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Aboriginal health human resources: Access to health, healing and wellness
 

Aboriginal health human resources: Access to health, healing and wellness

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Emily Lecompte

Emily Lecompte
Health Canada, First Nations Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB)

NAHO 2009 National Conference

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    Aboriginal health human resources: Access to health, healing and wellness Aboriginal health human resources: Access to health, healing and wellness Presentation Transcript

    • Aboriginal health human resources: Access to health, healing and wellness Emily Lecompte Health Canada, First Nations Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB) Presented at the National Aboriginal Health Organization Conference November 24th - 26th, 2009
    • Presentation Overview • Background • Research Objectives • Research Methodology • Results: Census Statistics • Difficulties related to data collection • Limitations • Strengths • Online Information Resources • Contact Information
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR Background • Literature recognizes the disproportionately high rates of ill health among Aboriginal people compared to their non- Aboriginal counterparts (Tookenay, 1996; Durie, 2004). •To better address the needs and concerns of First Nations, Inuit and Métis people, one must understand the issues that have dramatically affected their culture, values, traditions, lifestyles and families.
    • Growth of the Canadian Aboriginal Population BACKGROUND Canadian Aboriginal identity is on the rise (1996 – 2006): Canadian Aboriginal people now account for 3.8% of the national population 1500000 # of individuals 1250000 1000000 Métis Inuit 750000 First Nations 500000 Total 250000 0 1996 2001 2006 (Statistics Canada, 2008b; 2005)
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR Participation of Indian reserves in the Census is improving 90 # of Indian reserves 80 70 60 50 Incompletely 40 enumerated Indian Reserves 30 20 10 0 1996 2001 2006 (Statistics Canada, 2008)
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR Project Rationale: • The Aboriginal Health Human Resource Initiative (AHHRI) seeks to increase the representation of Aboriginal people (First Nations, Inuit, and Métis) in health careers across geographic locations through programs and strategies that respond to the needs of Aboriginal Canadians. • By increasing the number of skillful, knowledgeable, and certified Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal HHR, health service delivery may be provided in a more culturally respectful way.
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1. To examine labour force characteristics and Census data in order to better illustrate and explain trends in health care occupations 2. To provide a more complete portrait of the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal workforce in health occupations with the use of census data collected on three separate occasions from 1996 to 2006. 3. To highlight cumulative tendencies in the field of heath care as a means to better understand and predict future outcomes in the supply, demand, recruitment and retention of health care providers.
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR METHODOLOGY Data source: • Results from the long form questionnaires (20% data sample) of the 1996, 2001, and 2006 national censuses from Statistics Canada were utilized. The long form of the Census questionnaire is given to one in every five households (20%) across Canada. Analytical techniques: • Descriptive statistics are used to illustrate trends in health occupations over the three consecutive census periods (1996, 2001, and 2006).
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR 1996, 2001 & 2006 CENSUS STATISTICS Non-Aboriginal Aboriginal Health Total Health Human Health Human Human Resources Resources (HHR) Resources (AHHR) 757 995 8 840 766 830 1996 Census (98.8%) (1.2%) (100%) 844 675 13 980 858 655 2001 Census (98.4%) (1.6%) (100%) 990 805 21 805 1 012 610 2006 Census (97.85%) (2.15%) (100%) (Statistics Canada, 2003a; 2003b; 2008)
    • http://www.scholastic.ca/bookfairs/contact/images/map_of_canada_english.gif Distribution of the 2006 AHHR across Canada Distribution of AHHR 285 120 105 2 190 475 30 3 065 530 3 230 4 035 305 2 020 5 415 (Statistics Canada, 2008)
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR CENSUS STATISTICS Distribution of Aboriginal Canadians in health careers: On-Reserve Off-Reserve 2800 2400 Métis # of People 2000 Inuit 1600 First Nations 1200 800 400 0 1996 2001 2006 NB: Health Canada fully recognizes that the Inuit people do not reside in on-reserve areas however, Statistics Canada does not make this distinction and include both Inuit and Métis people in on- and off-reserve areas of residence. (Statistics Canada, 2003a; 2003b; 2008)
