Handouts New and Emerging Models for Work-based Learnin
Exerpt from: Guide to Effective Work-Based Learning (WBL) August 2, 2010 Keith Archuleta Emerald ConsultingWork-based learning experiences must be clearly linked to expected student learning outcomes.In each experience, learning objectives should be specified and student performance should be assessed to:1. Align with the personal and career interests of the student2. Reinforce and improve academic learning (as defined by the content of core academic classes)3. Engage students in new modes of thought (e.g., higher-order critical thinking and problem solving) andotherwise facilitate learning through contextualization offered in social learning and communities of practice4. Develop students’ career/technical skills as a means to learning5. Advance students’ social/emotional development, including identity, self-efficacy, and interdependence6. Expand students’ social networks and access to opportunities7. Enhance students’ general workplace competencies, such as communication, teamwork and project planning8. Enable career exploration through breadth of exposure at the worksite9. Enhance students’ understanding of particular careers through depth of experienceLinking the workplace to the classroom is central to high-quality work-based learning.There are three important stages in the creation of these connections:Identification of learning opportunities in the workplace and alignment with standards:Observations in the workplace before students are placed, called “workplace audits” by Jobs for the Future(2001), enable teachers to have a full understanding of the learning potential in a given workplace, informed byfirst-hand experience and conversations with employers. Alignment of the skills and knowledge to be gained inthe workplace with standards is the next step. This alignment has long been a tenet of high-quality work-basedlearning (Hamilton and Hamilton, 1997). Academic and career technical education standards, when combinedwith the Work Ready Essential Skills, ensure that work-based learning experiences meet educational objectives.Development of learning plans:Agreed upon by the teacher and the employer, learning plans identify the skills and knowledge areas thatstudents will focus on while engaged in a work-based learning opportunity. It is important for all involved to beclear about the learning objectives, expectations and time commitment required (MDRC, 1994).Ongoing supervision and communication:Teacher supervision and close communication between the teacher and the employer ensure that learning is, infact, tied to standards and students’ learning objectives.Standards Alignment ModelIn this model, teachers in the pathway identify key academic and career technical education standards, alongwith work-ready/essential skills, in order to establish common learning objectives for students for the pathwayby year. Alignment of the skills and knowledge to be gained in the workplace with standards is critical to high-quality work-based learning experiences for students.Academic and career technical education standards, combined with the Work Ready Essential Skills, should beused to ensure successful work-based learning experiences for students. A learning plan should be developedfor each student to identify the skills and knowledge areas the student will focus on while engaged in workbased learning and project based learning experiences with industry partners. Potential industry partners areidentified based on workplace audits. Teacher and employer supervision and communication, as well as studentassessment, help ensure that key learning objectives are met. Emerald Consulting
THE ACADEMY FOR ENGINEERING AND DESIGNING A GREEN ENVIRONMENT LESSON PLANDuration Controls – GenOn site visit 9th / Intro to EngineeringIntroductionPathway Outcomes •EDGE Academy completers utilize engineering knowledge and skills to design effective solutions for positive improvement in their community.Objectives •Students will experience how controls are used in the workplace and view changes that have occurred in control technology.Industry Involvement •Our industry partner will demonstrate the use of controls in the generation of electricity at the Marsh Landing Generating Station .Academic Standards •English 2.1 Reading Demonstrate use of sophisticated learning tools by following technical directions. •English 2.2 Writing 1.3 Use clear research questions and suitable research methods to elicit and present evidence from primary and secondary sources •English 2.2 Writing 2.6 Write technical documents: a. Report information and convey ideas logically and correctly. •Engineering D9.0 Students understand fundamental automation modules and are able to develop systems that complete preprogrammed tasks.CTE Standards •4.0 Technology Understand the use of technological resources to gain access to, manipulate, and produce information, products, and services. •5.0 Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Understand the systematic problem-solving models that incorporate input, process, outcome, and feedback components. •Engineering D9.3 Program a computing device to control an automated system or process.Work-Ready Skills •Technology •Critical Thinking and Problem Solving •Professionalism and Ethics •Workplace Context and culture •Information ManagementStudent ActivitiesPre-Activities •Students will study machine controls; how they are designed, constructed, and programmed.Experience •Students will tour manually operated generation system to learn how machines were controlled prior to automation. •The students will then move to a modern fully automated generating plant and learn how computers and sensors have been implemented to perform the tasks formerly done by numerous employees. •The students will also observe a variety of digital and analog monitoring systems used in the operation of the generating plant.
