Naf conf session bie 07 final


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Naf conf session bie 07 final

  1. 1. Using the Problem Based Approach for Designing and Implementing Projects National Academy Foundation Annual Conference Washington D.C. - July 18-20, 2007 John Larmer Buck Institute for Education
  2. 2. Our agenda, 8:30 – 11:00 <ul><li>An activity to introduce PBL to students </li></ul><ul><li>Definition and features of PBL </li></ul><ul><li>Sample PBL unit (from NAF, AOHT) </li></ul><ul><li>How to design a PBL unit </li></ul><ul><li>Time to begin planning your own unit </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Additional resources, staying in touch </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Buck Institute for Education is… <ul><li>An educational research and development organization; focused on 21 st -century secondary school reform through project based learning </li></ul><ul><li>A nonprofit 501c(3) funded in perpetuity by the Leonard and Beryl Buck Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Novato, California (20 mi. north of San Francisco) </li></ul>
  4. 4. What BIE Does <ul><li>Producing Curriculum Materials for Teachers: </li></ul><ul><li>-- Project Based Learning Handbook </li></ul><ul><li>-- Already-designed c urriculum units for high school: </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Based Economics and Government </li></ul><ul><li>(free downloading on our website, </li></ul><ul><li>Consulting on Curriculum Writing / Development (e.g. NAF) </li></ul><ul><li>Providing Professional Development: </li></ul><ul><li>-- PBL trainers and coaches for workshops and ongoing </li></ul><ul><li>support for schools, districts, or networks </li></ul><ul><li>-- (online PBL tutorial) </li></ul><ul><li>Research and Evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>-- beginning study of PBL in HS reform </li></ul><ul><li>-- assessment of 21 st century skills and use of technology </li></ul>
  5. 5. Problem Solving Strategy What Do We Know? What Do We Need To Know? Problem Statement How Can We As… Do… So That …?
  6. 6. Definition and Features of Problem Based Learning <ul><li>PBL is a system of teaching and learning where, </li></ul><ul><li>without prior preparation, small groups of students </li></ul><ul><li>consider an unfamiliar situation, problem or task that </li></ul><ul><li>has no single / simple resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>By exploring the nature of this unfamiliar situation, the </li></ul><ul><li>students share prior knowledge and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>As they progress, they pose questions which they </li></ul><ul><li>need to explore, and identify resources they </li></ul><ul><li>need to use, in order to progress with the task. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definition and Features of Problem Based Learning (cont.) <ul><li>After a period of individual and group study and other </li></ul><ul><li>supportive educational experiences, students discuss </li></ul><ul><li>what they have learned and how this relates to the </li></ul><ul><li>original situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Students decide upon, present, and compare </li></ul><ul><li>solutions to the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers, in addition to teaching content and skills, </li></ul><ul><li>adopt the roles of facilitators and managers of the </li></ul><ul><li>students' learning. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Project Based Learning vs. “doing projects” Answer giving Problem solving Fun Engaging Thematic-or “make something” Focused on a Driving Question De-contextualized – school world Contextualized – real world Summative assessment only Ongoing assessment Highly structured Open ended Activity-based Teacher directed Supplements the curriculum Inquiry based Student-driven Part of the curriculum “ Doing Projects” PBL
  9. 9. “ Project Based” and “Problem Based” Learning <ul><li>Both include: </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry, discovery, and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>“ Driving question” with more than one possible answer </li></ul><ul><li>Authentic contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Performance-based assessment </li></ul>
  10. 10. “ Project Based” vs. “Problem Based” Learning <ul><li>Project Based : </li></ul><ul><li>May be more of an open-ended “intellectual investigation” as opposed to solving a specific problem </li></ul><ul><li>Often involves creating a tangible artifact / performance </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible structure and process </li></ul><ul><li>A broader category, usually seen in K-12 ed. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Based : </li></ul><ul><li>Driving question is written as “finding a solution” to a particular problem, from the real world or in a tightly-crafted scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Concludes with a written or oral presentation of the solution; may or may not be an “artifact” </li></ul><ul><li>Usually follows a common structure and process </li></ul><ul><li>More often found in post-secondary ed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Learning Theory of PBL <ul><li>Knowledge is acquired and structured in PBL through </li></ul><ul><li>the following cognitive effects (Schmidt, 1993): </li></ul><ul><li>initial analysis of the problem and activation of prior knowledge through small-group discussion </li></ul><ul><li>elaboration on prior knowledge and active processing of new information </li></ul><ul><li>restructuring of knowledge, construction of a semantic network </li></ul><ul><li>social knowledge construction </li></ul><ul><li>learning in context </li></ul><ul><li>stimulation of curiosity related to presentation of a relevant problem </li></ul><ul><li>(from Wikipedia ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. What research shows about PBL <ul><li>Students learn content as well as or better than other instructional methods </li></ul><ul><li>Students retain better what they learn </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn vital skills : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>critical