural group. Cultural incapacity is the lack of capacity of systems and organizations to respond effectively to the needs, interests and preferences of culturally and linguistically diverse groups. Characteristic include but are not limited to: institutional or systemic bias; practices that may result in discrimination in hiring and promotion; disproportionate allocation of resources that may benefit one cultural group over another; subtle messages that some cultural groups are neither valued nor welcomed; and lower expectations for some cultural, ethnic, or racial groups. CULTURAL BLINDNESS is an expressed philosophy of viewing and treating all people as the same. Characteristics of such systems and organizations may include: policies that and personnel who encourage assimilation; approaches in the delivery of services and supports that ignore cultural strengths; institutional attitudes that blame consumers - individuals or families - for their circumstances; little value placed on training and resource development that facilitate cultural and linguistic competence; workforce and contract personnel that lack diversity (race, ethnicity. language, gender, age etc.); and few structures and resources dedicated to acquiring cultural knowledge. CULTURAL PRE-COMPETENCE is a level of awareness within systems or organizations of their strengths and areas for growth to respond effectively to culturally and linguistically diverse populations. Characteristics include but are not limited to: the system or organization expressly values the delivery of high quality services and supports to culturally and linguistically diverse populations; commitment to human and civil rights; hiring practices that support a diverse workforce; the capacity to conduct asset and needs assessments within diverse communities; concerted efforts to improve service delivery usually for a specific racial, ethnic or cultural group; tendency for token representation on governing boards; and no clear plan for achieving organizational cultural competence. Source: National Center for Cultural Competence
  • A look beyond cultural sensitivity or cultural competence: Unlike the linked concepts of cultural sensitivity or cultural competence , which may contribute to a service recipient’s experiences, cultural safety is an outcome . [emphasis the author’s] Regardless of how culturally sensitive, attuned or informed we think we have been as a service provider, the concept of cultural safety asks: How safe did the service recipient experience a service encounter in terms of being respected and assisted in having their cultural location, values, and preferences taken into account in the service encounter? (Ball, 2007: 1)
  • Low utilization of available services Denial of suggestions that there is a problem Non-compliance’ with referrals or prescribed interventions Reticence in interactions with practitioners Anger Low self-worth Complaints about lack of ‘cultural appropriateness’ of tools and interventions
  • Cultural Safety Healing Its important to understand what the Aboriginal Healing Foundation projects define as safety and its connection with cultural competency. The centres identified building trust as the first step when working with survivors, workers and centres. Safety for the Aboriginal Healing Foundations projects mean Personal Safety and Cultural Safety. The first step in the healing process is to establish safety and trust with clients. Safety can restore power and control to survivors and foster responsibility for self and a feeling of belonging. This is because of the lack of trust in authority which stems back to colonization and residential schools. A major part of creating safe institutions is building trust, see the following elements of cultural safety identified by Healing Centres: Build trusting build foundation with clients to start intensive treatment Clients rights clearly stated; code of ethics, guiding principles, etc Safe therapeutic process: plan or road map for healing journey Create comfortable place and safe atmosphere Reinforce safety: assistance is available throughout their healing journey
  • Levels of Healing: Individual Family Community Healing is a developmental process aimed at achieving balance within oneself, within human relationships and between human beings and the natural and spiritual worlds.
  • Cultural safety which is an important first step in building trust can be taught. Trust is critical to development because of the mistrust and trauma caused by colonization. Taken from a policy perspective, whole organisations have become culturally safe through strategic planning and training. The literature also provides evidence that cultural competence and safety result in improved health outcomes. A culturally safe delivery system can strengthen the capacity of the communities to resist the stressors that could push them from risk to crisis.