Wrap-Up •Due to the size limit by GenOn of how many students could actually participate in the on-site visit, the students that completed the experience will be reporting back to their respective classmates about the experience and what they learned.Practice •Students will be given several different scenarios for which to develop flowcharts.AssessmentFormative Assessment •Students will create several simple machines and controls to demonstrate the various computerized control systems.Summative Assessment •Students will develop a computer controlled machine in response to a request for proposals for a machine which is capable of sorting clear and colored glass marbles. This must be completed using Fischertechnik and Robopro computer software.ClosureNext Steps •Upon completion of the Machine Controls unit, the students will begin learning the applications and uses of Fluid and Pneumatic power systems, and how controls are integrated into machines to monitor and control these systems.
Career Practicum:A Work-Based Learning StrategyJune 2011Developed in partnership with the following organizations as well as the individuals listed on the inside of this cover.
Special thanks to the members of the Linked Learning Alliance Pathway Development Working Group Work-Based Learning Subcommittee for their contributions to this document.Name RepresentingRob Atterbury ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career; Chair, Work-Based Learning Subcommittee of the Linked Learning Alliance Pathway Working GroupKeith Archuleta Emerald ConsultingPatricia Clark Career Academy Support NetworkSvetlana Darche WestEdDeanna Hanson National Academy FoundationMike Henson National Academy FoundationPenni Hudis ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career; Co-Chair, Linked Learning Alliance Pathway Working GroupCindy McHugh National Academy FoundationKristin Maschka ConnectEd: The California Center for College and CareerDan Schlesinger Long Beach Unified School DistrictMichael Strait National Academy FoundationMichelle Swanson Swanson & Cosgrave ConsultingApril Treece Contra Costa Economic Partnership/Contra Costa Council; Co-Chair, Linked Learning Alliance Pathway Working GroupRandy Wallace Tulare County Office of EducationDave Yanofsky ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Career
Why Career Practicum?Defining Career Practicum as a distinct set of work-based learning experiences supports a shift in mindsetsand practices around work-based learning within high school college and career pathway programs.If work-based learning experiences are to become a primary vehicle by which all students make progresstoward pathway student outcomes, then more work-based learning experiences will need to be: • Student-outcome driven rather than activity driven. • For all students rather than some students. • Focused on college and career readiness rather than only career or job readiness. • Integrated and essential to the program of study rather than a separate and extra program. • Supported by a team of academic and career-technical teachers rather than only by career-technical teachers. • Centered in the workplace, at school, and supported by technology or a combination of all of these rather than only located in the workplace.Career Practicum experiences are defined by the specific student outcomes they support and the specificcriteria for implementation, not by the type of activity in which students participate. All Career Practicumexperiences support higher-level college and career readiness student outcomes, include extended interactionwith professionals from industry and the community, and are designed to give students supervised practicalapplication of previously studied theory. Career Practicum can be implemented through a variety of differentactivities including, for example, integrated projects, internships, student-run enterprises and virtualenterprises.An additional reason for defining Career Practicum is to expand the range of higher-intensity work-basedlearning experiences available to students. Commonly, internships are viewed as the only or most importantin-depth work-based learning activity. Career Practicum includes internships as one important activity optionand also supports a broader range of higher-intensity work-based learning experiences that can be effectivelyscaled to reach more students.The purpose of this document is to define and support the implementation of Career Practicum as a set ofwork-based learning experiences that play an important role on the continuum of work-based learning. 1
How Does Career Practicum Relate to Other Types of Work-Based LearningExperiences?Work-based learning is a continuum of educational strategies stretching from kindergarten into adulthoodthat are intentionally designed to help students extend and deepen classroom work and make progresstoward learning outcomes that are difficult to achieve through classroom or standard project-based learningalone.The term “work-based” does not mean the experience must occur at a workplace. Work-basedlearning may take place in a workplace, in the community, at school; be supported virtually via technology; ortake place across a combination of all these settings.Work-based learning has threeprimary purposes. • Learning ABOUT work. • Learning THROUGH work. • Learning FOR work.Traditionally, the work-basedlearning continuum hasencompassed CareerAwareness, Exploration, andPreparation. Career Awarenessand Exploration experiencessupport learning ABOUT work.Career Preparation experiencessupport learning FOR work, namely preparation for a specific range of occupations.Introducing Career Practicum as an additional component of the continuum gives the field a clear way todiscuss and implement experiences that support learning THROUGH work.Career Practicum bridges Career Exploration and Career Preparation, as they have commonly been defined,by providing clarity about the possibilities for experiences in between the two. A specific activity, such as aninternship or a job shadow, may be used in several places along the continuum depending on the studentoutcomes it supports and how it is designed.Work-Based Learning Continuum Definitions Career Awareness Students build awareness of the variety of careers available and begin identifying areas of interest. Career Exploration Students explore career options for motivation and to inform decision making. Career Practicum Students apply learning through practical experience and interaction with profession- als from industry and the community outside of school in order to extend and deepen classroom work and support the development of college and career readiness knowledge and skills (higher-order thinking, academic skills, technical skills, and applied workplace skills). Career Preparation Students prepare for employment in a specific range of occupations. 2
