AUGMENTED REALITY          BEYOND THE HYPE          Dr Paul Coulton and Klen Čopič PuciharBanksy
Mixed Reality    Real      Augmented                   Augmented       VirtualEnvironment     Reality                    V...
WHAT ISAUGMENTED  REALITY?The term AR is being used in  all sorts of ways but thegenerally accepted definition            i...
WHAT ISNT AUGMENTED   REALITY?      Location‐based services           Barcode detection             (QR codes)        Augm...
GENERAL  CHALLENGES    OF AR   Strict real time operation             (30Hz)     High spatial precision         (1cm, 1 de...
CHALLENGESOF MOBILE ARSame level of performance        as desktop AR  No unrealistic assumptions       about hardwareVaria...
Image                        Denno CoilFLAVOURS OF  MOBILE AR  WEARABLE AR   Wearable system Head‐mounted display  AR alwa...
FLAVOURS OF  MOBILE AR   HANDHELD AR Mobile phone as platformPhone acts as a “magic lens”    Non‐immersive view           ...
WHY USE PHONES?Low cost, Ubiquity, Robust, Self Contained
WHY NOT USE PHONES?Low memory, Limited power, Small Screen, Limited Inputs              available, Fragmentation
PERCEPTUAL PROBLEMS You see through the camera not the phone!
Get video frame from camera DEVELOPING     AR                               Estimate position and                         ...
Phones withHandheld                                           Phones                                     acceleromet   AR ...
ESTIMATINGTHE DEVICE   POSE   Sensor trackingVision‐based tracking
SENSOR      BASED Used by many commercial      “AR browsers”      GPS, Compass,Accelerometer, (Gyroscope)                 ...
GPSOriginally 24 satellites but 31          as of 2008Bill Clinton cleared GPS for  commercial use in 1996
GPS     Spatial ScatteringSystem and Environmental          Effects
ACCELEROMETERS
ACCELEROMETERS
MAGNETOMETERS
David McCandlessInformation is Beautiful    DATA SOURCES                           Quality, Availability, Crowd Sourcing
VISION BASED   MARKER  TRACKING  Standard Vision techniques  Marker provides 4 cornersfrom this we can get the pose
VISION BASED   MARKER  TRACKING1.Convert image to	 black	 and white	2. Search	for	edges3. Follow edges	4. Find rectangle c...
VISION BASED   MARKER  TRACKING5.Estimate homography using 4corners	6. Extract pattern by sampling7. Check Pattern		      ...
MARKER TRACKING PIPELINE                     Daniel Wagner
VISION BASED   MARKER  TRACKING               Nintendo 3DS AR
VISION BASED  NATURAL   FEATURE  TRACKINGTracking features from natural         environment  More difficult than marker Les...
VISION BASED  NATURAL   FEATURE  TRACKING     Edges - boundariesCorners - local 2D structure Blobs - regions rather than  ...
VISION BASED  NATURAL   FEATURE  TRACKING            OfflineUse still images to build data      base of features
Camera                                           ImageVISION BASED                              Keypoint                  ...
VISION BASED  NATURAL   FEATURE  TRACKING    Online
• SENSORS            • VISION • Noise    Output    • High Accuracy • Low Accuracy       • Local   Pose • Global   Pose    ...
DESIGN   MOCKUPSAR is easy to understand, but  hard to explain in words.      Ease of creation. Holding strong memorable  ...
CONCLUSIONS• Augmented Reality is currently the hot topic from a continuum of  possible systems.• Mobile phones provide th...
OTHER INTERESTING AR        STUFF
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Augmented Reality: Beyond the Hype

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Augmented Reality: Beyond the Hype

  1. 1. AUGMENTED REALITY BEYOND THE HYPE Dr Paul Coulton and Klen Čopič PuciharBanksy
  2. 2. Mixed Reality Real Augmented Augmented VirtualEnvironment Reality Virtuality RealityMIXED REALITY CONTINUUM Paul Milgram
  3. 3. WHAT ISAUGMENTED REALITY?The term AR is being used in all sorts of ways but thegenerally accepted definition is that it:Combines the real and virtual Is interactive in real time Is registered in 3D
  4. 4. WHAT ISNT AUGMENTED REALITY? Location‐based services   Barcode detection (QR codes)   Augmenting still images Special effects in movies   Photo‐based object recognitionAlessandro Mulloni ... Yu-Gi-Oh! Zexal
  5. 5. GENERAL CHALLENGES OF AR Strict real time operation (30Hz) High spatial precision  (1cm, 1 degree) Robustness for operation by human userAlessandro Mulloni
  6. 6. CHALLENGESOF MOBILE ARSame level of performance  as desktop AR  No unrealistic assumptions  about hardwareVariable operating contexts Layar
  7. 7. Image Denno CoilFLAVOURS OF MOBILE AR WEARABLE AR Wearable system Head‐mounted display AR always in view  (immersive) Demo Sixth Sense
  8. 8. FLAVOURS OF MOBILE AR HANDHELD AR Mobile phone as platformPhone acts as a “magic lens”   Non‐immersive view Tom’s Hardware
  9. 9. WHY USE PHONES?Low cost, Ubiquity, Robust, Self Contained
  10. 10. WHY NOT USE PHONES?Low memory, Limited power, Small Screen, Limited Inputs available, Fragmentation
  11. 11. PERCEPTUAL PROBLEMS You see through the camera not the phone!
