Academy of Engineering (AOE) Industry Update
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Academy of Engineering (AOE) Industry Update

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Explore the latest employment and industry trends in he field of engineering in this session led by NAF industry partners

Explore the latest employment and industry trends in he field of engineering in this session led by NAF industry partners

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Academy of Engineering (AOE) Industry Update Academy of Engineering (AOE) Industry Update Presentation Transcript

  • July | 2012 Engineering Labor Force Overview
  • Current Labor Force Statistics There are more than 1.7 million engineers in the US in 2012. • While that sounds like a large number, in reality that represents just 1 out of every 100 US jobs. Engineers typically specialize in a particular field or industry. The ―Big 4‖ engineering fields combine to represent just over half of all US engineering talent in 2012. • Civil, mechanical, industrial, and electrical engineers comprise 51% of all engineers in the US. % of Total Employment % of US Engineers by Discipline (2012) Engineering 1% Civil Engineers 17% Mechanical Others Engineers 49% 14% Industrial Engineers All Other 12% 99% Electrical Engineers 9% 2Source: EMSI - 2012
  • Current Labor Force StatisticsManufacturing and engineering services represent the two largest industries forengineering talent, claiming just under half of all US engineering professionals.• Another 4% work at scientific R&D service-based companies.• The manufacturing industry continues to lose engineering professionals, while architectural and engineering services picked up the market share from 2001 – 2011.• Declines in the manufacturing industry are projected to slow, but the sector will continue to lose engineering talent to the services sector in the next decade.The government is also a major employer of engineering talent.• Federal, state, and local governments combined to employ about 11 percent of all US engineers in 2011. of US Engineers are ―Free Agents‖Approximately 7% of all US engineers are self-employed, or ―free agent‖ workers,typically working as consultants. US Engineering Employment by Industry 2001 2021 2011 21% 25% 38% 23% 41% 40% 20% 28% 3% 4% 10% 10% 23% 4% 11% Architectural, Engineering, and Related Services Manufacturing Government Scientific Research and Development Services Other 3Source: EMSI - 2012
  • Engineering Growth Projections Over the next decade, demand for engineers will grow by 10%, compared to the national increase of 12%. The decline in manufacturing industries is one of the main reasons that engineering occupations are projected to grow at a slower than average rate, but some specialty disciplines are expected to see robust growth. • Between 2010-2020, biomedical engineers are forecast to experience the fastest growth rate among all engineering disciplines, 62%. Biomedical engineers are increasingly in demand as the population ages and the health care industry continues to grow. • The continuing importance of the energy sector is reflected in the expected elevated growth in demand for environmental, petroleum, and nuclear engineers. • While niche engineering disciplines report the fastest growth rates, the Big 4 disciplines will still add the bulk of new workers over the next decade. Civil engineers, already the largest engineering specialty, are expected to post the largest growth over the next ten years, with demand increasing due to the ongoing need to improve the nation’s infrastructure. Engineering Disciplines Engineering Disciplines 70% with the Largest Job Growth Rates 60,000 with the Largest Net Employment Change 2010-2020 2010-2020 60% 50,000 50% 40,000 40% 30,000 30% 20,000 20% 10,000 10% 0% 0 Biomedical Environmental Civil Petroleum Nuclear Civil Mechanical Electrical Industrial Environmental 4Source: BLS Occupational Projections 2010-2020
  • Engineering Growth Projections Service-based industries are projected to see the greatest growth in engineering talent over the next decade, while the number of engineers in the manufacturing sector will shrink. • Demand for engineers in the architectural and engineering services industry is forecast to grow 16% between 2011 and 2021, while engineering talent in the manufacturing sector is expecting a 3% decline. The government growth trend is positive, but still lags the overall engineering growth rate. • Biomedical and petroleum engineers are forecast to experience the strongest growth trend across the three major industries for engineering talent. Engineering Talent Supply – Major Industries Leading Occupations within Major Industries Job Growth Rates Job Growth Rates 2011-2021 2011-2021 20% Biomedical Engineers Petroleum Engineers 80% 15% 70% 60% 10% 50% 40% 5% 30% 20% 0% 10% 0% -5% Architectural and Government Manufacturing Architectural and Government Manufacturing Engineering Services Engineering Services 5Source: EMSI - 2012
