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  • You need to start with a three. Two is the simpler stuff. You need to have the group actually create a rubric
  • If teachers agree on how to weigh the test items we will get rid of formative assessment and it will take away all of teacher reassessment. The C section is about children being assessed on information that they were not taught. This says that the knowledge was taught not the situations. We might want to place a period at the end of situations and then go back to the go beyond at a later point. Students will feel that this is a summative assessment even though it is formative assessment. ASCD might want to create a DVD with sample shots to explain the three sections above. AP and IB teachers have the scoring piece but not the formative assessment.
  • Teachers need to know what they are going to do with the formative assessment data. They need to know specific strategies of how to teach so that their students can reach the next level. The school should have a plan for teachers to differentiate instruction. It should not just be the teacher by themselves. Twenty-five ways for the school to differentiate instruction. How can they assist the teachers: summer school, intersessions. Basically they want to provide a structure to differentiate instruction schoolwide.
  • This is an example of scores for three students on one measurement topic.

John  brown standards based assessment John brown standards based assessment Presentation Transcript

  • Standards-Based Assessment and Grading: What Works to Promote Student Achievement? John L. Brown, Presenter Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD)
  • Workshop Goals
    • Explore the relationship between standards-based assessment and grading practices and student achievement.
    • Analyze ways to identify “power standards,” i.e., core standards that are so significant for student achievement that they need concentrated and sustained emphasis in the teaching, learning, and assessment process.
    • Investigate strategies for helping students to become an active part of the standards-based assessment and grading process.
  •  
  • Other Experts and Studies We’ll Explore…
    • Tom Guskey (2001). “ Making the Grade: What Benefits Students?” in Educational Leadership, October 14-20.
    • Ken O’Connor (2001). How to Grade for Learning: Linking Grades to Standards, 2 nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
    • Doug Reeves (2001). “Standards Make a Difference: The Influence of Standards on Classroom Assessment. NAASP Bulletin, January 5-12.
    • Rick Stiggins (2001). Student-Involved Classroom Assessment. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.
    • Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe (2004). Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
  • A Warm-Up Activity: How Do You React to Each of the Following Statements About Grading (AGREE, NOT CERTAIN, DISAGREE)?
    • Grading is not an exact science. (Davis, 1990)
    • Grades are not inherently bad…It is their misuse and misinterpretation that is bad. (Guskey, 1993)
    • What grades offer is spurious precision, a subjective rating masquerading as an objective assessment. (Kohn, 1993).
    • Most common grading practices make it difficult for many youngsters to feel succesful in school. (Canady & Hotchkiss, 1989)
    • Letter grades have acquired an almost cult-like importance in American schools. (Olson, 1995)
    • School has come to be about the grades rather than the learning. (Conklin, 2001)
    • Our knowledge base on grading is quite extensive and offers us clear guidance for better practice. (Guskey and Bailey, 2001)
  • What Do Current Learning Theory and Research Tell Us? Creativity and “Flow” Brain-Compatible Teaching and Learning Emotional Intelligence The Constructivist Classroom Multiple Learning Styles, Modalities, and Intelligences Cognitive Learning Theory
  • Cognitive Learning Theory
    • We construct meaning by attaching new knowledge to existing schema.
    • We learn in non-linear , associational, and recursive ways, not in neat, linear fashion.
    • Learning is highly situated : transfer does not necessarily occur naturally.
    • Effective learning is strategic: we need to learn when to use knowledge, how to adapt it, and how to self-assess and self-monitor.
  • The Constructivist Classroom
    • Students are at the heart of the learning process.
    • Teacher is a facilitator and coach.
    • Content is presented whole to part, with emphasis upon big ideas and questions.
    • Assessment and instruction are seamless
    • Experiential learning, inquiry, and exploration supersede lecture and “transmission” of information.
  • Brain-Compatible Teaching and Learning
    • The brain asks “Why?”
    • The brain searches for connections, associations, and patterns.
    • The brain “downshifts” when it perceives threat in the environment.
    • The memory system to which we most often teach (the semantic/linguistic) is inferior to the episodic and procedural memory systems in storing and retaining knowledge.
  • Multiple Modalities, Learning Styles, and Intelligences
    • We take in impressions and construct meaning about our world through multiple sensory channels and modalities.
    • There is no single way to learn: We construct meaning, perceive our world, and make judgments based upon a variety of learning styles.
    • According to Howard Gardner, intelligence is a potential, not an innate gift, and manifests through multiple forms such as the linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, musical, bodily/ kinesthetic, interpersonal, intra-personal, and naturalist/ecological.
  • How Do You Perceive Things? How Do You Make Judgments?
    • I/E =Do you tend to get more energized by being around other people or finding opportunities to retreat and recharge your energy alone?
    • S/N =Do you tend to make judgments based upon concrete, empirical evidence or emotion and intuition?
    • T /F =Do you tend to be driven more by your thinking and analytical processes or by your feelings, emotions, and relationships?
    • J/P =Do you tend to be highly punctual and closure driven or do you tend to “live in the moment” in “ish-time”?
  • What Are Your Learning Style Preferences? AR : abstract, random, tend to be feeling and relationship oriented, highly interactive and communicative, express themselves through the arts, equity-oriented, advocates for the disenfranchised, prefer group activities, not closure driven. CR : concrete, random, use the here-and-now as a springboard for vision and possibility, “don’t fence me in,” “don’t tell me what to do,” enjoy independent projects that are reality-based, strong leadership traits, enjoy non-traditional education. AS : abstract, sequential, conceptual, emphasize the big picture, whole-to-part relationships, strategic, intellectually organized but externally “pile collectors,” strategic thinkers, can be “devil’s advocates,” like to debate conflicting perspectives. CS : concrete, sequential, linear, organized, require clear guidance and directions, prefer closure, need models and exemplars, prefer predictability and order, desire clear and practical reasons for completing an assignment, inclined to work independently, follow policy and procedure.
  • Emotional Intelligence
    • Goleman and the “marshmallow effect.”
    • Emotional intelligence determines life success more than the cognitive/ intellectual.
    • Classrooms should be safe and inviting communities of learning.
  • Creativity and “Flow”
    • Mihalyi Csikzentmihalyi: “Flow is a condition in which we experience a sense of timelessness, engagement, and stress-free challenge.”
    • Creativity requires the ability to free associate and brainstorm.
    • Students must be taught to tolerate and explore situations and ideas that are ambiguous and open-ended.