Definition of Career PracticumCareer Practicum is applied learning that provides students with practical experience and interaction withprofessionals from industry and the community outside of school in order to extend and deepen classroomwork and support the development of college and career readiness knowledge and skills (higher-orderthinking, academic skills, technical skills, and applied workplace skills).Career Practicum experiences have the following characteristics: • Students have direct, systematic interaction with professionals from industry and the community over a period of time. • The experience is an integrated part of a sequential preparation for college and career and is also explicitly integrated into students’ current academic and technical curriculum. • The depth and length of the experience is sufficient to enable students to develop and demonstrate specific knowledge and skills. • The experience prioritizes the development of transferable, applied workplace skills while also seeking to reinforce and provide opportunities to apply the basic and higher-order academic skills and technical skills being learned in the classroom. • Students engage in activities that have consequences beyond the class or value beyond success in school and are judged by outside professionals from industry and the community using industry standards. • Students develop skills and knowledge applicable to multiple career and postsecondary education options.Career Practicum experiences do not have to occur at a workplace. They may take place in a workplace, inthe community, or at school; be supported virtually via technology; or take place across a combination of allthese settings.Career Practicum experiences are most suitable for high school students. Ideally, students have more thanone Career Practicum experience in high school, each of which may support subsets of appropriate studentlearning outcomes such that over the course of their experience they have the opportunity to make progresstoward all of the outcomes associated with Career Practicum. In addition, a Career Practicum experience,whether in the form of an internship or an alternative form, can serve as the culminating work-based learningexperience for a high school student in a college and career pathway program. 3
Student Learning Outcomes Supported by Career PracticumStudent learning outcomes drive all work-based learning, just as they drive all other learning experiences.Career Practicum experiences are driven by high-level college and career readiness outcomes that integrateand reinforce academic, technical, and applied workplace skills. This set of outcomes for Career Practicum issupported by extensive research around college and career readiness cited at the end of this document.These outcomes are a minimum set of learning outcomes a Career Practicum experience aims to support.Many Career Practicum experiences will also support additional outcomes specific to the student’s individuallearning plan, the school program (i.e., pathway outcomes, graduation requirements, ROP, CPA, WIA, etc.),or additional industry-specific technical skills.Category Student Learning Outcome Student…Collaboration Builds effective collaborative working relationships with colleagues and customers; is able to workand Teamwork with diverse teams, contributing appropriately to the team effort; negotiates and manages con- flict; learns from and works collaboratively with individuals representing diverse cultures, ethnici- ties, ages, gender, religions, lifestyles, and viewpoints; and uses technology to support collaboration.Communication Comprehends verbal, written, and visual information and instructions; listens effectively; ob- serves non-verbal communication; articulates and presents ideas and information clearly and ef- fectively both verbally and in written form; and uses technology appropriately for communication.Creativity and Demonstrates originality and inventiveness in work; communicates new ideas to others; andInnovation integrates knowledge across different disciplines.Critical Thinking Demonstrates the following critical-thinking and problem-solving skills: exercises sound reason-and Problem ing and analytical thinking; makes judgments and explains perspectives based on evidence andSolving previous findings; and uses knowledge, facts, and data to solve problems.Information Is open to learning and demonstrates the following information gathering skills: seeks out andManagement locates information; understands and organizes information; evaluates information for quality of content, validity, credibility, and relevance; and references sources of information appropriately.Initiative and Takes initiative and is able to work independently as needed; looks for the means to solve prob-Self-Direction lems; actively seeks out new knowledge and skills; monitors his/her own learning needs; learns from his/her mistakes; and seeks information about related career options and postsecondary training.Professionalism Manages time effectively; is punctual; takes responsibility; prioritizes tasks; brings tasks andand Ethics projects to completion; demonstrates integrity and ethical behavior; and acts responsibly with others in mind.Quantitative Uses math and quantitative reasoning to describe, analyze, and solve problems; performs basicReasoning mathematical computations quickly and accurately; and understands how to use math and/or da- ta to develop possible solutions.Technology Selects and uses appropriate technology to accomplish tasks; applies technology skills to problem solving; uses standard technologies easily; and is able to quickly access information from reliable sources online.Workplace Understands the workplace’s culture, etiquette, and practices; knows how to navigate the organi-Context and zation; understands how to build, utilize, and maintain a professional network of relationships;Culture and understands the role such a network plays in personal and professional success. 4
