Aim: How did the Byzantine Empire (330-1453) influence the world?
I- Definition of ByzantineA- Byzantine: this term is a modern invention. The Byzantines called themselves either ‘Romans’ or ‘Greeks’.B- It was the medieval Greek-speaking, Christian empire that dominated the eastern Mediterranean.C-Official Religion was Greek Orthodox (Christian).D- Because of its location, its capital city, Constantinople, was an important center for trade for Europe, Asia, Africa and the Middle East 1. Controlled the water route between the Black & Aegean Seas
II- The origins of the empireA- 292: Diocletian divides the Roman empire into two.B- 324: Constantine reunites the two partsC- 330: Constantine builds a new capital in the location of ancient Byzantium (called Constantinople)D- Most early emperors were not successful in increasing their landE- The Arabs conguered Persia & took the Holy Land (Israel, Syria & part of Egypt) from the Byzantines
F- Many emperors build strong walls, palaces, churches, gardens, Constantinople aqueducts and made the city the biggest, strongest and most enlightened city of its timeG- 337: The death of Constantine results in division between the east and west. The Walls of Theodosius
The Fall of Rome• Barbarian tribes keep pushing into a fragmented and weakened Roman Empire.• The east through bribery, diplomacy and better military resists effectively• 476: Rome Falls The Last Legion
III- The Age of Justinian (527-75)A- The beautiful church Hagia Sophia (“Holy Wisdom”) was built… it became the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church 1. They called it Eastern Orthodox to be different from the Roman Catholics
Hagia Sophia, Church of the Holy Wisdom, 6th c.
Justinian’s legacyB- Byzantine monks sneak silkworms out of China.C- Justinian orders the codification of Roman law called JUSTINIAN CODE (based on the Twelve Tables of the Roman Empire)***D- He was heavy-handed towards heresies (non-believers of their religion)E- In 529 he closed the philosophical school of Athens, destroying the last center of paganism (also non- Christians & polytheistic believers).F- He conquered many lands, around the Mediterranean Sea but after his death, the empire was reduced to just Turkey, Italy & Greece
The Byzantine empire in 565, at its largest expansion ever.
IV- Emperor Leo III (717-741)A- Leo III, using the Greek Fire, defeats the Arabs decisively and halts Islamic expansion.B- Against the odds, he halted the end of Byzantium, and preserved Christianity in Europe.
V- The Fall of the Byzantine EmpireA- 1070s Muslims called Seljuk Turks attacked themB- The Byzantine Emperor asked the Pope in Rome for help 1. The Pope sent soldiers, which started The Crusades which lasted about 200 yearsC- Another group of Turks called the Ottomans captured the capital (Constantinople) and ended the Byzantine empire
V- Lasting Contributions of the ByzantinesA- The Great Schism- (1054) rivalry and religious dispute that split the Eastern and Western branches of the Christian ChurchB- Art- especially… 1. Mosaics- decorations made of small stones or tiles 2. Icons- religious images painted on wood and used for prayerC- Beautiful churches like Hagia SophiaD- Law- Justinian Code
The Byzantine Empire in 1025, after Basil’s death.
E- Influence on Russia 1. The Cyrillic Alphabet is still used in Russia today 2. Spread Orthodox Christianity 3. The Russian Czar is based on CaesarF- They kept Greek and Roman culture alive and even passed it down during the Dark Ages (aka Middle Ages)
The Fall of Constantinople• The world turned its eyes on a depopulated Constantinople in the spring of 1453.• A shadow of its former glory the imperial city fell after months of siege.• Constantine XI, the last emperor became the subject of legends.
The Fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders , 1204
The religious art of Byzantium• Intellectual, idealistic, schematic, with restrained colors and reserved form.• Realism is rare and undesirable• The objective is the spiritual elevation of the believer
The Literature of Byzantium• 4th-5th century:• Still within the boundaries of Classical Literature.• Basil• Gregory Nazianzenos• Gregory of Nyssa• John Chrysostom• Athanasius