  12. 12. Get video frame from camera DEVELOPING AR Estimate position and orientation of the cameraAPPLICATIONS Render the augmented scene (video and virtual) What is involved in the process? Render GUI Process the user input Update application status
  13. 13. Phones withHandheld Phones acceleromet AR with GPS ers Phones withDisplays two Camera cameras Phones PDA Phone Phones On device with 3D with Wearable HW compass AR AR Phone Thin Phones with PDA client AR gyroscopes Thin client AR1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 EVOLUTION OF MOBILE AR
  14. 14. ESTIMATINGTHE DEVICE POSE Sensor trackingVision‐based tracking
  15. 15. SENSOR BASED Used by many commercial “AR browsers” GPS, Compass,Accelerometer, (Gyroscope) Demo Wikitude
  16. 16. GPSOriginally 24 satellites but 31 as of 2008Bill Clinton cleared GPS for commercial use in 1996
  17. 17. GPS Spatial ScatteringSystem and Environmental Effects
  18. 18. ACCELEROMETERS
  19. 19. ACCELEROMETERS
  20. 20. MAGNETOMETERS
  21. 21. David McCandlessInformation is Beautiful DATA SOURCES Quality, Availability, Crowd Sourcing
  22. 22. VISION BASED MARKER TRACKING Standard Vision techniques Marker provides 4 cornersfrom this we can get the pose
  23. 23. VISION BASED MARKER TRACKING1.Convert image to black and white 2. Search for edges3. Follow edges 4. Find rectangle corners !* K* C* :* Daniel Wagner
  24. 24. VISION BASED MARKER TRACKING5.Estimate homography using 4corners 6. Extract pattern by sampling7. Check Pattern Daniel Wagner
  25. 25. MARKER TRACKING PIPELINE Daniel Wagner
  26. 26. VISION BASED MARKER TRACKING Nintendo 3DS AR
  27. 27. VISION BASED NATURAL FEATURE TRACKINGTracking features from natural environment More difficult than marker Less established techniques Slower than marker based PTAM
  28. 28. VISION BASED NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING Edges - boundariesCorners - local 2D structure Blobs - regions rather than pointsRidges - elongated structures
  29. 29. VISION BASED NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING OfflineUse still images to build data base of features
  30. 30. Camera ImageVISION BASED Keypoint Detection NATURAL FEATURE Outlier Removal TRACKING Pose Estimation OnlineCreating maps are markers RECOGNITION online Real-Time Pipeline Pose
  31. 31. VISION BASED NATURAL FEATURE TRACKING Online
  32. 32. • SENSORS • VISION • Noise Output • High Accuracy • Low Accuracy • Local Pose • Global Pose • Memory Intensive • Works when • Works only when nothing to track Objects to Track HYBRID TECHNIQUES
  33. 33. DESIGN MOCKUPSAR is easy to understand, but hard to explain in words. Ease of creation. Holding strong memorable message.
  34. 34. CONCLUSIONS• Augmented Reality is currently the hot topic from a continuum of possible systems.• Mobile phones provide the most obvious platform for the widespread adoption of AR.• Majority of current commercial offering are sensor based which gives crude contextual sensitivity but this may be fine for your application. These solutions generally are dependant on quality of the data source.• Marker based solutions give greater accuracy although we arent likely to cover the world with markers work well for advertising.• Marker-less systems offer the ‘dream’ of AR but currently present considerable technical challenges.• If your considering AR ask what benefits it gives the user apart from being ‘cool’.
  35. 35. OTHER INTERESTING AR STUFF
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