Criteria for Designing and Assessing a Career Practicum ExperienceHigh-quality Career Practicum experiences have specific characteristics. The criteria listed here support rigor,consistency, and equity when designing, implementing, and evaluating the effectiveness of the experience insupporting the desired student outcomes.Criteria Characteristics The Career Practicum experience…Purpose Has learning as its primary purpose and is an integrated part of a sequential preparation for college and career.Outcomes Is designed using student learning outcomes, relevant college and career readiness standards, and context-specific professional and industry standards.Relevance Is relevant to the student’s career interests, individual learning needs, and the pathway theme; has consequences beyond the class or value beyond success in school.Integration Is integrated into the student’s academic and technical curriculum.Variety Involves a variety of tasks, opportunities to work with multiple adults, and opportunities to work in individual and group settings—without compromising the depth of the experience.Preparation Is prefaced by preparation for the student in class and in previous less-intensive experiences with the academic, technical, and applied workplace skills needed for a Career Practicum ex- perience; orientation for the student to the learning expectations for the experience and to the individuals and/or organizations with which he/she will be engaged; preparation for the part- ners prior to the experience with information about the student, the individual student learn- ing outcomes, and other information relevant to the experience.Interaction Provides opportunities for the student to interact directly with professionals from industry and the community over a period of time.Coordination Is coordinated by the student, teacher, pathway team, partner, and parent/guardian; each understands their respective roles and responsibilities in supporting the experience, ensuring progress toward student learning outcomes, and communicating with each other before, dur- ing, and after the experience.Reflection Engages the student in reflection and analysis throughout the experience and after it concludes in order to link the experience back to the student learning outcomes and forward to career and postsecondary options.Assessment Involves the student, pathway team, and partner in assessing progress toward student learning outcomes and the work produced against college and career readiness standards and context- specific professional standards; asks the student to demonstrate what was learned from the experience by documenting learning during the experience and presenting at the end to teachers and those with whom he/she has worked. 5
Works CitedArchuleta, K. (2010, August). Guide to Effective Work-Based Learning. Antioch, CA: Emerald Consulting.Archuleta, K. (2008, November). Work-Ready/Essential Skills Framework. Antioch, CA: Emerald Consulting. Originally published March 2007.California Department of Education. (2008). 2008–2012 California State Plan for Career Technical Education. Appendix A. Essential Skills Enumerated by Recognized Initiatives. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://www.wested.org/cteplan. Includes reference to: • Framework for 21st Century Learning. Partnership for 21st Century Skills. http://www.p21.org/documents/P21_Framework.pdf • Michael Kane, Sue Berryman, David Goslin, and Ann Meltzer. “Identifying and Describing The Skills Required by Work,” Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills, U.S. Department of Labor. September 14, 1990. http://wdr.doleta.gov/SCANS/idsrw/idsrw.pdf • Equipped for the Future: Work Readiness Skills. http://eff.cls.utk.edu/fundamentals/default.htm • CTE Model Curriculum Standards: Foundation Standards. California Department of Education. http://www.cde.ca.gov/re/pn/fd/documents/careertechstnd.pdf • States’ Career Cluster Initiative Essential Knowledge and Skill Statements. National Association of State Directors of CTE Consortium. 2008. http://www.careerclusters.org/resources/pos_ks/Essential%20Statements%20- %20100608.pdf • National Career Development Guidelines. http://associationdatabase.com/aws/NCDA/asset_manager/get_file/3384?ver=13331 • Are They Really Ready to Work?: Employers’ Perspectives on the Basic Knowledge And Applied Skills of New Entrants to the 21st Century Workforce, The Conference Board, Corporate Voices for Working Families, Partnership for 21st Century Skills, Society for Human Resource Management. http://www.p21.org/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09-29- 06.pdfConley, D. (2007, March). Redefining College Readiness. Educational Policy Improvement Center. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://www.aypf.org/documents/RedefiningCollegeReadiness.pdf.Darche, S. Nayar, N., and Bracco, K. (2009). Work-Based Learning in California: Opportunities and Models for Expansion. San Francisco: The James Irvine Foundation. Retrieved February 18, 2011, from http://www.wested.org/online_pubs/workbasedlearning.pdf.National Academy Foundation. (2010, October). Supervisor Assessment of Student Intern: Glossary. Pilot Draft. 6
National Academy FoundationGuide to Work-Based Learning:A Continuum of Activities and Experience
The National Academy Foundation (NAF) is an acclaimed network of career-themedacademies that prepare high schools students for academic and career success. Fivehundred NAF academies serve more than 50,000 students across 40 states, D.C. andthe U.S.Virgin Islands and focus on one of four career themes: finance, hospitality &tourism, information technology, engineering, and health sciences.For nearly 30 years, NAF has refined a proven model that provides young peopleaccess to industry-specific curricula, work-based learning experiences, andrelationships with business professionals. Since its start, NAF has developed tools andresources to assist academies in providing internships and supporting advisory boarddevelopment.In 2009, NAF convened a task force of business, education, and workforce experts todevelop standards for internships that resulted in “Preparing Youth for Life: The GoldStandards for Internships.” The task force laid out a vision for high school internshipsas the culminating experience of a continuum of work-based learning activities.Building off this vision, we sought to collect the 30 years of wisdom and experiencefrom NAF staff, academy staff, advisory board members, volunteers, and experts in thefield in order to clarify the components of a comprehensive program of work-basedlearning that will create the maximum benefit for all academy students.Work-based learning came to the forefront of educational policy with the enactmentof the national School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994. Since then states, localcommunities, and many organizations have defined and developed resources tosupport work-based learning. This document is also based on a review of a wide rangeof materials and reflects NAF’s beliefs and understanding of what defines quality work-based learning. It is the foundation for the further development and implementation ofresources and support on work-based learning for NAF academies.Thank you to everyone who assisted with this document, particularly NAF academystaff and business partners and our colleagues at ConnectEd: The California Center forCollege and Careers. We look forward to continuing this work together as we developadditional resources, tools, and professional development opportunities to supportacademies in strengthening the work-based learning component of the NAF model.Sincerely,JD HoyePresidentNational Academy Foundation 1