  • Emerging Engineering TrendsDespite the subpar outlook for manufacturing, the sector is getting a boost from thegrowing idea of bringing offshored operations back to the United States.• Companies that had shifted functions overseas are increasingly looking at “re-shoring,” as many perceived benefits of offshoring are now being called into question. KEY FACTORS GIVING RISE TO RE-SHORING  Labor costs in emerging nations such as China are rising faster than in the US.  Commodity prices are also rising, translating into higher transportation costs and higher production costs.  Turnaround times are becoming increasingly important as demand fluctuates.  Companies are looking for increased flexibility and fluidity in their workforces after the recession.  Rising income levels and increasing domestic demand in China and other developing markets means that production capacity may be increasingly used for filling domestic needs. COMPANIES THAT ARE RE-SHORING RE-SHORING CREATES JOBS  General Electric is moving some of its appliance manufacturing from China to Louisville, Kentucky. The Boston Consulting Group projects  NCR Corp. is moving all of its ATM machine production from that $100 billion in goods production can China, India, and Hungary back to its Columbus, Georgia plant. return to US shores in the next decade.  Master Lock is re-shoring about 100 jobs from China to a facility As a result, the re-creation of hundreds in Milwaukee. of thousands of jobs will help reduce the unemployment rate by 1.5 percent.  Other companies that have re-shored jobs:  Ford, Honda, General Electric, Caterpillar and Intel.Source: http://www.voxeu.org/article/when-offshoring-backfires; http://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2011/11/07/reshoring-onshoring-the-oppo;http://finance.yahoo.com/blogs/daily-ticker/president-obama-touts-onshoring-made-america-back-221759270.html site-of-offshoring-anyway/;https://www.bcgperspectives.com/content/articles/manufacturing_supply_chain_management_made_in_america_again/ 6
  • Engineering Labor Demand Demand for engineering talent moderated in late 2011 and the first quarter of 2012, but the long-term hiring outlook remains positive. • Demand for engineering talent showed a 13% YOY increase in Q1’12, compared to 9% growth in total labor demand. Engineering Labor Demand (YOY % Change) • Civil engineers are the clear leader among the “Big 4” Total Occupations Engineering engineering disciplines, with online advertised job vacancies 100% up around 40% YOY in the first part of 2012. 80% 60% • Petroleum engineers continue to lead the niche disciplines, with job postings up around 25% YOY. 40% 20% • Ad volumes are also up in several engineering-related 0% industries, including aircraft manufacturing and computer -20% related fields. -40% • Reported plans to hire engineering graduates increased to -60% 75% in 2012, compared to 63% last year. Engineering Related Industries - Top Ad Volume Producers (Feb 2012 - May 2012)35,000 Volume 40% Hiring Expectations by Major (2012)30,000 35% YOY% Change25,000 30% Major % of Respondents Hiring 25%20,000 Business 83% 20%15,000 15% Engineering 75%10,000 10% Computer Sciences 59% 5,000 5% 0 0% Sciences 47% Engineering Semiconductor Computer Aircraft Scientific Services Manufacturing Systems Manufacturing R&D Liberal Arts 25% Design Services Source: National Association of Colleges and Employers (11/11) 7 Source: Wanted Analytics
  • Engineering Talent PipelineEmployers today are looking for engineers with a unique combination of skills,education, and experience — which may be difficult to find.• Employers are looking for candidates with the appropriate technical background, but other attributes are also key to getting hired. Influence of Candidates’ Attributes• For new graduates, past leadership experience is as important as the Major college major when it comes to hiring decisions, according to Held Leadership Position employers. Nearly three-fourths of employers also say they prefer to hire candidates with relevant work experience. Involved in Extracurricular ActivitiesTeamwork and communication skills are essential skills for all job High GPA (3.0+)candidates, including engineers. Done Volunteer Work• In a video sponsored by the National Science Foundation, technical hiring managers say that along with subject matter proficiency, good School Attended communication skills top the list of attributes they are looking for in new engineers. 