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR GENDER IN THE WORKPLACE Distribution of Aboriginal Men and Women in health careers: 20000 18000 16000 # of People 14000 12000 Aboriginal Men 10000 Aboriginal Women 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1996 2001 2006 (Statistics Canada, 2003a; 2003b; 2008)
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR GENDER DISTRIBUTION IN HEALTH CAREERS (Total population) 94% ♀ 100% 80% 60% Women 40% Men 20% 0% Specialist GP & Fam. Registered Dentists Physicians Physicians Nurses (Statistics Canada, 2008)
    • Proportion of AHHR growth in Canada between 1996Supply & Distribution of AHHR Geographic – 2001 & 2001 - 2006 Aboriginal Health Human Resources Health Care Occupation ‘96 Census ‘01 Census ‘06 Census 96 – 01 01 – 06 Registered Nurses 2 335 3 250 5 360 ↑39% ↑65% Midwives & Practitioners of Natural Healing 55 185 285 ↑236% ↑54% Dieticians & Nutritionists 25 110 140 ↑340% ↑27% General Practitioners & Family Physicians 65 135 225 ↑108% ↑67% Specialist Physicians 25 70 100 ↑180% ↑43% Occupational Therapists 30 50 70 ↑67% ↑40% (Statistics Canada, 2003a; 2003b; 2008)
    • Proportion of AHHR growth in Canada Geographic Supply &–Distribution of AHHR between 1996 2006 Aboriginal Health Human Resources # of position % increases Health Care Occupation ‘96 Census ‘06 Census increases 96 – 06 since 1996 Registered Nurses 2 335 5 360 ↑3 025 ↑130% Midwives & Practitioners of Natural Healing 55 285 ↑230 ↑418% Dieticians & Nutritionists 25 140 ↑115 ↑460% General Practitioners & Family Physicians 65 225 ↑160 ↑246% Specialist Physicians 25 100 ↑75 ↑300% Occupational Therapists 30 70 ↑40 ↑133% (Statistics Canada, 2003a; 2008)
    • AHHR Age distribution of health care providersAHHR Geographic Supply & Distribution of HHR Census Age 1996 2001 2006 48 890 (6.45%) 61 577 (7.29%) 76 985 (7.77%) 15 – 24 yrs. 885 (10.01%) 11 855 (8.48%) 2 335 (10.71%) 450 476 (59.43%) 450 718 (53.36%) 481 927 (48.64%) 25 – 44 yrs. 5 450 (61.65%) 8 480 (60.66%) 11 945 (54.78%) 244 908 (32.31%) 317 766 (37.62%) 407 914 (41.17%) 45 – 64 yrs. 2 470 (27.94%) 4 234 (30.29%) 7 305 (33.50%) 13 719 (1.81%) 14 613 (1.73%) 23 977 (2.42%) 65 yrs + 354 (0.40%) 797 (0.57%) 220 (1.01%) x / 757 995 x / 844 675 x / 990 805 Total people x / 8 840 x / 13 980 x / 21 805 (Statistics Canada, 2003a; 2003b; 2008)
    • Difficulties related to data collection • Disagreements about what constitutes indigeneity affect the quality of available data. • Data on individual health outcomes may not reflect the holistic, and eco-social or communal, notions of health more likely to characterize Indigenous perspectives • Some countries have initiated a process aimed at addressing the consequences of conquest and colonial oppression. This is reflected in the greater amount of information available on health. http://www.who.int/social_determinants/resources/indigeno us_health_adelaide_report_07.pdf
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR LIMITATIONS • Undercount of certain Aboriginal settlements and reserves may undermine and misrepresent the circumstances and needs of concerned areas. • Generalization of data is limited to Federal/Provincial/ Territorial level due to concerns of confidentiality • Set of information collected by the Census regarding occupations in health care is limited
    • Geographic Supply & Distribution of AHHR STRENGTHS • Census data attempts to count the entire Canadian population through a cross-sectional lens. • Provides a baseline of data that furthers the understanding of trends in health occupations on a national, provincial, and territorial basis as well as in on- and off-reserve areas. • Baseline data is important for planning purposes, thus to inform program and policy design
    • Aboriginal health human resources in Canada FOR MORE INFORMATION ON AHHRI OR FIRST NATION AND INUIT HEALTH: AHHRI: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ahc-asc/activit/strateg/ahhri-irrhs_e.html FNIHB: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fnih-spni/index_e.html First Nations Health Managers Fact Sheet: http://www.fnhealthmanagers.ca/docs/e/FNHM_Factsheet.pdf First Nations and Inuit Health Program Compendium: http://www.fnhealthmanagers.ca/docs/e/FNIHB%20Program%20Compendi um%202007_e.pdf Definitions, data sources and methods used by Statistics Canada: http://www.statcan.ca/english/concepts/index.htm
    • Aboriginal Health Human Resource Initiative Contact information Emily Lecompte Aboriginal Health Human Resource Initiative (AHHRI) First Nations Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB), Health Canada Emily_Lecompte@hc-sc.gc.ca