    • We must help students to push the limits of their knowledge and ability.
  • Coaching Activity
    • How would you explain the significance of each of the following to a new teacher?
    • 1. Cognitive Learning Theory
    • 2. The Constructivist Classroom
    • 3. Brain-Based Teaching/Learning
    • 4. Addressing Learning Styles
    • 5. Emotional Intelligence
    • 6. Promoting Creativity and Flow
  • Based on This Research, What Do the Experts Suggest About Standards-Based Grading and Assessment?
    • Clearly-articulated (and consensus-driven) content and performance standards provide a clear focus on what all students should know, do, and understand.
    • Clear standards provide a common direction for all schools in an educational district or region.
    • Effective and rigorous standards ensure greater equity in learning results for all students.
    • Standards-based grading ensures a consistent basis for communicating about student achievement.
    • The greater the emphasis upon formative assessment —i.e., ongoing assessment that provides coaching-based feedback to students—the greater the level of student improvement and growth.
    • Students must play an active and ongoing role in self-regulation, self-monitoring, and self-assessment .
  • An Increasingly Significant “Big Idea” and National Assessment Trend… … The Power of Standards-Based Grading and Formative Assessment to Help Students Monitor Their Own Progress—and to Make Adjustments to Ensure Their Success in Mastering Core Standards…
    • Feedback from classroom assessments should provide students with a clear picture of their progress on learning goals and how they might improve.
    Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan, 1991 Percentile Gain/Loss Characteristic of Feedback from Classroom Assessment # of studies -3 Right/wrong 6 8.5 Provide correct answers 39 16 Criteria understood by student vs. not understood 30 20 Explain 9 20 Student reassessed until correct 4
    • Feedback from classroom assessments should provide students with a clear picture of:
        • their progress on learning goals and
        • how they might improve
    Fuchs & Fuchs 1988 Percentile Gain/Loss Characteristic of Feedback from Classroom Assessment # of studies 26 Displaying results graphically 89 32 Evaluation by rule [uniform way of interpreting results of classroom assessments using a tight logic) 49 32 Evaluation by rule (a uniform way of interpreting results of classroom assessments using a tight logic) 49
  • John Hattie—reviewed 7,827 studies on learning and instruction. Conclusion… “The most powerful single innovation that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops’ of feedback.”
  • Like most things in education, classroom assessment enhances student achievement under certain conditions only:
    • Feedback from classroom assessments should provide students with a clear picture of
        • their progress on learning goals and
        • how they might improve
    • Feedback from classroom assessment should encourage students to improve.
    • Classroom assessment should be formative in nature.
    • Formative classroom assessments should be quite frequent.
  • %ile improvement increase 0 20 80 100 40 60 Starting percentile 50th Starting percentile 50th Teacher assessment effectiveness Student Achievement Increase of 34%ile to 84%ile 13%ile increase to 63%ile
  • %ile improvement increase 0 20 80 100 40 60 Starting percentile 50th Starting percentile 50th Teacher assessment effectiveness Student Achievement Increase of 49%ile to 99%ile 28%ile increase to 78%ile
  • Black & Wiliam (1998) Assessment in Education, p. 61
    • “ As an illustration of just how big these gains are, an effect size of .70, if it could be achieved on a nationwide scale, would be equivalent to raising the mathematics attainment score of an ‘average’ country like England, New Zealand or the United States into the ‘top five’ after the Pacific rim countries of Singapore, Korea, Japan and Hong Kong” (Beaton et al, 1996)
  • Defining Our Terms
    • Assessment Principle : Effective and balanced assessment systems require that all stakeholders achieve consensus about the language they are using. Without agreement about the meanings of assessment and evaluation language, we can find ourselves in a Tower of Babel, operating at cross-purposes with feelings of ambiguity and frustration.
  • Defining Our Terms: Eliminating the Tower of Babel
    • THINK : Examine the 10 assessment terms on pages 4-6 and think about how you would define each.
    • PAIR : With a partner, come to consensus about the terms that you are assigned.
    • SHARE : Be prepared to share with the group your perceptions about the extent to which your term(s) would be commonly understood—or misunderstood—by a majority of staff in your school or district.
  • The Big Ideas of Standards-Based Assessment (1)
    • Assessment : Collecting diagnostic and formative student achievement data to monitor students’ progress and make appropriate instructional decisions .
    • Evaluation : Using consensus-driven standards to make judgments about the quality of student achievement and to determine the effectiveness of instructional programs and practices .
  • The Big Ideas of Standards-Based Assessment (2)
    • Standards : Consensus-driven learner outcomes, including: (a) Content Standards ( over time ), (b) Performance Standards/Indicators (at key juncture points in time), and (c) Benchmarks (assessments and performances related to students’ demonstration of identified performance indicators).
    • Standards-Based Grading and Assessment : Using a combination of diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment to monitor student achievement of consensus-driven standards and evaluate/ express a judgment about the quality of student performance and progress.
  • The Big Ideas of Standards-Based Assessment (3)
    • Diagnostic Assessment : Pre-assessment to determine students’ levels of initial skills, knowledge, and understanding as they begin an instructional episode or unit.
    • Formative Assessment : Formal and informal assessment conducted throughout the episode or unit to monitor students’ ongoing progress relative to standards.
    • Summative Assessment : Climactic or cumulative assessment conducted at the end of an episode or unit to evaluate students’ level of proficiency or mastery of identified standards.
  • The Big Ideas of Standards-Based Assessment (4)
    • Performance Assessment : Engaging students in actual performances involving standards application (e.g., academic prompts, performance tasks, projects) rather than selected-response testing.
    • Authentic Assessment : Assessing student achievement by engaging students in performances that replicate authentic, “real-life” situations.
    • Rubric : A scoring tool in which student performance is equated to varying levels of performance descriptions (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4).
    • Feedback-Adjustment Process : Using diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment to adjust the teaching-learning process to maximize individual and aggregate student achievement.
  • The Foundations of Effective Teaching, Assessment, & Learning
    • Desired Results : Select standards as a base of planning.
    • Assessment Evidence : Identify how and how well students will be expected to demonstrate their knowledge and skills.
    • Planning Learning Experiences : Focus on what will “get them there,” instructional strategies, topics, themes, and resources.
  • Designing an Effective Formative Assessment System: Two Key Questions…
    • How many measurement topics will be addressed during a grading period?
    • How many assessments will be administered for each measurement topic?