0 1 2 3 4 5 • The communications skills that are most critical for technical workers include the ability to collaborate and work on teams, Importance of Candidates’ Skills particularly across geographies and functions. The ability to not Ability to work in a team structure 4.60 only solve problems but to explain the problem solving approach is also essential. Ability to verbally communicate 4.59 Ability to make decisions and solve problems 4.49 Ability to obtain and process information 4.46 “Companies that hire engineers have wish lists of skills and experience, and the reality is that they’re not going to find Ability to plan, organize, and prioritize work 4.45 anyone who meets all of those requirements.” Ability to analyze quantitave data 4.23 —Paul Kostek, consulting engineer and principal of Air Technical knowledge related to the job 4.23 Direct Solutions and former president of IEEE-USA Ability to create and/or edit written reports 3.65 Skills and attributes rated on a 5 point scale: 1=No influence/ Not important to 5=Extreme influence/ Extremely important 8Sources: NACE Job Outlook 2012; 2012 Engineering Jobs Outlook, CareerBuilder; NSF Video: What Skills Do I Need to Get Hired? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A42Tab_bu6A
  • Engineering Talent Pipeline College engineering enrollment has been steadily increasing in recent years, suggesting the start of a ―youth movement‖ in the field. • Total US enrollment in college engineering programs surpassed 650,000 in the fall of 2010, a 22% increase over 2005 levels and up Engineering Enrollment by Degree 5% over the prior year. Programs, 2010 Bachelors The number of degrees awarded in engineering fields also continues to grow, but at a somewhat slower pace. Masters • There were around 130,000 engineering degrees granted in 2010, up 4% year over year but just 7% more than in 2005. Doctoral Enrollment in Engineering Programs, 2001-2010 Degrees in Engineering, 2001-2010 thousandsthousands Bachelors Masters Doctoral Bachelors Masters Doctoral 140 700 120 600 500 100 400 80 300 60 200 40 100 20 0 0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010Source: American Society for Engineering Education 9
  • Engineering Talent PipelineWhile some of the Big 4 engineering fields continue to add large numbers ofgraduates, smaller niche disciplines are outpacing their growth rates and volumes. • The more specialized disciplines such as petroleum, biomedical, and aerospace engineering saw the highest growth rates of college graduates from 2005-2010. Petroleum, Engineering Big 4 Biomedical, • These three small fields together added more college graduates than the Graduates 2005-2010 Disciplines Aerospace Big 4 fields combined over those five years. Average % Change 7% 51% % Change in Engineering Graduates by Discipline 2005-2010 80% Total # Change 3,435 3,507 70% 60% 50% ―Big 4‖ Disciplines 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% Civil Engineers Mechanical Industrial Electrical Petroleum Biomedical Aerospace Chemical Environmental Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers Engineers % Change 23% 19% 0% -12% 72% 56% 26% 19% 6% 2005-2010 # Change 2,949 3,857 -1 -3,370 442 2,100 965 1,285 79 2005-2010 Graduates 15,796 24,535 7.086 23,643 1,059 5,850 4,638 8,015 1,360 2010 10Source: American Society for Engineering Education
  • Engineering Talent Pipeline Improving performance in K-12 education is also key to maintaining a pipeline of future engineers. Although US high school students’ achievements in science and math have improved in recent years, significant shortfalls persist. • Only around a quarter of high school seniors and less than 40% of fourth graders and eighth graders score at or above grade-level proficiency in mathematics. Students Scoring at or above NAEP* Proficient Level in Mathematics • Achievement gaps are found among many student 60% subgroups, with the largest gaps among students of different 2000 2005 2009 racial/ethnic backgrounds or with different family incomes. 40% US high school students have been taking increasingly more math and science courses in recent years. 20% • The average number of credits that US high school students earned in math classes increased from 3.2 in 1990 to 3.9 in N/A 0% 2009; the average number of credits earned in science classes grew from 2.8 to 3.5 in the same time period. Grade 4 Grade 8 Grade 12 *The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a congressionally mandated program, has • Students are also taking more advanced math and science monitored changes in US students’ academic performance in mathematics and science since 1969. classes, such as trigonometry, calculus, chemistry, physics, Grade 12 Students Scoring at or above NAEP* and engineering courses. Proficient Level in Mathematics By Demographic Group, 2009 60% Average Total and Advanced Math and Science 50% Credits Earned by High School Graduates 40% Grade 12 Average: 26% 5 1990 30% 4 2000 20% 3 2009 10% 0% 2 1 0 Math (total) Science (total) Advanced Math Advanced ScienceSource: Science and Engineering Indicators 2012 **Income measured by eligibility for free/reduced lunch 11