NAF recommends all academy students experience carefully structured and sequenced work-based learning activities, preparing them to make informed college and career choices and allowing them to acquire the necessary college- and career-readiness skills. NAF believes that quality work-based learning experiences improve academic performance and post- secondary school outcomes for students. NAF endorses a definition of work-based learning that includes a broad range of experiences tied to student outcomes. Under the NAF definition, work-based learning refers to a continuum of activities, both in and outside the classroom, that provides opportunities for students to connect what they are learning in the classroom to the world of work; to learn about careers and the education and training requirements for occupations within and across industries; to identify career interests and aptitudes, and to use the workplace for both learning and applying college- and career-readiness skills and knowledge. Quality work-based learning experiences should: • Identify learning objectives • Be developmentally appropriate • Assess student performance, including self-assessment methodologies • Include an orientation for all parties • Provide opportunities for student reflection • Link to the student’s next work-based learning experience • Provide links between classroom learning and professional expectations2
The Continuum of Work-Based LearningThe continuum of work-based learning includes career awareness, careerexploration, and career preparation culminating with an internship.The foundation of work-based learning is career awareness. Students begin thesecareer awareness activities in elementary school and continue through middle school.Career awareness experiences provide students with opportunities to understandhow school relates to the world of work. These activities typically include field tripsto businesses and parents or other adults speaking about their jobs and why they areinteresting. Students may also participate in projects in the classroom that are similarto those undertaken in workplaces.Volunteer activities in which students interactwith adults in a workplace setting (e.g. visits to a nursing home) also help youngpeople understand their place within the community. A variety of early workplaceexperiences can help to inform students’ decisions about whether to enroll in anacademy.Career exploration provides students with a deeper understanding of theworkplace. Career exploration activities, which typically begin in middle school orduring the first year of high school, continue throughout an individual’s working life asjob opportunities shift and career changes occur. Career exploration activities providestudents with a full understanding of the range of occupations within the industry onwhich their academies’ focus, the skill and education requirements needed for thesejobs, and an understanding of the relevance of academic and theme-based courses intheir academies.Career preparation activities are designed to help students acquire the foundationalskills needed for college and career readiness. Career preparation activities begin tointegrate academic skills acquired in the classroom with work-based skills obtained inthe workplace. Emphasis is on skill building, understanding the concept of transferableskills, learning to work as a team member, establishing relationships, appreciating ethicsand honesty, and relating personal interests and abilities to career opportunities. Moststudents participate in these activities beginning in the 9th and 10th grades. Theseactivities, whether classroom or workplace based, are essential preparation for astudent’s successful completion of an internship.Internships are the culmination of high school career preparation activities. Internshipsallow students to apply work-readiness and academic skills and learn specificoccupational skills in a workplace setting. Internships are paid or offer some formof compensation to students in order to provide an authentic work experience.Internships typically occur during the summer between the 11th and 12th grades;though they may also take place during the school year, particularly during the 12thgrade.The NAF curriculum supports work-based education in each of these areas. Coursesare organized around industry-vetted projects that replicate the types of tasks andassignments done by professionals in order to prepare students for work-basedlearning. The NAF curriculum is designed to involve advisory board members in theclassroom to provide information and guidance, thus establishing key relationships thatwill benefit students. 3
Benefits of Work-Based Learning Benefits to students • Apply academic and technical classroom learning • Develop workplace competencies • Establish a clear connection between education and work • Explore possible careers: - Identify and analyze personal needs, interests, and abilities - Identify and analyze potential opportunities in various career fields - Develop plans and make decisions to achieve goals and aspirations - Understand potential career paths - Identify college options based on career goals • Improve post-graduation options for employment and further education and training • Ongoing part-time employment and financial support for post-secondary education • Practice positive work habits and attitudes • Understand the expectations of the workplace • Motivation to stay in school, earn a high school diploma, and a career certificate (when applicable) • Establish professional contacts for future employment, mentoring, and networking • Earn industry certifications Benefits to employers • Create a pool of skilled and motivated potential employees with the ability to adapt to an ever-changing, global job market • Improve employee retention and morale • Reduce training/recruiting costs for new employees • Partner with schools to prepare students for their futures • Provide developmental opportunities for current workforce • Support local schools • Generate positive publicity • Establish meaningful relationships with young people • Enhance capacity to manage a diverse workforce Benefits to schools • Expand curriculum and extend learning facilities • Gain access to workplace techniques and technology • Enhance the ability to meet the need of diverse student populations • Provide opportunities for individualized instruction • Promote faculty interaction with the community • Contribute to staff development • Make education more relevant and valuable for students • Improve high school graduation rates • Deepen community relationships Learning Outcomes Well-designed work-based learning activities have clearly identified learning outcomes and a method to assess whether the learning has been achieved, either through formal or informal assessment. These outcomes are based on employers’ expectations for future workers. NAF has worked with a group of organizations to define the4 workplace competencies employers expect.