    • Identify no more than four grade-level (or course) learning goals per quarter (grading period) for each of the following subject areas: mathematic, reading, writing, science, and social studies.
    • Construct a rubric , or other type of common scale, for each learning goal.
    • Have teachers formally and informally assess each learning goal at least once every two weeks keeping track of each student’s score on each learning goal. (Use of appropriate computer software is highly recommended)
    • Have students keep track of their progress on each goal and use the data as the basis for teacher/student interactions about student progress.
    • Periodically (at least once per quarter) aggregate the data by grade level . Have teachers meet to discuss student progress and how it might be improved.
    Creating a Standards-Based Assessment System
    • Identify no more than four grade-level (or course) learning goals per quarter (grading period) for each of the following subject areas: mathematic, reading, writing, science, and social studies.
    • Construct a rubric , or other type of common scale, for each learning goal.
    • Have teachers formally and informally assess each learning goal at least once every two weeks keeping track of each student’s score on each learning goal. (Use of appropriate computer software is highly recommended)
    • Have students keep track of their progress on each goal and use the data as the basis for teacher/student interactions about student progress.
    • Periodically (at least once per quarter) aggregate the data by grade level . Have teachers meet to discuss student progress and how it might be improved.
    Creating a Standards-Based Assessment System
  • If you wanted to teach all of the standards in the national documents, you would have to change schooling from K-12 to K-22 .
    • 255 standards across 14 subject areas
    • 3,500 benchmarks
    • 13,000 hours of class time available
    • 9,000 hours of instruction available
    • 15,500 hours of instruction needed to cover the 3,500 benchmarks
  • “ Unpacking Your Standards” (1)
    • Strive to identify and assess a single trait, not multiple traits at one time (e.g., Avoid: “Students will develop fluency in adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing whole numbers.”)
    • Identify the unique elements or “dimensions” of information and skill in each of your standards. (e.g., adding whole numbers; subtracting whole numbers; multiplying whole numbers; dividing whole numbers)
    • Select those “essential elements”/dimensions that are critical for students to master across grade levels. (e.g., cause/effect; chronology; problem solving; plot analysis)
    • Organize your grade-level elements/dimensions into categories of related information and skills. (e.g., 4 th grade : describing basic cause/effect patterns; creating simple chronologies; solving problems with basic solutions; analyzing plots with single story lines)
  • “ Unpacking Your Standards” (2)
    • Limit measurement topics to 20 or fewer per subject area and grade level.
    • As part of your process of “unpacking standards,” consider including important “life skills.” (e.g., participation, work completion, active listening, working in groups)
  • Two Essential Questions for You to Consider…
    • In light of the need for standards to be “unpacked,” how can we build consensus about what students should understand so that they can see the universal issues, patterns, and significance of what they are studying?
    • As we audit our standards, which ones are significant enough so that students need to revisit them for a lifetime, not just the time they spend in school?
  • The Three-Circle Audit Process for Identifying “Power Standards” Worth Being Familiar With... All Students Should Know and Be Able to Do... Enduring Understandings
  • The Three-Circle Audit Process for Identifying “Power Standards”
    • Standards need to be interpreted and “unpacked.”
    • Staff members need to determine:
    • a. Outer Circle : What is worth being familiar with? ( CIRCLE 1 )
    • b. Middle Circle : What should all students know and be able to do? ( CIRCLE 2 )
    • c. Center Circle : What are the enduring understandings students should explore and acquire? ( CIRCLE 3 )
  • Another Way of Saying This…
    • What are our “ forty-day ” standards? What might students learn at a basic level to reinforce more significant knowledge, skill, and understandings?… ( CIRCLE 1 )
    • What are our “ forty-month ” standards? What should students know and be able to do at a level of teacher-guided proficiency ?… ( CIRCLE 2 )
    • What are our “ forty-year ” content standards? What should students revisit over the course of their lifetimes? What should students be able to transfer and use with a level of independence ?… ( CIRCLE 3 )
  • For Example…
    • For a group of tenth-grade World History students, how would you rank each of the following:
    • The day and year the Magna Carta was signed… ( CIRCLE 1 )
    • The historical significance of the Magna Carta… ( CIRCLE 2 )
    • The enduring influence of significant political documents throughout the history of world civilization… ( CIRCLE 3 )
  • Into Which Circle Would You Place Each of the Following: 3 =Enduring Understanding/ “ Power Standard ” ( 40 YEARS ); 2 =All students should know or be able to do this ( 40 MONTHS ); 1 =This is something students at this grade level should “just be familiar with.” ( 40 DAYS ) 9. Trace universal patterns, themes, and motifs common to art through the ages. (Humanities, Grade 12) 8. Identify key figures who contributed to the development of modern statistics. (College-Level Intro. to Statistics Course) 7. Describe eating patterns and menus from previous historical eras. (Health, Grade 4) 6. Interpret how a primary source document reflects political bias on the part of an author. (U.S. History, Grade 8) 5. Apply the habits of mind used by scientists to engage in scientific inquiry. (Science, Grade 5) 4. Explain how we can use the relationships between sounds and letters to make sense of text. (Reading, Grade 1) 3. Describe how a bill becomes law at state and national levels. (Civics, Grade 9) 2. Use the Periodic Table to identify the atomic weights of carbon, oxygen, and helium. (Chemistry, Grade 11) 1. Identify the years in which Mark Twain was born and died. (English, Grade 8)
  • To What Extent Do You Have a Core Curriculum?
    • Do all teachers responsible for the same grade level and/or subject area agree on:
    • a. What is worth being familiar with?
    • b. What should all students know and be able to do?
    • c. What are the enduring understandings we expect of all our students?
  • The Need to “Unpack” Power Standards
    • Assessment Principle : It is insufficient for schools and districts to have standards just on paper. Standards must be “unpacked” by staff members, a process in which they build consensus about (1) what and by when all learners are expected to know, do, and understand, and (2) how staff members agree to monitor each student’s progress.
  • “ Unpacking” Standards (Part 1)
    • On pages 10-13 , you will find actual content standards from states throughout the country. Use the five guide questions on page 9 to make observations about them (both individually and collectively).
  • “ Unpacking” Standards (Part 2)
    • On pages 10-13 , you will find criteria and examples for performance standards.
    • With a partner, choose one of the content standards on pages 14-15 and create a performance standard for a grade level you both determine.
  • “ Unpacking” Standards (Part 3)
    • Examine Tool Three on pages 8-9 .