  • Protocols – respect for cultural forms of engagement Personal knowledge – understanding one’s own cultural identity and sharing information about oneself to create a sense of equity and trust. Process – engaging in mutual learning, checking on cultural safety of service recipient Positive purpose – ensuring the process yields the right outcome for the service recipient according to that recipient’s values, preferences and lifestyle. Partnerships – promoting collaborative practice. Ball, 2007
  • Cultural Competence Cultural competence requires that organizations: Set of values and principles, and demonstrate behaviours, attitudes, policies, and structures to work cross-culturally. Capacity to (1) value diversity, (2) conduct self-assessment, (3) manage the dynamics of difference, (4) acquire and institutionalize cultural knowledge, and (5) adapt to diversity and the cultural contexts of communities they serve. Incorporate the above in all aspects of policy-making, administration, practice and service delivery, systematically involve consumers, families and communities. Cultural competence is a developmental process that evolves over an extended period. Both individuals and organizations are at various levels of awareness, knowledge and skills along the cultural competence continuum. Source: The National Center for Cultural Competence (NCCC) ‏

Cafe Scientifique: Cultural Competency and Safety Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Cultural Competency and Safety
    • Simon Brascoupé Senior Adviser, Aboriginal Relations and Initiatives Unit
    • National Aboriginal Health Organization
    • Read online: “ Cultural Safety: Exploring the Applicability of the Concept of Cultural Safety to Aboriginal Health and Community Wellness” http://www.naho.ca/jah/english/jah05_02/V5_I2_Cultural_01.pdf
  • 2. Cultural Safety Overview
    • Social Determinants
    • Colonization
    • Cultural Competency
    • Cultural Safety
    • Healing & Wellness
    • Benefits
  • 3. “ Poorer people live shorter lives and are more often ill than the rich. This disparity has drawn attention to the remarkable sensitivity of health to the social environment.” (WHO 2003)
  • 4. Key Development Indicators
    • Harvard University Project:
      • Sovereignty Matters
      • Institutions Matter
      • Leadership Matters
      • Culture Matters
  • 5. Four Major Challenges
  • 6. Colonization
    • Diseases (such as influenza, small pox, measles, polio, diphtheria, tuberculosis and later, diabetes, heart disease and cancer);
    • The destruction of traditional economies through the expropriation of traditional lands and resources;
    • The undermining of traditional identity, spirituality, language and culture through missionization, residential schools and government day schools;
    • The destruction of indigenous forms of governance, community organization and community cohesion through the imposition of European governmental forms; and
    • The breakdown of healthy patterns of individual, family and community life.
    • Mapping the Healing Journey 2002
  • 7. Underlying Causes
  • 8. Cultural Competency
    • There has been growing interest in the delivery of culturally competent care and training.
    • Cultural competency is the delivery of respectful and responsive services that meet needs of patients as a strategy to reduce disparities, provide quality care and improve health outcomes.
    • Cultural competent training is on a continuum; from cultural awareness, to cross-cultural to cultural competency.
    • Cultural competence organizations have a set of values and principles, and demonstrate behaviours, attitudes, policies, and structures that enable them to work effectively and efficiently cross-culturally.
    • The benefits of culturally competent organizations are improved: workforce retention, patient satisfaction and compliance and communications.
    • A recent study on the growing number of cultural competent health organizations concluded that "cultural competence seems to be evolving from a marginal to a mainstream health care policy issue and as a potential strategy to improve quality and address disparities."
  • 9. Cultural Competency
    • A set of congruent behaviours, attitudes and policies that enables human service organizations to work effectively with various racial, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups
    • University of Calgary, Cultural Diversity Institute, 2000
  • 10. Cultural Competence Continuum National Center for Cultural Competence 1989.
  • 11. Employee Benefits
    • Higher levels of personal job satisfaction
    • Reduced conflicts with colleagues
    • Reduced complaints by service users
    • Improved outcomes for service users
    • Improved compliance with instructions
    • Improved communication with people that reduces stress/anxiety
    • Decrease in repeat visits/phone calls
    • Community Action Forum 2008
  • 12. Client Benefits
    • Individual needs are met
    • Easier to develop trust and share information
    • Less anxiety
    • Better outcomes (learning, health, etc.)
    • High levels of satisfaction with service
    • Increased compliance
    • Community Action Forum 2008
  • 13. Employer Benefits
    • Retention of employees
    • Reduction in re-training costs
    • Increased productivity
    • Reduced complaints, grievances, legislative issues (Human Rights)
    • Increased opportunities for funding/fundraising opportunities
    • Increased opportunities for volunteers
    • Community Action Forum 2008
  • 14. The Continuum
    • Cultural awareness becomes central when we have to interact with people from other cultures.
      • People see, interpret and evaluate things in a different ways.
      • What is considered an appropriate behaviour in one culture is frequently inappropriate in another one.
      • Misunderstandings arise when I use my meanings to make sense of your reality.