The following chart was prepared to support the Linked Learning initiative and isreprinted from “Career Practicum: A Work-Based Learning Strategy,” with permissionfrom ConnectEd: The California Center for College and Careers. A majority of statesand local school districts have incorporated some version of these workplace skillsinto their standards for learning. (Note: A number of states support the Framework for21st Century Skills, developed by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, a collaborationof businesses, states and non-profit organizations.) Category Student Learning Outcome Collaboration Builds effective collaborative working relationships with colleagues and Teamwork and customers; is able to work with diverse teams, contributing appropriately to the team effort; negotiates and manages conflict; learns from and works collaboratively with individuals representing diverse cultures, ethnicities, ages, gender, religions, lifestyles, and viewpoints; and uses technology to support collaboration. Communication Comprehends verbal, written, and visual information and instructions; listens effectively; observes non-verbal communication; articulates and presents ideas and information clearly and effectively both verbally and in written form; and uses technology appropriately for communication. Creativity and Demonstrates originality and inventiveness in work; communicates Innovation new ideas to others; and integrates knowledge across different disciplines. Critical Think- Demonstrates the following critical-thinking and problem-solving ing and Problem skills: exercises sound reasoning and analytical thinking; makes Solving judgments and explains perspectives based on evidence and previous findings; and uses knowledge, facts, and data to solve workplace problems. Information Is open to learning and demonstrates the following information Management gathering skills: seeks out and locates information; understands and organizes information; evaluates information for quality of content, validity, credibility, and relevance; and references sources of information appropriately. Initiative/Self- Takes initiative and is able to work independently as needed; looks Direction/ for the means to solve problems; actively seeks out new knowledge Resourcefulness and skills; monitors his/her own learning needs; learns from his/her mistakes; and seeks information about related career options and postsecondary training. Professionalism Manages time effectively; is punctual; takes responsibility; prioritizes and Ethics tasks; brings tasks and projects to completion; demonstrates integrity and ethical behavior; and acts responsibly with others in mind. Quantitative Uses math and quantitative reasoning to describe, analyze, and solve Reasoning problems; performs basic mathematical computations quickly and accurately; and understands how to use math and/or data to develop possible solutions. Technology Selects and uses appropriate technology to accomplish tasks; applies technology skills to problem solving; uses computer programs easily; and is able to quickly access information from reliable sources online. Workplace Understands the workplace’s culture, etiquette, and practices; Context and knows how to navigate the organization; understands how to Culture build, utilize, and maintain a professional network of relationships; and understands the role such a network plays in personal and 5 professional success.