thinking & problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organization & presentation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Common Structure and Process in “Classic” Problem Based Learning <ul><li>Entry Point </li></ul><ul><li>Framing the problem (write problem statement) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Inventory (create Know/Need to Know lists) </li></ul><ul><li>Resource identification </li></ul><ul><li>Research, expert interviews, data-gathering… </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Log </li></ul><ul><li>Teachable Moments and Dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Exit from the Problem (solution presentation and comparison) </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap-up and Debriefing </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sample Problem Based Unit NAF Academy of Hospitality and Tourism, World Geography and Cultures ; Unit on U.S. Geography
  15. 15. Sequence of Sample Problem Based Unit on U.S. Geography <ul><li>Day 1: Students read and discuss Entry Document (memo) </li></ul><ul><li>Class creates know/need to know lists; writes Problem Statement; begins to identify resources needed </li></ul><ul><li>Students form groups, assign roles, begin planning tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Days 2-5: Students work on the problem; conduct research </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher provides lessons and/or helps students find resources on maps, regions of U.S., travel, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher monitors the process; provides assessment rubric </li></ul><ul><li>Days 6-7: Students prepare to present solutions to the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Days 8-9: Students make presentations to “client” </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher assesses presentations and written materials </li></ul><ul><li>Students self-assess and report on group process </li></ul><ul><li>Day 10: Class debriefs both content and process; takes unit test </li></ul>
  16. 16. Design Principles for PBL (Buck Institute for Education) Begin with the end in mind Craft the Driving Question Plan the Assessment Map the project Manage the process
  17. 17. Begin with the End in Mind: First Steps <ul><li>Develop an idea </li></ul><ul><li>Decide on scope </li></ul><ul><li>Select content standards </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate 21 st -Century skills and other broad outcomes </li></ul>
  18. 18. Develop an idea <ul><li>Analyze what people do in the workplace (with your industry partners) </li></ul><ul><li>Find topics in the “real world” of current events and local, national and world issues </li></ul><ul><li>Review content standards </li></ul><ul><li>Check the Web and other sources for already-done projects/units </li></ul><ul><li>Build from student interests and concerns </li></ul><ul><li>“ Map” your community </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on community service </li></ul>
  19. 19. Decide on the scope <ul><li>Duration: </li></ul><ul><li>Breadth: </li></ul><ul><li>Technology: </li></ul><ul><li>Outreach: </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership: </li></ul><ul><li>Audience: </li></ul><ul><li>Student </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy: </li></ul><ul><li>Small Ambitious </li></ul><ul><li>5-10 days months </li></ul><ul><li>1 subject multi-discipline </li></ul><ul><li>1 standard several standards </li></ul><ul><li>limited extensive </li></ul><ul><li>classroom-based community-based </li></ul><ul><li>one teacher multiple teachers, </li></ul><ul><li> community members </li></ul><ul><li>class or school expert panel </li></ul><ul><li>teacher-defined, students choose topics & </li></ul><ul><li>tightly managed products, manage themselves </li></ul>
  20. 20. Select content standards <ul><li>Choose important ones for PBL units – the “power standards” – especially those that require performance-based assessment (i.e., applied skills, in-depth understanding) </li></ul><ul><li>2-3 per subject should be the primary focus of assessment; others can be secondary </li></ul><ul><li>Include reading, writing, and math skills </li></ul>
  21. 21. Incorporate 21 st Century Skills <ul><li>Communication: speaking; presenting; publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Group process: leadership; teamwork; collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Self-management: time and task management; self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving: gathering resources; evaluating possible solutions </li></ul>
  22. 22. Design Principles for PBL (Buck Institute for Education) Begin with the end in mind Craft the Driving Question Plan the Assessment Map the project Manage the process
  23. 23. Examples of driving questions written as “problem statements” <ul><li>How can we, as business planning consultants, design the most effective strategy for attracting investors? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we, as travel agents, plan and present a travel portfolio so that our client will have a satisfying experience? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we, as network designers, create a networking plan that maximizes the productivity of our organization? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Creating an engaging “entry point” to a PBL unit <ul><li>Entry point can be a document, speech, video or film, discussion, guest speaker, field visit, an experience… anything that launches the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Make it motivating – present the problem as a bit of a mystery, a challenge, an urgent or important task </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it real – or at least realistic if you create a scenario using a memo, speech, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a “need to know” – do NOT give too many details… let students ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Sow the seeds – be sure the “need to know” list will contain the content & skills you’ve targeted </li></ul>
