Word Up: Building a Rich Vocabulary for Academy Themes National Academy Foundation Leadership Summit Orlando, Florida November 16, 2006 Presenter: Andrew Rothstein, PhD NAF Curriculum Manager [email_address]
Focus & Essential Questions
What is the rationale for integrating literacy strategies into Academy themes?
What is literacy in the context of NAF Academies?
How can we provide students with a robust vocabulary?
How does one acquire a large vocabulary? Vocabulary
Criteria for Selecting Words to Teach Source: Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction (Beck, McKeown, Kucan)
Importance & Utility: Appear frequently across a variety of domains.
Instructional Potential: Words that can be worked with in a variety of ways so that students can build rich representations of them and their connections to other words & concepts.
Conceptual Understanding: Words for which students understand the general concept but provide precision & specificity in describing the concept.
Key Components of Literacy Support Framework (Source: Adolescent Literacy Resources: Linking Research and Practice . Julie Meltzer, Nancy Cook Smith & Holly Clark. CRM)
Address Student Motivation to Read, Write, and Speak.
Implement Research-Based Literacy Strategies
Integrate Literacy Across the Curriculum
Ensure Support, Sustainability and Focus Through Organizational Structures and Leadership Capacity.
The Case and Guidance for Focusing on Vocabulary Vocabulary is the building block of discourse in all subjects. Research indicates that there is a strong relationship between academic success and vocabulary. A major source of the achievement gap is a lack of background vocabulary. The research supporting direct instruction in vocabulary is compelling.
Elements of Effective Vocabulary Instruction
Not relying on dictionary definitions.
Represent word knowledge linguistically & non-linguistically.
Gradually shape word meanings through multiple exposures.
Teaching word parts.
Vary instructional strategies.
Having students discuss terms and use word play.
Focus on terms that enhance academic success.
Three “INTERACTING DYNAMICS” for Moving Words From Working Memory to Permanent Memory
Number of times a student processes information about the word (around four times over a two period)
Depth of processing (adding detail to understanding)
Elaboration (increasing the variety of associations with a term).
How to Organize Words for Instruction The Story of Words Categorizing Taxonomies List-Group-Label Defining Defining Format History of Words Etymology Expanding Word Meaning Morphology Word Play
The Story of Words - Part 1 Categories
Creating Categories with List-Group-Label
Put the students in groups of about 4 students.
Distribute Post-It Notes or Index Cards to the students.
Ask them to place one word they associate with mathematics on each card.
Have them work in teams put the words that they think go together in groups.
Look at each group and give them labels.
These can now serve as categories for taxonomies.
Taxonomy About Money
Words Are Free!
Alphabetical Lists of Words On a Mathematical Topic
Used for Writing
Double Page Spread
Steps 1 in Building a Taxonomy
Each participant is to work alone or solo, and think of as many topics as possible that their classes will be studying this year.
Give an example, such as rain forests, holidays, or mathematicians.
Participants should enter each topic next to the initial letter.
Ask participants to work for three or four minutes without talking to anyone in the class.
Step 2 to Build a Taxonomy
Step 2: Collaboration
Have participants form subgroups of three or four in their “class”.
Tell the subgroups to collect each other’s words.
Step 3 to Build a Taxonomy
Instruct the “class” to collect topics from other “classes”. This will help enlarge the individual taxonomies.
Ask one person from each “class’ to select a topic that she or he thinks is especially important or interesting.
Direct that person to say to the entire group, “I would like to contribute the topic of _____ to your Taxonomy.”
Encourage everyone to then add that topic to his or her Taxonomy.
Creating a Personal Thesaurus 10-11 Hotel chains November 20, 2006 8-9 Types of eateries November 14, 2006 6-7 Types of lodging November 1, 2006 Pages Topic Date
Story of Words – Part 2 Defining
Defining Format that 1 2 3 is money What is a dollar? A dollar Characteristics that 1 2 3 Category is Question What is money? Money
Morphology and Etymology
Morphology: Word comes Morpheus, the Greek god of sleep and dreams. (morpheme, amorphous, morphine, animorphs).
Describes how words change into various parts of speech, meanings, spelling, or pronunciations over time.
Tells us where the words come from.
Mathematical words have many origins: Anglo-Saxon, Latin, Greek, Arabic
Story of Words – Part 3 History
What does one’s salary have to do with the taste of food?
What do the following terms have in common?
What do the following information technology and hospitality & tourism terms have in common with a type of suitcase?
Hospitality & Tourism
A common type of suitcase is the portmanteau (literally, carrier of the coat). A portmanteau word is the result of two words folded into each other to make one new word.
bit = binary + digit
intercom = internal + communication
Internet = international + network
netiquette = network + etiquette
pixel = picture + element
telecommuter = telecommunication + commuter
telsat = telecommunications + satellite
transistor = transfer + resister
autobus = automobile + bus
farewell = fare + ye + well
gasohol = gasoline + alcohol
moped = motor + pedal
motel = motor + hotel
skyjack = sky + hijack
taxicab = taximeter + cabriolet
travelogue = travel + monologue
Story of Words – Part 4 Morphology
Why does the word mint have two meanings?
The Answer Lies in Morphology
The word for the mint we eat comes from the Greek myth of Proserpine, who transformed a nymph into an herb (minthe)
The word for the mint that makes the money comes from a Latin word for money (moneta)
Over time the pronunciations of the two words morphed independently until they became the same in sound and spelling.