In addition, the list below illustrates the kind of learning outcomes tied to each of the components of the work-based learning continuum. Career Awareness Students should be able to: • Describe different careers and the pathways leading to a variety of careers • Describe how core skills such as math and reading are used in the workplace • Articulate the importance of post-secondary education and training following high school graduation Career Exploration Students should: • Understand the skills needed to be ready for college and careers • Know the skills needed for success in the workplace • Understand how different elements of a high school academic experience are related to the workplace • Have basic knowledge of employability skills • Be able to articulate the options available and importance of post-secondary education to achieving career goals • Connect individual skills and interests to variety of career pathways Career Preparation Students should be able to: • Describe how the workplace functions and the skills required to succeed there • Identify the core knowledge necessary to be prepared for success in a particular career path • Complete the process of applying for employment (resume writing, interviewing, completing application form, etc.) • Describe and use multiple resources to find jobs • Identify and demonstrate appropriate work behaviors and etiquette • Describe in detail a particular experience in a workplace, the skills necessary to succeed in that workplace, and how their high school’s courses are related to it • Describe how post-secondary college or training connect to a career path of interest • Develop short and long-term employment plans • Articulate the importance and elements of workplace safety Internship Students should be able to: • Assess individual strengths and weaknesses in the workplace • Demonstrate basic workplace competencies specific to applicable standards of learning • Demonstrate job-specific knowledge and skills • Apply basic academic skills appropriate to the workplace • Articulate the connections between job requirements and academic skills • Articulate to younger students, peers, and adults the value of the internship • Develop career goals and a plan for achieving them6
Career exploration activities include:• Aptitude and interest assessment• Job shadowing• Informational interviews with adults• Career fairs• Classroom speakers and team teaching with industry representatives and/or post- secondary partners• Tours of local one-stop career centers to explore resources and services• Simulated business/industry projects• College visitsCareer preparation activities include:• Summer work experience• Part-time jobs• School-based enterprises• Community resource mapping• Work-readiness training: interview skills, resume writing, job finding techniques, soft skills development• Job fairs• Unpaid, short-duration projects with business and industry partners• Use of One-Stop Career Center and electronic job finding sites• College research• Work-focused clubs and national competitions, such as Junior Achievement• Culminating projects provided within the NAF curriculum units for each academy theme• Culminating internshipsThe “Career Practicum: A Work-Based Learning Strategy” identifies the characteristicsthat apply to internships and other similar experiences:• Students have direct, systematic interaction with professionals from industry and the community over a period of time. This experience is an integrated part of a sequential preparation for college and career.• The depth and length of the experience is sufficient to enable students to develop and demonstrate specific knowledge and skills.• The experience prioritizes development of transferable, applied workplace skills while also seeking to reinforce and provide opportunities to apply what is being learned in the classroom.• The experience is explicitly integrated into the student’s academic and technical curriculum and reinforces basic and higher order academic skills as well as technical skills.• Students engage in activities that have consequences beyond the classroom or value beyond success in school and are judged by outside professionals from industry and the community using industry standards.• Students develop skills and knowledge applicable to multiple career and post- secondary education options.• These experiences typically include a closing or celebration activity. 7
Additionally, NAF believes internships should meet the following guidelines: • They are related to the academy theme • Students are paid or compensated (e.g. stipend) • There is an individual student learning plan with clear learning outcomes • There is a formal evaluation by work-site supervisor with a feedback loop to appropriate school personnel • There are clear connections to academic or classroom instruction Federal and state employment laws apply to internships, just as they do to any employment. These laws cover child labor protection, safety in the workplace, and pay for employment and workers’ compensation. • The federal Fair Labor Standards Act applies to youth employment under the age of 18. The law sets the hours students may work during the school year and identifies the occupations considered hazardous for young people under the age of 18. States also have their own child labor laws. Typically, the more stringent requirements, either federal or state, are those that are applicable. • Occupational health and safety laws are administered by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Health and Safety Administration. • Whether an internship must be paid or may be unpaid or otherwise compensated is also determined under the Fair Labor Standards Act. A fact sheet at: /www.dol. gov/whd/regs/compliance/whdfs71.htm provides basic information around this question. • Workers’ compensation requirements are determined exclusively under state laws (unless the internship is with a federal agency). Generally, requirements for workers’ compensation coverage apply to internships. Roles and Responsibilities Students’ roles and responsibilities: • Actively participate in school and workplace experiences • Develop meaningful learning objectives • Participate in reflection activities to process workplace learning Parents/Guardians’ roles and responsibilities: • Ensure students complete paperwork and curriculum requirements • Support successful completion of internship • Communicate with school personnel to monitor progress • Participate in celebratory activities Teachers’ and other school staff’s roles and responsibilities: • Provide support for students and employers • Monitor student performance in the workplace and resolve any issues that arise • Prepare students for the workplace • Prepare employers to work with high school students • Make the connection between academic learning and the workplace • Work closely with the employer and the student to ensure regular and effective communication8