    • Think about the extent to which your school and/or district has addressed each of the nine long-range goals presented here for “unpacking” standards.
    • In your opinion, what are some possible action steps for that school or district?
  • Making Standards-Based Assessment and Grading Work
    • 20 or fewer elements per subject, per grade level, per year
    • a residual category for teacher supplemental content
    • a uniform way of scoring assessments and assignments that is RIGOROUS
  • Standard Benchmark “ Measurement TOPIC” Benchmark Benchmark Benchmark “ Measurement TOPIC”
  • Language Arts Reporting Topics
    • Reading
      • Comprehension
      • Word analysis
      • Genre and literary devices
      • The research process
      • Information gathering and organization
      • Technical material
  • Language Arts Reporting Topics
    • Writing
      • The writing process
      • Overall logic and complexity of thought
      • Adaptation to audience and purpose
      • Conventions
      • Use of writing formats
  • Language Arts Reporting Topics
    • Speaking and Listening
      • Structure and logic of presentations
      • Delivery techniques
      • Listening comprehension
      • Group discussion
  • Mathematics Reporting Topics
    • Number Operations and Concepts
      • Basic number concepts and operations
      • Fractions, proportions, decimals,& percents
      • Exponents, roots, & factors
      • Problem solving & mathematical reasoning
  • Mathematics Reporting Topics
    • Geometry
      • Lines and angles
      • Shapes and figures
      • Motion geometry, transformations, congruence, & similarity
  • Mathematics Reporting Topics
    • Measurement
      • Units and systems of measurement
      • Area, perimeter, circumference,& angles
      • Capacity, weight, mass, & volume
      • Time
  • Mathematics Reporting Topics
    • Algebra
      • Expressions, equations, & functions
      • Graphs and graphing systems
  • Mathematics Reporting Topics
    • Data Analysis and Probability
      • Data organization and display
      • Central tendency & dispersion
      • Probability and hypothesis testing
    • Identify no more than four grade-level (or course) learning goals per quarter (grading period) for each of the following subject areas: mathematic, reading, writing, science, and social studies.
    • Construct a rubric , or other type of common scale, for each learning goal.
    • Have teachers formally and informally assess each learning goal at least once every two weeks keeping track of each student’s score on each learning goal. (Use of appropriate computer software is highly recommended)
    • Have students keep track of their progress on each goal and use the data as the basis for teacher/student interactions about student progress.
    • Periodically (at least once per quarter) aggregate the data by grade level . Have teachers meet to discuss student progress and how it might be improved.
    Creating a Standards-Based Assessment System
  • This is not a Rubric
  • Clean refrigerator 4 Entire refrigerator is sparkling and smells clean. All items are fresh, in proper containers (original or Tupperware, with lids), and organized into categories 3 Refrigerator is generally wiped clean. All items are relatively fresh, in some type of container (some Tupperware lids are missing or don’t fit) and are sitting upright
  • 2 Some of the shelves are wiped clean, although there are some crusty spots. There are some suspicious smells. Items are in containers, but there seems to be some green stuff growing in some of the Tupperware 1 Items stick to the shelves when they are picked up. The smells linger long after the refrigerator door is closed. Several items need to be thrown out— Tupperware and all
  • A generic template for rubric design
  • Scale Even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated. 0 With HELP, a partial knowledge of some of the simpler and complex details and processes 1 No major errors or omissions regarding the SIMPLER details and processes BUT major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes 2 No major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes (SIMPLE OR COMPLEX) that were explicitly taught 3 In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, in-depth inferences and applications that go BEYOND what was taught in class. 4
  • The student provides little or no response. Even with help the student does not exhibit a partial understanding of the knowledge. 0 The student provides responses that indicate a distinct lack of understanding of the knowledge. However, with help, the student demonstrates partial understanding of some of the knowledge. 1 The student’s responses indicate major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes; however they do not indicate major errors or omissions relative to the simpler details and processes 2 The student’s responses demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes 3 In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, the student’s responses demonstrate in-depth inferences and applications that go beyond what was taught in class 4
  • 0 1 2 The student’s responses demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes (THAT WERE EXPLICITLY TAUGHT) 3 4
  • 0 1 The student’s responses indicate major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes; however they do not indicate major errors or omissions relative to the simpler details and processes 2 The student’s responses demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes 3 4
  • 0 The student provides responses that indicate a distinct lack of understanding of the knowledge. However, with help, the student demonstrates partial understanding of some of the knowledge. 1 The student’s responses indicate major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes; however they do not indicate major errors or omissions relative to the simpler details and processes 2 The student’s responses demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes 3 4
  • The student provides little or no response. Even with help the student does not exhibit a partial understanding of the knowledge. 0 The student provides responses that indicate a distinct lack of understanding of the knowledge. However, with help, the student demonstrates partial understanding of some of the knowledge. 1 The student’s responses indicate major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes; however they do not indicate major errors or omissions relative to the simpler details and processes 2 The student’s responses demonstrate no major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes 3 4
  • The complete scale allows for half-point scores (3.5, 2.5, 1.5, .5)
  • Scale . 5 With help, a partial knowledge of some of the simpler details and processes but not of the more complex ideas and processes. 1.5 Partial knowledge of the simpler details and processes, but major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes. 2.5 No major errors or omissions regarding any of the simpler information and/or processes and partial knowledge of the more complex information and processes. 3.5 In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, partial success at in-depth inferences and applications that go beyond what was taught in class. Even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated. 0 With help, a partial knowledge of some of the simpler and complex details and processes. 1 No major errors or omissions regarding the simpler details and processes BUT major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes 2 No major errors or omissions regarding any of the information and/or processes (SIMPLE OR COMPLEX) that were explicitly taught 3 In addition to exhibiting level 3 performance, in-depth inferences and applications that go beyond what was taught in class. 4
  • Topic Grade 8: Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle 0 1
    • Recognize and recall basic terms such as: climactic patterns, atmospheric layers, stratosphere, troposphere.
    • Recognize or recall isolated details such as:
      • Precipitation is one of the processes of the water cycle
      • The troposphere is one of the lowest portions of the earth’s atmosphere
    2 3 4
  • Topic Grade 8: Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle 0 1 2
    • Demonstrate an understanding of:
    • How the water cycle processes (condensation, precipitation, surface run-off, percolation, evaporation) impact climate changes
    • The effects of temperature and pressure in different layers of Earth’s atmosphere
    3 4
  • Topic Grade 8: Atmospheric Processes & Water Cycle 0 1 2 3
    • Demonstrate a capacity for independent transfer and conceptual understanding by:
    • Investigating a world region or country and analyzing the relationship between water cycle processes, climate changes, and emerging economic issues.