      • Source: Stephanie Quappe and Giovanna Cantatore 2005
    • Cross-cultural training is training for cross-cultural communication and experiences.
      • Preparing people to work in a cross-cultural environment, for example, Peace Corps volunteers complete cross-cultural training which include:
      • History and culture
      • Norms and values
      • Communication
    • Source: Peace Corps
  • 15. Cultural competent organizations
    • Have a defined set of values and principles, and demonstrate behaviors, attitudes, policies, and structures that enable them to work effective cross-culturally.
    • Have the capacity to (1) value diversity, (2) conduct self-assessment, (3) manage the dynamics of difference, (4) acquire and institutionalize cultural knowledge, and (5) adapt to diversity and the cultural contexts of communities they serve.
    • Incorporate the above in all aspects of policy-making, administration, practice and service delivery, systematically involve consumers, families and communities.
    • Source: National Center for Cultural Competence
  • 16. Cultural Safety
    • Is a concept first developed in New Zealand to provide quality care within the cultural values and norms of the Maori.
    • The concept is spreading to other fields of human services, like education and healing.
    • Spread to other areas of the globe, particularly with Indigenous Peoples in former European colonies.
  • 17. Continuum
  • 18. Cultural Safe Care & Outcomes
    • To provide quality care within the cultural values and norms of the patient.
    • Culturally unsafe practice as “any actions that diminish, demean or disempower the cultural identity and well being of an individual.”
    • OUTCOMES
    • Improved collaboration and partnership
    • Improved health
  • 19. Culturally Unsafe Care (NAHO 2008)
  • 20. Cultural Safet y
    • Build trusting foundation with clients
    • Clients rights clearly stated; code of ethics, etc
    • Safe therapeutic process: plan for healing journey
    • Create comfortable place and safe atmosphere
    • Reinforce safety: assistance throughout healing journey
    • Aboriginal Healing Foundation
  • 21. Healing Path
  • 22. Aboriginal Healing Movement
    • In the past twenty-five years in Canada, a wide variety of experiences, programs and activities have been part of what may be described as the "Aboriginal healing movement". These have included:
    • Participation in traditional healing and cultural activities;
    • Culturally based wilderness camps and programs;
    • Treatment and healing programs;
    • Counselling and group work; and
    • Community development initiatives.
  • 23. What is healing?
  • 24. Healing Lessons Learned
    • Healing is possible for individuals and communities. Both appear to go through distinct stages of a healing journey.
    • The healing journey is a long-term process, probably involving several decades.
    • Healing cannot be confined to issues such as addictions, abuse or violence.
    • Healing interventions and programs have most impact when they take place within the context of a wider community development plan.
    • Community healing requires personal, cultural, economic, political, and social development initiatives woven together into a coherent, long-term, coordinated strategy.
    • Such a coherent strategy requires integrated program development, funding delivery and on-going evaluation.
    • Healing is directly connected to nation building. At some point, there needs to be a merger of program efforts between community healing activities and movements towards self-government and community development.
  • 25. Cultural Safety Framework
  • 26. Cultural Safety Path
    • Cultural safety is an important first step in building trust
    • Cultural safety, like cultural competency can be taught.
    • Trust is critical to development because of the mistrust and historical trauma caused by colonization.
    • Taken from a policy perspective, whole organisations have become culturally safe through strategic planning and training.
    • The literature provides evidence that cultural competence and safety result in improved health outcomes.
    • A culturally safe delivery system can strengthen the capacity of the communities to be resilient to the stressors that push them from risk to crisis.
  • 27. Cultural Safety: 5 Principles (Ball 2007)
  • 28. Culturally Competent Organizations
    • Set of values, principles & structures to work cross-culturally.
    • Work in the cultural contexts of communities they serve.
    • Work part of policy-making, administration, practice and service delivery
    • Systematically involve clients, families and communities
    • Cultural competence is a long-term developmental process
    • Both individuals and organizations are at various levels of awareness, knowledge and skills along the cultural competence continuum.
    • The National Center for Cultural Competence
  • 29. Benefits
    • Why Culturally Competent Health Care?
    • Improve quality of services and outcomes
    • Respond to Aboriginal needs
    • Meet accreditation requirements
    • Reduce liability and malpractice
    • Support workforce diversity initiatives
    • Improve retention of health human resources
    • Achieve social justice
  • 30. Miigwetch, Nia:wen, Thank You!