School district roles and responsibilities:• Maintain and support policies and protocols to make work-based learning a viable method for helping students meet academic standards• Support teachers’ professional development to ensure they maximize the opportunities at the workplace• Leverage available resources to make sure that work-based learning is supported within small learning communitiesWorkplace partners and worksite supervisors’ roles and responsibilities:• Collaborate with school staff to create learning opportunities for students at the workplace• Assist students in writing learning objectives• Train, coach, and guide students while they are involved• Evaluate student progress toward learning objectives and on their development of workplace skills• Maintain ongoing communication with teachersAdvisory board members’ roles and responsibilities:• Review work-based learning activities and curriculum and provide input• Assist in evaluating the effectiveness of the academy’s work-based learning program and recommend improvements• Connect individually with students around career plans• Provide support in the classroom around topics relevant to the workplace• Assist in fundraising to defer additional costs associated with work-based learning activities• Provide internships and other work-based learning experiences• Recruit businesses and other partners to provide internships and other work- based learning experiencesCommunity agencies’ and organizations’ roles and responsibilities:• Serve as an intermediary to connect teachers and other school personnel and students with businesses• Provide student referrals to work-based learning activities, including work experience and internship opportunities• Assist in preparing youth for the workplace• Assist in supervising student workplace experiences• Subsidize work experience and internships for eligible students• Coordinate community-wide job shadow days• Support the development of work-based learning experiences tied to classroom- based academic and technical learning 9
Schools, business, and others involved in work-based learning need tools, resources, and professional development to guide and support their efforts. The charts on the following pages identify some of the resources that are available under each category of work-based learning. NAF is committed to adding additional resources and professional development to enhance academies’ work. Many activities are appropriate at more than one grade level and students at each grade level may be involved in activities that fall within all of the categories of work- based learning. Career exploration and career preparation activities that begin at the high school level typically continue through post-secondary education and adulthood. The following charts provide guidance on how an academy might structure and plan its work-based learning activities. The most important considerations are that the activities are well-planned and properly sequenced to provide a progression of learning experiences for students—each one building upon the last. Career Awareness Resources Pre-9th Grade National Academy Foundation Parent visits to classrooms to talk about naf.org their jobs America’s Promise: americaspromise.org Students accompany parents to work Take Our Daughters and Sons to Work Field trips to business and industry daughtersandsonstowork.org Community volunteer activities The Fresh Air Fund freshair.org/programs/career-awareness- Class projects with a work theme program.aspx Fundraising activities that require work-related skills Career Exploration 9th Grade 10th Grade 11th Grade Resources National Academy Aptitude & interest Aptitude & College Foundation assessment interest assessment research naf.org Visit to one-stop Visit to one-stop US DOL Career career center career center Exploration Guides careeronestop.org Visits to colleges Visits to colleges onetonline.org Class speakers College research Junior Achievement: ja.org Job shadowing Guest speakers Vocational Information Center Career fairs Job shadowing khake.com/page64.html Informational Career fairs interviews Informational Simulated business/ interviews industry projects Simulated business/10 industry projects
Career Preparation 9th Grade 10th Grade 11th Grade 12thResources GradeNational Academy Work- Summer Job Fairs Part-timeFoundation readiness work employ-naf.org training experience Summer ment workJob Start 101, sponsored by Summer Work- experience Usethe Business Roundtable work readiness one-stopjobstart101.org experience training Part-time career employment centerCool Careers for Dummies School- Unpaid, and onlineamazon.com/Cool-Ca- based short-term School-based job sitesreers-Dummies-Marty- enterprises projects with enterprisesNemko/dp/0764553453 business and Community industry CommunityUS Department of Labor resource resourcedol.gov/odep/categories/ mapping School-based mappingyouth/career.htm enterprises Use one- Community stop career resource center and mapping online job sitesInternship Resources 12th GradeNational Academy Foundation Compensated internshipsnaf.orgCareer Academy Support Networkcasn.berkeley.edu/InternshipHandbookThe School and IndustryPipeline toolkits, School yearinternshipspynguides.org/syi/about.php 11
References and Resources Arizona State Department of Education, “Arizona Work-Based Learning Resource Guide,” January 2003, www.ade.az.gov/cte/info/LRGlinked070705.pdf ConnectED: The California Center for College and Careers, “Career Practicum: A Work-Based Learning Strategy,” June 2011. Kansas City, Kansas Public Schools, “Quality Work-Based Learning Toolkit,” 2002, http://www.nww.org/qwbl/tools/kcktoolkit/Print_Toolkit.PDF National Academy Foundation, “Preparing Youth for Life: The Gold Standards for Internships,” March 2010. New Ways to Work, “Supporting Youth in the Work Place Through High Quality Work- Based Learning,” http://www.newwaystowork.org/librarycontents.html#seven Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, “Washington State Worksite Learning Manual,” August 2008, http://www.k12.wa.us/careerteched/WorkBasedLearning/ WorksiteLearningManual.pdf Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21), www.p21.org. State of Iowa, “Work-based Learning Guide,” 2002, www.iowaworkforce.org/files/wlg02.pdf U.S. Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division, “Youth Rules!” www.youthrules.dol.gov/index.htm Utah State Office of Education, “Work-Based Learning Program,” April 2011, www.schools.utah.gov/cte/wbl.html12