    • Creating a news segment updating viewers on the impact of temperature and pressure in different layers of the Earth’s atmosphere following a natural disaster (e.g., tsunami, flood, earthquake, etc.).
    4
  • Topic Grade 6-8: Assignments & Work Completion 0 1
    • Be aware of format requirements for assignments.
    • Be aware of elements of basic time management plans.
    • Be aware of deadlines for assignments.
    2 3 4
  • Topic Grade 6-8: Assignments & Work Completion 0 1 2
    • Hand in assignment that meet format requirements specified by teacher.
    • Develop and implement basic time management plan for assignments.
    • Complete assignments on time and provide acceptable explanation when assignments not handed in on time.
    3 4
  • Topic Grade 6-8: Assignments & Work Completion 0 1 2 3
    • Enhance format requirements specified by teacher using one or more forms of technology.
    • Demonstrate a consistent ability to self-monitor and adjust behaviors and activities to meet self-imposed deadlines and benchmarks.
    • Ensure that all assignments are submitted in a timely manner consistent with a self-generated timeline.
    4
    • Identify no more than four grade-level (or course) learning goals per quarter (grading period) for each of the following subject areas: mathematic, reading, writing, science, and social studies.
    • Construct a rubric , or other type of common scale, for each learning goal.
    • Have teachers formally and informally assess each learning goal at least once every two weeks keeping track of each student’s score on each learning goal. (Use of appropriate computer software is highly recommended)
    • Have students keep track of their progress on each goal and use the data as the basis for teacher/student interactions about student progress.
    • Periodically (at least once per quarter) aggregate the data by grade level . Have teachers meet to discuss student progress and how it might be improved.
    Creating a Standards-Based Assessment System
  • The Relationship Between Curricular Priorities and Assessment Methods Worth Being Familiar With... All Students Should Know and Be Able to Do... Enduring Understandings
    • Traditional quizzes
    • and tests (selected response)…….
    • Quizzes and tests
    • (constructed response)…….
    • Performance tasks and projects…
    • Performance tasks and projects
    • (complex, open-ended, authentic)……...
  • Three Types of Assessment Items
    • Level 2 items : Simpler details and processes that have been explicitly taught.
    • Level 3 items : Complex ideas and processes that have been explicitly taught.
    • Level 4 items : Inferences and applications that go beyond what was taught
  • Level 2 items : Simpler details that have been explicitly taught .
    • Focus on basic information (declarative knowledge) : (a) facts, (b) vocabulary terms, and (d) time sequences.
    • Does not require students to create something new or generate new ideas.
    • Assessments often focus on recognition and recall items: For example:
    • Put an “X” next to the names of people who fought in the Battle of the Alamo.
    • Define each of the following key terms from this unit.
  • Level 2 items : Simpler skills and procedures that have been explicitly taught .
    • Focus on basic skills and procedures (procedural knowledge) : (a) skills and (b) procedures with little or no variation.
    • Require mental procedures that include single rules, algorithms, and tactics.
    • Assessments often require formulaic actions on the part of students: For example:
    • Complete the following multi-column multiplication activities.
    • Correctly capitalize the proper nouns in these sentences.
  • Level 3 items : Complex ideas that have been explicitly taught .
    • Focus on generalizations and principles that require students to go beyond memorized information to generate new ideas.
    • Assessments involving generalizations ask students to generate examples ; assessments of principles ask students to generate predictions . For example:
    • Using your understanding of how a cell membrane is selectively permeable, provide specific examples of what the cell membrane will allow to pass through and what it will keep out.
    • Use the Bernoulli principle to predict accurately which of the following airplane designs will likely produce the most lift.
  • Level 3 items : Complex processes that have been explicitly taught .
    • Focus on more complex mental procedures , i.e., “macroprocedures” involving multiple components or embedded elements, e.g., the writing process, the reading process, problem-solving, decision-making.
    • These assessment items are often more open ended, but emphasize skills and procedures the teacher has taught explicitly.
    • Assessments are always performance based and often require some independent reasoning on the part of the student: For example:
    • You are putting on the play Our Town , but you have no money to build a set. In fact, you can use only boxes as your staging materials. Draw a sketch of how you would stage a particular scene, and write an explanation of how you will use the boxes to express the key themes, actions, and mood of that scene.
  • Level 4 items : Inferences that go beyond what was taught
    • Focus on students’ inferential reasoning, including: (a) comparing, (b) classifying, (c) creating metaphors and analogies, and (d) analyzing errors.
    • Assessments are performance based: For example:
    • Compare and contrast the processes of meiosis and mitosis. As part of your comparison, explain the significance of these similarities and differences.
    • Select two items from our unit that do not appear related on the surface. Create a metaphor to describe subtle similarities or parallels. For example, how is a cell like a factory?
    • Sally know that she is most likely to get a sunburn if she is out in the sun between 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m. She asks six of her friends why this is so. Read each of the following answers. Identify which ones are wrong—and explain the error made in each.
  • Level 4 items : Applications that go beyond what was taught
    • Require students to apply mental procedures in contexts not directly addressed in class.
    • Ask students to demonstrate a capacity for transfer and independent conceptual understanding.
    • In effect, Level 4 assessments confirm that the student has exceeded the curriculum addressed in class: For example:
    • You and your classmates have been asked to become reporters and editors for the latest edition of History Monthly . This edition will involve oral histories of senior citizens in our community who lived through the era of World War II. Each of you will be responsible for interviewing a community member who was a child, teenager, or adult during this period. You will write a narrative describing their experiences and reflections on this era. Your article will be judged on its vividness, coherence, and completeness as well as your use of direct and indirect quotations.
  • What Is a Balanced Assessment Approach? ( P. 19 )
    • Vision : All staff members employ a “photo album” approach to assessing and evaluating student progress [in relationship to consensus-driven standards] by using multiple forms of assessment instead of limited “snapshots.”
  • What Is a Balanced Assessment Approach? ( P. 19 )
    • Key Elements:
    • Constructed-Response Items on Tests and Quizzes
    • Reflective Assessments
    • Academic Prompts
    • Culminating Performance Assessment Tasks and Projects
    • Portfolio Assessment
  • Assessing Your Assessments
    • Do you make use of…
    • Tests and quizzes that include constructed-response items?