  • Engineering Talent Pipeline – International Perspective Despite recent improvements, US high school students also lag other countries in educational outcomes, with lower scores on international math and science assessment tests and sub-par high school graduation rates. • US scores on the Programme for International Student Average PISA Math and Science Literacy Scores Assessment (PISA),* an international assessment of high school math and science literacy, have improved but remain consistently US OECD avg below other countries’ scores. 505 • The US ranked 18th out of 33 OECD countries in PISA 500 mathematics scores in 2009. 495 • The 2009 US science PISA score was slightly above the OECD 490 average, but was lower than 12 out of 33 other OECD nations. 485 The United States had an average high school graduation 480 rate of 77% in 2009 compared with the OECD average of 80%. 475 • The United States ranked 18th out of 25 OECD countries for which 470 graduation rate data were available in 2008. 465 460 High School Graduation Rates 2008 2009 2006 2009 2006 100% Math Science OECD Average 80% 80% MATH SCIENCE 60% 2009 2006 2009 2006 US Score 487 474 502 489 40% OECD 20% 496 498 501 500 Average 0% US Rank 18th of 33 25th of 30 13th of 33 21st of 30 *Sponsored by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and initially implemented in 2000, PISA assesses the performance of 15- year-olds in mathematics and science literacy every 3 years. PISA measures howSource: Science and Engineering Indicators 2012; OECD well students apply their knowledge and understanding to real-world situations. 12
  • Engineering Talent Pipeline Organizations of all kinds—including government, business, education and philanthropic groups—are taking steps to improve US education in the science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. • The Obama administration, under its “Educate to Innovate” campaign, has called for improving STEM education via several partnerships and initiatives. Kelly Services supports the next generation of STEM talent through internships, “in-training” Selected White House Initiatives and Partnerships to Encourage STEM Education programs, scholarships and partnerships with educational institutions and organizations. A CEO-led non-profit organization dedicated to mobilizing Change the Equation businesses to improve the quality of US STEM education. • Future Engineers Program: As a way of recognizing Science and Math A 10-year, $200M cash and in-kind campaign to support tomorrow’s brightest engineering talent, Kelly Teachers Initiative – Intel teaching in math and science. created the Future Engineers Program. Each year, Kelly awards a $5,000 scholarship to an A five-year, $100M cash and in-kind initiative to address engineering student based on a written essay, Connect a Million Minds – America’s declining proficiency in academic performance, and demonstrated Time Warner Cable science, technology, engineering and math . potential for a career in engineering. A multimedia, multi-year nationwide initiative including a • Future Scientists Program: The Kelly Future Be the Future – Discovery Scientists Program partners with premier programming block, education curriculum and other tools to Communications organizations to shape tomorrow’s scientific talent inspire student learning and careers in the sciences. through internship opportunities. Kelly awards UTeach Program – Expanding the program to prepare more than 4,500 educational scholarships to five FSP interns who National Math and undergraduates in STEM subjects to be new math and science have written the best essays on contemporary Science Initiative teachers by 2015, and 7,000 by 2018. scientific topics. Innovative Educators A multi-year STEM initiative by PBS and its 356 stations, in • NAF Partnership: Since 2008, Kelly has partnered Challenge – PBS collaboration with the National Science Teachers Association. with the National Academy Foundation (NAF) to drive interest and support among high school Woodrow Wilson A major expansion of this program, which provides future students in STEM talent areas. Kelly has given Teaching Fellowships in math and science teachers with a Masters degree in more than 3,000 students the opportunity to take Math and Science education and places them in difficult-to-staff schools. college level courses, gain career exposure A nationwide initiative that connects teachers and students to through field trips to engineering firms, and National Lab Network participate in national engineering competitions. STEM professionals, local science events, and other resources.Source: http://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/education/educate-innovate; http://www.huffingtonpost.com/james-m-gentile/president-obamas-leadersh_b_418571.html 13
  • Key Engineering Talent Markets The top ten leading metro areas for engineering talent are projected to account for nearly 40% of the talent pool’s job growth through 2021. • The top ten metros are Houston, Washington DC, Dallas, Los Angeles, Boston, Atlanta, Chicago, Baltimore, Detroit, and San Jose. The top 5 fastest growing metro areas for engineering talent are all reporting growth rates nearly double the national average over the next ten years. • The Houston metro is projected to lead the engineering talent growth with an increase of more than 20% through 2021, compared to 10% nationally. • St. Louis is forecasted to experience the largest decline in engineering talent, shedding 550 jobs over the next ten years. Top 10 Metro Areas for Engineering Talent Fastest Growing MSAs 10 year % Change (2011-2021) 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 14Source: EMSI-2012