  25. 25. Planning Steps for a PBL Unit @ Illinois Math and Science Academy (IMSA) <ul><li>Pre-problem planning: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Establish context </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify complex issues in the subject / </li></ul><ul><li>discipline </li></ul><ul><li>3. Map out conceptual complexities and </li></ul><ul><li>learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>4. Identify the problematic and ill-structured </li></ul>
  26. 26. Planning Steps for a PBL Unit @ IMSA (cont.) <ul><li>Developing an idea for a problem: </li></ul><ul><li>5. Select the problematic center </li></ul><ul><li>6. Develop a focus for the problematic </li></ul><ul><li>center </li></ul><ul><li>7. Select the role and situation of most </li></ul><ul><li>promise </li></ul><ul><li>8. Construct a problem statement </li></ul><ul><li>9. Define role for students </li></ul>
  27. 27. Planning Steps for a PBL Unit @ IMSA (cont.) <ul><li>Preparing materials, finding resources, planning to teach: </li></ul><ul><li>10. Create entry event: write document, speech; </li></ul><ul><li>prepare to show video or film; arrange for a </li></ul><ul><li>guest speaker, outside-of-school visit, or some </li></ul><ul><li>other experience… </li></ul><ul><li>11. Review meet-the-problem materials </li></ul><ul><li>12. Conduct information search, incl. local sites, web </li></ul><ul><li>and text resources, experts and mentors </li></ul><ul><li>13. Re-map the problem </li></ul><ul><li>14. Plan for teaching and learning events </li></ul><ul><li>15. Implement – and reflect and refine </li></ul>
  28. 28. Resources for Problem Based Learning <ul><li>Illinois Math & Science Academy (HS): </li></ul><ul><li>Maricopa Community College: </li></ul><ul><li>University of Delaware: </li></ul><ul><li>Samford University, AL: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Jamie McKenzie, From Now On (journal - MS & HS): </li></ul><ul><li>ASCD books and resources (K-16): </li></ul><ul><li>PBL Directory, University of Brighton: </li></ul>
  29. 29. BIE’s Units for Problem Based Economics <ul><li>Running in Place: Economists explain the relationship between producers and consumers to the rookie CEO of a new shoe company </li></ul><ul><li>The High School Food Court: The student council decides which restaurants meet demand, generate profits, and benefit the school </li></ul><ul><li>The Invisible Hand: U.S. Dept. of Energy staff recommend policy on price controls on gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Awakening: Representatives of two nations negotiate a trade agreement using comparative advantage </li></ul>
  30. 30. BIE’s Units for Problem Based Economics <ul><li>Monopoly’s Might : A school-based enterprise tries to make a profit and attract investors in a competitive market </li></ul><ul><li>The Might Strikes Back : Negotiators for a monopoly, the federal government, and labor unions arrive at a compromise </li></ul><ul><li>The President’s Dilemma : Advisors help draft a speech on fiscal and monetary policy during an economic crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Matildaville: A team of advisors help a city plan how to develop vacant land </li></ul>
  31. 31. BIE’s Units for Problem Based Government <ul><li>A Government for Xlandia: A U.N. task force advises a new nation on comparative forms of democracy and separation of powers </li></ul><ul><li>Not In My Back Yard : A city manager’s staff recommend a site for homeless housing and defend their policymaking process </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting Chance : Associates at a law firm decide whether or not to take a 14 th -Amendment case involving a woman who wants to join the Army Special Forces </li></ul>
  32. 32. BIE’s Units for Problem Based Government <ul><li>The Better Budget : A constituent focus group recommends federal budget cuts for their Congressional representative </li></ul><ul><li>LegiQuest : Lobbyists devise strategies for enacting legislation on issues of concern to youth </li></ul><ul><li>On the Campaign Trail : Media consultants decide how to best “market” a candidate, given local issues and constituencies </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Power Tools : Aides to White House Chief of Staff plan how to implement a new law and consider a presidential signing statement or veto </li></ul>
  33. 33. What BIE Provides in All Units <ul><li>Overview of goals and objectives in the context of typical HS courses </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically aligned national content standards </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed step-by-step instructions * </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for coaching students in both process and content; timing and emphasis of lectures & other lessons </li></ul><ul><li>* Including estimated time; most units take 5-10 days, but are adjustable </li></ul>
  34. 34. What BIE Provides in All Units <ul><li>“ Problem Log” entry suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Potential Hurdles” and how to overcome them </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ideas to Try” (extensions and modifications) </li></ul><ul><li>All student handout masters </li></ul><ul><li>Rubrics, exemplars, and assessment guidelines ( PBE also has multiple-choice tests) </li></ul><ul><li>Content background material for the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Additional resources, readings, websites </li></ul>
  35. 35. How Teachers Typically Use Our Materials <ul><li>Start with one or two units per semester </li></ul><ul><li>Some teachers use 4-5 per semester </li></ul><ul><li>Our units drive the curriculum and instruction; not meant as a “fun activity” after a traditionally-taught unit </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks are resources, used when needed </li></ul>
  36. 36. Stay in Touch <ul><li>Check our website to download units, find workshops and links to other resources, and see future developments: </li></ul><ul><li>For workshops and curriculum development consulting, contact [email_address] or call 415-883-0122, ext. 306 </li></ul><ul><li>Sign BIE’s contact list to receive annual updates </li></ul><ul><li>BIE is seeking regional PBL trainers; contact us if interested </li></ul>