    • Reflective assessments (reflective journals, think logs, peer response groups, interviews)?
    • Academic prompts with a FAT-P (audience, format, topic, purpose) clearly stated?
    • Culminating performance assessment tasks and projects?
  • Creating a Photo Album of Assessment Results: A Faculty Questionnaire (pp. 20-21)
    • Spend a few minutes completing this questionnaire, evaluating how your school or district is currently using each of the 10 identified strategies for balanced assessment.
    • As you complete this process, what initial conclusions can you draw?
    • How might you use this questionnaire with staff in your school or district?
  • Designing Effective Tests and Quizzes
    • Assessment Principle : Selected-response test and quiz items can give us only a limited view of what students actually know, do, and understand ( Level 2 Items ). Tests and quizzes can be enhanced by adding constructed-response items that require students to explain, interpret, and/or apply what they have learned via some form of timed performance.
  • Types of Forced-Choice Test Items
    • Traditional Multiple-Choice Items
    • Matching
    • Alternative Choice (e.g., “The part of speech used to link two clauses is: (a) a preposition; (b) a conjunction.
    • True/False
    • Fill-in-the-Blank
    • Multiple Response (e.g., “Which of the following can be the end punctuation of a sentence: (a) period, (b) dash, (c) question mark” [A. 1 and 2; B. 2, 3, and 4; C. 1, 3, and 4; or D. 2 and 3]?
  • Sample Constructed-Response Test Items
    • Defend or negate the following statement: Those who fail to learn from the past are condemned to repeat it.
    • 2. Examine the solution to the math word problem presented below. Describe an alternative—and more efficient—way of solving it.
    • 3. Observe the following videotape, which highlights elements of a local eco-system. Describe your observations and conclusions about the health of that system.
  • Constructed-Response Test and Quiz Items (P. 22)
    • What are the implications of the sample test and quiz items on this page?
    • How can such items provide deeper insight into student achievement (esp. student understanding) than exclusive use of multiple-choice, true-false testing?
    • To what extent do you see evidence of this type of item design in your school and district?
  • Student Self-Reflection and Self-Evaluation (pp. 23-25)
    • Assessment Principle: The more students are actively involved in using evaluation criteria to self-monitor, self-reflect, and self-evaluate, the more successful they will be in achieving standards mastery.
    • Examples: Reflective Journals, Think Logs, Self-Assessment and Self-Evaluation Activities, Collaborative Evaluation Strategies
  • Types of Student Self-Reflection Tasks
    • Reflective Journal Entries : How well do you understand this passage? What are the main ideas from this lesson? What did this material mean to you?
    • Think Logs : How would you describe the process of classification? How has your approach to problem-solving changed during this unit?
    • Self-Evaluations : Based upon our evaluation criteria, what grade would you give yourself? Why?
    • Peer Response Group Activities : What can you praise about the work? What questions can you pose? What suggestions can you make for polishing the product?
    • Interviews : Tell me about your perceptions of this project. What do you consider to be your strengths and areas in need of improvement?
  • Scale for Self-Evaluation of Knowledge of Terms (Marzano) I’m very uncertain about the term. I really don’t understand what it means. Level 1 I’m a little uncertain about what the term means, but I have a general idea. Level 2 I understand the term, and I am not confused about any part of what it means. Level 3 I understand even more about the term than I was taught. Level 4 I can use the term with a high level of independent application. Level 5 Description Knowledge Level
  • Student Progress Chart (Marzano) Date: November 4, 2004 X X X X X 1 X X X X X 2 X X X X 3 X X X X 4 X X 5 X X 6 X 7 8 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Item #
  • The Academic Prompt: Framing the FAT-P ( pp. 26-27 )
    • Assessment Principle: The more coherent and structured the assessment, the greater the likelihood students will understand how to respond to it successfully.
    • The FAT-P Model for Academic Prompts: format, audience, topic, purpose
  • A Sample Academic Prompt
    • Think about a time when you were surprised (topic). Write a letter (format) to a friend (audience) in which you describe that experience. Use a logical narrative sequence with concrete sensory details to help your friend understand what this event was like and how you experienced it (purpose).
  • The Successful Culminating Project ( pp. 28-30 )
    • Assessment Principle : At key juncture points in a course or grade level, students need assessment opportunities that will allow them to demonstrate independent understanding via explanation, application, interpretation, and self-knowledge.
    • The G.R.A.S.P.S. Design Template ( P. 28 ): real-world goals, real-world roles, real-world audiences, authentic situations, both products and performances, and clearly-articulated evaluation criteria (standards)
  • A Sample G . R . A . S . P . S . Culminating Project
    • You are a member of a team of scientists investigating deforestation of the Amazon rain forest. You are responsible for gathering scientific data (including such visual evidence as photographs) and producing a scientific report in which you summarize current conditions, possible future trends, and their implications for both the Amazon itself and its broader influence on our planet. Your report, which you will present to a United Nations sub-committee , should include detailed and fully-supported recommendations for an action plan which are clear and complete.
  • Holistic and Analytic Rubrics and Scoring Guides: Evaluating Performance Tasks (pp. 31-33)
    • Assessment Principle : Students improve their achievement on performance tasks when they have a clear understanding of how they will be evaluated, including ongoing use of evaluation criteria via rubrics and scoring guides. The more they apply the evaluation criteria, the more they are likely to internalize and apply them independently.
  • Tools for Scoring and Grading Performance Tasks
    • Modified Holistic Scoring Rubrics
    • Analytic-Trait Rubrics
    • Analytic Scoring Guides
  • A Modified Holistic Scoring Rubric
    • 3 = All data are accurately represented on the graph. All parts of the graph are correctly labeled. The graph contains a title that clearly tells what the data show. The graph is very neat and easy to read.
    • 2= Data are accurately represented on the graph or the graph contains only minor errors. All parts of the graph are correctly labeled or the graph contains minor inaccuracies. The graph contains a title that generally tells what the data show. The graph is generally neat and readable.
    • 1= The data are inaccurately represented, contain major errors or are missing. Only some parts of the graph are correctly labeled, or labels are missing. The title does not reflect what the data show, or the title is missing. The graph is sloppy and difficult to read.