  • Engineering Salary TrendsAmong major college disciplines, engineering currently offers the highest earningpotential – from graduation day onward.• The average starting salary for engineering majors was $58,581 in 2012, 38% higher than the overall starting salary. Engineering Fields Average Annual Salary 2011• Computer engineers report the best starting salary offers in $160 Average All Thousands 2012, with aerospace engineers closely behind. $140 Engineers $120 $100The average salary for all US engineers in 2012 was nearly $80$93,000, compared to an average of around $45,000 for all $60 $40occupations. $20• That translates into $1.4 million in additional earning $0 potential over a 30 year career. Engineering Majors (2012) Starting Salary Offers Bachelor’s Degree Graduates $90,000 2012 Median Starting Salary By Discipline $80,000 Median Discipline Salary Offer $70,000 Engineering $58,581 $60,000 Computer Science $56,383 Business $47,748 $50,000 Health Sciences $43,477 $40,000 Math & Sciences $40,939 Communications $40,022 $30,000 Education $37,423 Humanities & Social Sciences $34,789 Overall $42,569 Sources: National Association of Colleges and Employers, April 2012 (Based on available fields); BLS Occupational Employment and Wage Estimates 15
  • Engineering Labor Market Demographics The aging workforce continues to be a significant demographic trend in the engineering field in 2011. • More than half (56%) of the engineering workforce is 45 or older, compared to 47% of the overall labor force. • Aerospace engineers currently hold the greatest threat for a Engineering Occupations - Age possible supply shortage in coming years, with nearly two- thirds of the workforce age 45 or older. 14-18 Years Total Occupations • More than 60% of electrical, petroleum, and industrial Engineering engineers are also age 45 or older. 19-21 Years 22-24 Years 25-34 Years % of Engineering Workforce Age 45+ 35-44 Years 65% 62% 62% 60% 56% 54% 56% 51% 49% 47% 47% 45-54 Years 55-64 Years 65+ Years 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35%Source: BLS, US Census Factfinder, National Science Foundation, American Society for Engineering Education; National Association of Colleges and Employers 16
  • Engineering Labor Market Demographics Women continue to remain underrepresented in the engineering workforce— particularly in senior roles—but recent graduation rates suggest a narrowing trend. • Women average about 20% of all graduating engineering students, but only around 13% of the engineering workforce. Occupations by Gender • Women still lack a significant presence in senior engineering Total positions, representing only 7% of all engineering managers in 2010. 48% Female Occupations • In 2010, the number of women graduating with engineering degrees 13% Engineering grew 5% year over year, compared with 4% growth in male engineering graduates. 52% Male • As the level of higher education progresses, the gap between women 87% and men narrows, with women accounting for 18% of bachelor’s degrees but 23% of master’s and doctoral degrees. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Engineering Graduates by Degree and Gender 2010 Women Engineering Graduates by Gender Men % Change 2009-2010 Men Women 90% 80% Total 70% 60% Bachelors 50% 40% Masters 30% 20% Doctoral 23% 23% 10% 18% 0% -4% -2% 0% 2% 4% 6% 8% Bachelors degrees Masters degrees Doctoral degreesSources: American Society for Engineering Education, Women in the (STEM) Workplace – Northwestern University; Master of Engineering Management (April 2012); U.S. 17Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics
  • Engineering Labor Market Demographics Diversity trends among engineering graduates show a decline in the representation of African American and Asians in the field, but an increasing number of Hispanic engineers. • African Americans have shown a gradual decline in the number of engineering degrees earned over the past ten years, and remain Total Bachelor’s Degrees by Race significantly underrepresented in the field. • The percentage of Asian students receiving engineering degrees 9.8% Caucasian has fallen from 14% in 2001 to 12% in 2010, but that figure is still 8.1% significantly higher than the overall concentration of Asian students Asian 3.7% receiving bachelor’s degrees (7%). 7.0% Other • More engineering degrees have gone to Hispanic students, who Hispanic 71.5% accounted for 5% of degrees in 2001 and 7% in 2010. African American Engineering Bachelor’s Degrees by Race Engineering Bachelor’s Degrees by Race 2001 2010 5.3% 4.5% 5.4% Caucasian 7.0% Caucasian 9.0% 6.5% Asian American Asian American 14.1% Other 12.2% Other 66.2% Hispanic Hispanic 68.9% African American African AmericanSources: American Society for Engineering Education, U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 18
