EQ: What were the Causes and Effects of the Crusades?Think Now:What is this quote saying to you?What does “his soul is protected by the armor of faith”,mean?What faith is the quote talking about and why is thissignificant?“A Templar Knight is truly a fearless knight, and secure on every side, for hissoul is protected by the armor of faith, just as his body is protected by thearmor of steel. He is thus doubly armed, and need fear neither demons normen.“— Bernard de Clairvaux, c. 1135, De Laude Novae Militae—In Praise of the New
Describe the “Middle Age” society?• Where did the Middle Ages take place?• Describe the people in charge of this “middle age” society and what were their duties or roles?
Causes of the CrusadesMain Idea:The Crusades, a series of attempts to gain Christian control of theHoly Land, had a profound economic, political, and social impact onthe societies involved.• European Christians launched • Jerusalem in control of North series of religious wars, Crusades, African Muslims, Fatimids, late in Middle Ages 1000s• Goal to take Jerusalem, Holy • Turkish Muslims took control of Land, away from Muslims Persia, other lands, persecuted Christians visiting region• Jerusalem site of Holy Temple of Jews, also where Jesus crucified, • Turks attacked Byzantine Empire, buried, was to come again destroyed army, 1071• Vital to Christians to control city • Emperor turned to Western Europe, Pope Urban II, for help
The Council of ClermontPope Urban II called church leaders to council in Clermont, France• Described dangers faced by Byzantines• Called on Christian warriors to put aside differences, fight against Turks – Effective call to arms – Hundreds of knights, nobles volunteered for Crusade – Set out to meet foes with slogan “God wills it!”
Fighting the CrusadesCrusaders left France in 1096 in First Crusade. In all, nine Crusades set out between 1096 and 1291 to claim or protect the Holy Land. First Crusade Knights • Crusaders in two groups, • Better trained in warfare than peasants and knights peasants, but unprepared for • Unskilled peasants answered hardship of journey Pope’s call • Traveled three years – Eager to fight non-Christians in • Siege of Jerusalem victory for Holy Land Crusaders, disaster for city – On the way attacked and • Renamed four states in Holy slaughtered German Jews despite protests Land, intended to be – Fell to Seljuk Turkish army at strongholds against future Jerusalem Muslim conquests
Effects of the Crusades Economic Changes• Historic evidence of trade between Muslims, Byzantines, Europeans prior to Crusades• Crusades enhanced existing trade• Returning Crusaders brought more goods, spices, textiles, to Europe• Increase in trade added to changing European economy during Middle Ages Political Changes Social Changes • Crusades led to deaths of many • Some Europeans respected other knights, nobles cultures, others intolerant • Lands left vulnerable • Many viewed non-Christians as • Other ambitious nobles took control enemies, persecuted Jews of unoccupied lands • Holy Land Jews saw Crusaders as • Nobles then had more power, cruel invaders influence in Europe • Relations strained for centuries