  • The Analytic-Trait Rubric The performance or product is ineffective. Shows little apparent understanding of the relevant ideas and processes… 1 The performance or product is somewhat effective… Shows a somewhat naïve or limited understanding of relevant ideas or processes… 2 The performance or product is effective… Shows a solid understanding of the relevant ideas and processes… 3 The performance or product is highly effective… Shows a sophisticated understanding of relevant ideas and processes… 4 35 percent Weights: 65 percent Scale Performance or Performance Quality Understanding Traits
  • Sample Analytic Scoring Guide
    • 50%= Content : Clearly-presented thesis statement with fully-developed supporting ideas and balanced evidence to make a compelling and convincing argument.
    • 25%= Organization : Consistent support of thesis statement with all ideas and supporting evidence aligned with the controlling ideas of the composition. Consistent attention to the use of transitional expressions and other techniques to ensure coherence and clarity.
    • 25%= Editing : Elimination of major grammar and usage errors with clear attention to correct syntax and sentence variety.
  • Reflection Activity ( pp. 31-33 )
    • Examine the various rubrics and scoring guides presented on pages 31-33 .
    • Consider the relative advantages and potential uses for each.
    • Also, what are the potential disadvantages or issues each might raise?
    • What are some possible professional development implications associated with this approach to a balanced assessment program?
  • A Brief Discussion of Portfolio Assessment ( P. 34 )
    • Assessment Principle : A portfolio is not a work folder. It represents a thoughtful, balanced collection of student work products and artifacts as well as longitudinal evidence of students’ self-reflection and self-evaluation.
  • Key Portfolio Elements ( P. 34 )
    • Required student work products and artifacts representing all facets of standards mastery.
    • Self-selected student work products and artifacts that demonstrate students’ self-knowledge and self-reflection.
    • Ongoing reflections and analyzes by students related to their continuous progress.
    • Periodic self-evaluations using consensus-driven rubrics, analytic scoring guides, and related scoring tools and processes.
    • Identify no more than four grade-level (or course) learning goals per quarter (grading period) for each of the following subject areas: mathematic, reading, writing, science, and social studies.
    • Construct a rubric , or other type of common scale, for each learning goal.
    • Have teachers formally and informally assess each learning goal at least once every two weeks keeping track of each student’s score on each learning goal. (Use of appropriate computer software is highly recommended)
    • Have students keep track of their progress on each goal and use the data as the basis for teacher/student interactions about student progress.
    • Periodically (at least once per quarter) aggregate the data by grade level . Have teachers meet to discuss student progress and how it might be improved.
    Creating a Standards-Based Assessment System
  • Assessments That Encourage Learning
    • Encourage students to track their own progress.
    • Encourage self-reflection.
    • Focus on learning at the end of the grading period.
    • The “Power Law”: The average score is not the best indicator of what a student has learned; look instead for the pattern of student progress over time (gathering mounting evidence).
  • Patterns of Responses
    • Student answers L2 items correctly but not L3 and L4 items.
    • Student answers L2 and L3 items correctly but not L4
    • Student misses all items, but with help can answer some correctly
    • Students misses all items even when helped
  • Patterns of Responses
    • Student answers L2 items correctly but not L3 and L4 items. (2.0)
    • Student answers L2 and L3 items correctly but not L4 (3.0)
    • Student misses all items, but with help can answer some correctly (1.0)
    • Students misses all items even when helped (0.0)
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  • Pretest 2/12 (48%) Quiz 2/15 (60%) Quiz 2/19 (60%)
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    • Identify no more than four grade-level (or course) learning goals per quarter (grading period) for each of the following subject areas: mathematic, reading, writing, science, and social studies.
    • Construct a rubric , or other type of common scale, for each learning goal.
    • Have teachers formally and informally assess each learning goal at least once every two weeks keeping track of each student’s score on each learning goal. (Use of appropriate computer software is highly recommended)
    • Have students keep track of their progress on each goal and use the data as the basis for teacher/student interactions about student progress.
    • Periodically (at least once per quarter) aggregate the data by grade level . Have teachers meet to discuss student progress and how it might be improved.
    Creating a Standards-Based Assessment System
  • C. Item 15-16 Two items that asks for application in novel situations that go beyond what was explicitly taught Total for section= Total for section= Total for section= A. Items 1-10 Ten items that require recall of important but simpler content that was explicitly taught B. Items 11-14 Four items that ask for application of complex content that was explicitly taught AND in situations similar to what was taught. Total /100
  • Total /100 Total for section= Total for section= Total for section= /40 /20 /40 A. Items 1-10 Ten items that require recall of important but simpler content that was explicitly taught B. Items 11-14 Four items that ask for application of complex content that was explicitly taught AND in situations similar to what was taught. C. Item 15-16 Two items that asks for application in novel situations that go beyond what was explicitly taught
  • + + Total for section= Total for section= Total for section= All correct Two correct None correct A. Items 1-10 Ten items that require recall of important but simpler content that was explicitly taught B. Items 11-14 Four items that ask for application of complex content that was explicitly taught AND in situations similar to what was taught. C. Item 15-16 Two items that asks for application in novel situations that go beyond what was explicitly taught Total /100 /40 /20 /40
  • Total /100 + + Total for section= Total for section= Total for section= 40/40 20/40 0/20 All correct Two correct None correct A. Items 1-10 Ten items that require recall of important but simpler content that was explicitly taught B. Items 11-14 Four items that ask for application of complex content that was explicitly taught AND in situations similar to what was taught. C. Item 15-16 Two items that asks for application in novel situations that go beyond what was explicitly taught 60
  • + + All correct Two correct None correct A. Items 1-10 Level 2.0 Ten items that require recall of important but simpler content that was explicitly taught B. Items 11-14 Level 3.0 Four items that ask for application of complex content that was explicitly taught AND in situations similar to what was taught. C. Item 15-16 Level 4.0 Two items that asks for application in novel situations that go beyond what was explicitly taught Rubric Score:
  • + + All correct Two correct None correct A. Items 1-10 Level 2.0 Ten items that require recall of important but simpler content that was explicitly taught B. Items 11-14 Level 3.0 Four items that ask for application of complex content that was explicitly taught AND in situations similar to what was taught. C. Item 15-16 Level 4.0 Two items that asks for application in novel situations that go beyond what was explicitly taught Rubric Score:2.5
  • Topic Scores for 3 Students 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.0 2.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 2.0
  • Averages and Trend Scores 2.35 3.00 2.60 2.71 2.55 3.00 Average Trend Score 3.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.5 3.0 3.0 Student 3 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 Student 2 3.0 2.0 2.0 2.5 Student 1 2.0 1.5 2.0 3.0
  • Power Law
  • In search of the “true score”
    • True Score=Observed Score + Error
    • SAT SEM= 33 points
    • GRE SEM = 45 points
  • Low Tech Method: Growing Preponderance of Evidence
  • 1.0
  • 1.5 1.0
  • 2.0 1.5 1.0
  • 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.0
  • 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.0
  • 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.5 1.0
  • 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.5 1.0
  • 2.0 2.0 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.5 1.0
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  • Investment: Homework: Academic Grade: NonAcad. Grade: Grade for Class/Subject
  • Investment: Homework: Topic: Topic: Topic: Academic Grade: NonAcad. Grade: Grade for Class/Subject
  • Grading…Best Practices
    • We clearly and consistently communicate our grading criteria to our students.