  • Engineering Labor Market DemographicsForeign workers have become increasingly prevalent in the US engineeringworkforce. Of the approximately 4 million US residents with a bachelor’s degreein engineering, around a third are foreign born.• A majority (61%) of the foreign born U.S. population with engineering Engineering Degree Holders by Place of Birth degrees came from Asia, including 22% who were born in India, and 13% who were born in China. Canada, 2% India, 22% Africa, 4%The share of scientists and engineers who are foreign bornhas nearly doubled over the past twenty years. Latin America, 16%• However, the rate of growth of foreign-born S&E workers may have China, 13% slowed in recent years as a result of the economic downturn.• The influx of skilled foreign workers has also slowed recently as the Europe, 17% number of temporary visas declined. In 2010, the United States Other Asia, 25% issued around 117,000 H-1B visas, down almost 25% from the 154,000 issued in 2007. 180000 H1-B Visas Issued Percentage of Foreign-Born Workers in S&E 160000 Occupations 140000 25% 120000 20% 100000 21% 80000 15% 17% 60000 10% 11% 40000 5% 20000 0% 0 1990 2000 2010 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Sources: Population Reference Bureau, Feb. 2012; The Foreign Born with Science and Engineering Degrees, US Census Bureau, Nov. 2011; Census Bureau Releases National-Level Data on Education Levels, Feb. 2012 19
  • Engineering Job SatisfactionEngineering professionals say they are relatively content and committed to theircurrent employer, according to the 2012 Kelly Global Workforce Index.• 69% of engineering professionals say they are committed to their current employer and 59% say they are happy in their current job. Top Factors that Make Engineers More EngagedHowever, feelings of discontent and restlessness are lurkingunder the surface for engineering professionals. 32% 25%• Less than half (49%) of engineering professionals feel valued by their current employer, with female engineers feeling significantly less valued than their male counterparts (44% of women and 51% of male engineers).• Overwhelmingly, engineering professionals derive meaning from their More interesting/challenging work Higher salary/benefits work by their ability to excel/develop in their field (76%). However, a critical gap exists in that only 53% agree that their current employment Engineers Value the Ability to Excel/Develop provides them with a sense of true meaning. 76%Engagement comes from the opportunity to do interesting work. 53%• The top factor that makes engineering professionals more engaged/ committed to their job is more interesting or challenging work (32%), followed by higher salary/benefits (25%). Derive meaning from work by ability to excel/ develop in field Current employment provides that sense of mean Engineering Professionals: Job Satisfaction Indicators Committed to Current Employer Happy in Current Job Feel Valued by Current Employer Frequently Think of Quitting 49% 42% 69% 59% Source: Kelly Global Workforce Index 2012. Over 13,000 engineering professionals responded. 20
  • International Engineering PerspectiveThere is significant difficulty in quantifying the number of engineers acrosscountries, due to varying education and qualification levels necessary to practice inthe profession, as well as differences in the availability of occupational information.• Engineers and other STEM professionals are more likely Number of Engineers in Selected Countries to be found in large developed countries, where much of (UNESCO, 2010) the technological and knowledge resources are centered. Germany 1 million• Some emerging markets such as Brazil and China also have large numbers of engineers and other science and France 600,000 technology workers, but they represent a much smaller portion of the total labor force. China 10 million Brazil 550,000 Researchers per Thousand Labor Force 12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 Australia Brazil Canada China France Germany India Italy Japan Russia United United Kingdom States Data is 2008. Canada, US: 2007; India: 2005 Researchers are defined as professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, as well as in the management of these projects. 21Source: Engineering: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities for Development, UNESCO, 2010; UNESCO Science and Technology Statistics