    • These criteria are clearly aligned with our content and performance standards.
    • We revisit evaluation criteria for important assessment tasks via class discussion of exemplar tasks and work samples.
    • We regularly use reflective assessments, including peer review and student self-assessments, to monitor students’ understanding of our grading criteria.
    • 5. We have eliminated the “zero conundrum.”
  • A JIGSAW Response to Robert Marzano’s “Standards-Based Grading and Assessment”
    • Form “Response Teams” consisting of 2-3 participants.
    • Each team will assess their reactions to Robert Marzano’s assertions about standards-based grading and assessment ( pp. 36-38 ) using the rating scale in # 3 below.
    • Be prepared to share with the whole group your reactions to the following:
    • a. How strongly does your team agree with each of Marzano’s assertions? ( 3 =Highly Agree; 2 =Agree; 1 =Somewhat agree; 0 =Disagree)
    • b. To what extent are Marzano’s assertions operational in your current school or district? ( 3 =Fully operational; 2 =Generally operational but needs some attention; 1 =Minimally operational with much attention needed; 0 =Absent/non-operational)
  • Robert Marzano: Standards-Based Grading and Assessment (I)
    • Feedback from classroom assessments should provide students with a clear picture of their progress on learning goals and how they might improve.
    • Feedback on classroom assessments should encourage students to improve , reinforcing their sense of efficacy and personal motivation.
    • Classroom assessment should be formative in nature (“ Formative classroom assessment can and should begin immediately within a learning episode and span its entire duration. Additionally, formative classroom assessment can take a wide variety of formal and informal formats”).
  • Robert Marzano: Standards-Based Grading and Assessment (II)
    • 4. Formative classroom assessments should be quite frequent.
    • 5. State standards need to be “unpacked,” addressing the issue of an inordinate amount of content inconsistent with the amount of time educators have to teach.
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    • 6. State standards frequently lack “uni- dimensionality” (i.e., a single score on a test represents a single dimension or trait that has been assessed). Effective standards should identify the dimensions that are absolutely essential for all students to learn.
  • Robert Marzano: Standards-Based Grading and Assessment (III)
    • 7. Standards dimensions should be organized into categories of related information and skill (reinforcing “covariance,” i.e., “as ability in one dimension increases so does that in another”).
    • 8. Clear guidelines for designing a comprehensive system of measurement topics include: (a) limiting the number of measurement topics to 20 or less per subject area per grade level; (b) including measurement topics for “life skills,” i.e., information and skill that is not specific to traditional academic subject areas but is important to success in a variety of situations (e.g., class participation, work completion, behavior, teamwork); (c) changing the structure of measurement topics at the high school level (e.g., distinguishing between lower and upper division courses); and (d) allowing for a teacher choice of measurement topics (i.e., allowing teachers to include appropriate topics consistent with their interest and expertise).
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  • Robert Marzano: Standards-Based Grading and Assessment (IV)
    • 9.Effective educators, schools, and districts use measurement scales that are sensitive to learning over time, including assessment of student understanding.
    • 10. Viable assessment must address the concept of “true score,” i.e., “…that which represents the students’ true level of understanding or skill regarding the topic being measured.”
    • 11.Marzano presents an argument against using the point method for scoring assessments in favor of the “logic of Item-Response Theory,” i.e., the need for teachers to translate student response patterns into scores on a scale that represents progression of understanding and skill for a given measurement topic.
  • Robert Marzano: Standards-Based Grading and Assessment (V)
    • 12. Teacher-designed assessments are “ideal” when they involve three types of items or tasks: (a) Type I—addressing basic details and processes that are relatively easy for students; (b) Type II—addressing more complex ideas and processes; and (c) Type III—requiring students to make inferences or applications that were not taught in class.
    • 13. Type III assessment items can provide evidence of students’ mental procedures and their capacity for using what they are learning in new or unanticipated settings and situations, including such cognitive processes as application and inferencing. Such assessments can also be designed to measure students’ psychomotor achievement and growth.
  • Robert Marzano: Standards-Based Grading and Assessment (VI)
    • 14. Items and task types can include: (a) forced-choice items and tasks; (b) short written responses; (c) essays; (d) oral responses and oral reports; and (e) demonstrations and performances.
    • 15. Designing and scoring classroom assessments involves such technical issues as the following: (a) addressing illogical patterns of student responses and (b) assessing life skill topics.
    • 16. Effective assessments encourage student learning, including: (a) having students track their own progress; (b) encouraging self-reflection; and (c) focusing on learning at the end of key juncture points (e.g., “true scores” at the end of grading periods).
  • Robert Marzano: Standards-Based Grading and Assessment (VII)
    • 17. The computation of final scores for topics and translating these into grades should emphasize the concept of “grades being standards-based.” Marzano analyzes a computer software system for grading that includes the following characteristics: (a) Teachers can easily enter multiple topic scores for an assessment; (b) Software should provide for the most accurate estimate of students’ final score for each topic; (c) Software should provide graphs depicting student progress; and (d) Compensatory (i.e., performance on one measurement topic can “compensate” for performance on another) and conjunctive (i.e., one score does not pull up or pull down another score; rather, overall grades are determined by score patterns across the measurement topics) systems should allow for combining final topic scores to compute overall grades.
  • Robert Marzano: Standards-Based Grading and Assessment (VIII)
    • 18. Marzano contends that using these design principles for “ standards-based or topic-based, formative assessment” has the potential of dramatically enhancing student achievement due to its specificity and timeliness of feedback. “That approach also has the potential of changing a system in which students progress based on time spent in school to one in which students progress at their own individual rates as a consequence of demonstrated competence in content knowledge.”