  • International Engineering PerspectiveEngineering is a diverse profession that faces global and local challenges, withboth similarities and differences seen across countries. Many other countries arealso looking for ways to promote engineering and other STEM professions. • Engineers around the world apply scientific principles and technology to address large scale challenges including: Engineers across the globe face many similar challenges within the profession: • Driving sustainable development, including environmental protection and natural resource management, and solutions in  Aging of the engineering workforce and future key sectors including transportation, industry, and energy. engineering shortages. • Providing increased and equitable access to basic and critical  Declining interest and enrollment of young people needs in areas including healthcare and information via in STEM fields in colleges and universities. innovative technologies and advancements.  Need to strengthen educational and training • But engineers also tackle a diverse range of challenges depending on regimens for future engineers. their locations:  Lack of diversity within the engineering profession. • Most engineering activity in bigger economies is larger and  Forging more effective alliances with professionals more global in scale. For example, very few smaller countries in other disciplines, private enterprises, and public have the engineering resources to design and manufacture jet sector organizations. engines or advanced automotive technologies.  Encouraging innovation, entrepreneurship, and job • Engineers in smaller countries tend to be more concerned creation for STEM professionals. with developing solutions to localized problems. Initiatives to Encourage Growth in Engineering: Selected Countries China Various proposals for reforming engineering education, with a greater focus on practical applications and closer ties with business. Japan Five-year “Basic Plans on Science and Technology” created to support growth in employment and research. Germany Changed immigration laws to make it easier for skilled professionals to enter the country. Poland Polish Federation of Engineering Associations has as one of its primary goals supporting innovation and technological progress, particularly in small- and medium-sized businesses. Argentina The national government is providing increased funding for engineering students and universities, and to pay Argentine engineers who have left the country to return. 22Source: Engineering: Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities for Development, UNESCO, 2010
  • Emerging Engineering TrendsEngineers are at the forefront of creating innovations that shape the world and driveprogress. Today’s engineers are using their expertise to solve critical challenges indiverse areas including biology, technology, sustainability and education. Top 10 Emerging Technology Trends 2012 The World Economic Forum has identified the trends for 2012 that are expected to have major social, economic and environmental impacts worldwide. They are listed in order of greatest potential to provide solutions to global challenges. 1. Informatics: Innovations in how information is organized, mined and processed hold the key to filtering out the noise and using the growing wealth of global information to address emerging challenges. 2. Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering: Tapping into the genetic code of living organisms enables the development of new biological processes and organisms that are designed to serve specific purposes. 3. Green Revolution 2.0: Technologies can increase food and biomass production without depleting energy, water and land resources. 4. Nanoscale Design: Nanostructured materials with tailored properties, designed and engineered at the molecular scale can create unprecedented gains in efficiency and usher in the next clean energy revolution. 5. Systems Biology and Computational Modelling/Simulation of Chemical and Biological Systems: For improved healthcare and bio-based manufacturing, it is essential to understand how biology and chemistry work together. 6. Utilization of Carbon Dioxide as a Resource: Novel catalysts can potentially transform carbon dioxide to be used as a new building block for the chemical industry as a more sustainable alternative to petrochemicals. 7. Further Development of Wireless Power: Emerging approaches to wireless power transmission are poised to have as significant an impact on personal electronics as Wi-Fi had on Internet use. 8. High Energy Density Power Systems: A number of emerging technologies will provide the energy density and power needed to supercharge the next generation of clean energy technologies. 9. Personalized Medicine, Nutrition and Disease Prevention: Advances in areas such as genomics, proteomics and metabolomics are laying the foundation for a revolution in healthcare and well-being that will be less resource intensive and more targeted to individual needs. 10. Enhanced Education Technology: New approaches are needed to meet the challenge of educating a growing young population and providing the skills that are essential to the knowledge economy. 23Source: WEF http://forumblog.org/2012/02/the-2012-top-10-emerging-technologies/