COP 15:     What is the Impact on Malaysia and Southeast Asia?Dr. Myron Shekelletarsier.orgVisiting Assistant Professor De...
ORGANIZATION                of this presentation1. Why am I here? Who am I? Why should you care to   listen?2. COP 15 and ...
A brief introduction . . .travelled Sulawesi for 14years, researching tarsiers19941995199619972000200120042005
What are tarsiers and why study them?
from “Wild Indonesia: The Mystery of Sulawesi”filmed July 1997 in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi   essentially a ...
Some conclusions from my research. . .Eastern tarsiers are a cluster of 16+ related species within a population formerly c...
Some conclusions from my research. . .   Eastern tarsiers are a cluster of 16+ related species within a    population form...
Some implications from my research. . .                  Sulawesi is subdivided into 16+ subregions                    o...
Some implications from my research. . .                  Sulawesi is subdivided into 16+ subregions                    o...
Some implications from my research. . .                  Sulawesi is subdivided into 16+ subregions                    o...
Take Home Message:                        Old science                                   +                    new technolog...
What’s the goal of biodiversity conservation anyway???To minimize the effects of anthropogenic loss of biodiversity, from ...
What’s the goal of biodiversity conservation anyway???•    To minimize the effects of anthropogenic loss of biodiversity, ...
Why is biodiversity conservation important???•   Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass   ...
Why is biodiversity conservation important???•   Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass   ...
Why is biodiversity conservation important???•   Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass   ...
Why is biodiversity conservation important???•   Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass   ...
Why is biodiversity conservation important???•   Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass   ...
Can anything be done about biodiversity conservation???“Flagship species” raise awareness and funds                       ...
Can tarsiers serve as flagships for   biodiversity conservation?
Can tarsiers serve as flagships for    biodiversity conservation?The Force says “Yes”!!!
Tarsiers as Flagships
Can anything be done about biodiversity conservation???Nature can be co-opted to help conserve itself!                    ...
Conclusion Part 1          Why study tarsiers?1. Better understand distribution of biodiversity.2. Charismatic animals can...
Conclusion Part 1          Why study tarsiers?1. Better understand distribution of biodiversity.2. Charismatic animals can...
-Global Climate Change-The Copenhagen Summit and Accord-My interpretation of the intended effectsfor cooperation between t...
Background to global climate change . . .      A) It’s not new!Global climate change estimates from oxygen isotoperatios d...
Background to global climate change . . .       B) The effects are profound!Artists impression of Earth during the last gl...
Background to global climate change . . .   B) The effects are profound!   North America during last glacial maximum      ...
Background to global climate change . . .   B) The effects are profound! (even in the tropics!!!)              Canon et al...
Background to global climate change . . .   Two responses for human society   •Mitigation   •Adaptation                   ...
Global Climate Change               the American position“We in the Administration are of the view that thescience is not ...
Global Climate Change               What was COP 15?1. COP 15 = the 15th Conference of Parties, annual meetings   dating b...
Global Climate Change      What happened in Copenhagen1. Representatives from 192 countries.2. Plan was to agree upon a fr...
Global Climate Change      What is the Copenhagen Accord1. Endorses continuation of the Kyoto Protocol.2. Sets mitigation ...
Global Climate Change             What is REDD-plus,          and what does it all mean?1. Reducing Emissions from Defores...
Global Climate Change     What happened in Copenhagen?1. "The meeting has had a positive result, everyone   should be happ...
Global Climate Change              the American position           what does it mean for this region?1. The current admini...
Global Climate Change                  the American positionTake home message:The Obama administration is looking for part...
Haze
HazeBreaking the Cycle
HazeBreaking the Cyclewith Primate Conservation?
HazeBreaking the Cyclewith Primate Conservation?
HazeBreaking the Cyclewith Primate Conservation?                Dr. Myron Shekelle         Department of Biological Scienc...
Why reduce emissions?                                  Myron Shekelle © 1997  Haze on Borneo, December 1997
Student projects: Independent Studies Module (Fall 2006)“Haze” and Primate Conservation         “Preaching to the unconver...
The Cost            USD $4.5 billion           . . . in 1997 alone!     85% borne by Indonesia(they did little then, so do...
SP1201B_SL1: Haze and Primate Conservation                                         50
Biodiversity is the Raw Material of Biotechnology:The case of Tarsiers in SE Asia   •SE Asia is a biodiversity warehouse. ...
Biodiversity is the Raw Material of Biotechnology:The case of Tarsiers in SE Asia   •SE Asia is a biodiversity warehouse. ...
Correlating Primate Species Richness               with Climate• Srivathsan et al. (submitted to International Journal of ...
Species Richness and RainfallCombined Region (Mainland, Sumatra, and Borneo)                              r2=0.23, p<0.001...
Species Richness and SeasonalityCombined Region (Mainland, Sumatra, and Borneo)                              r2=0.41, p= <...
Global Analyses
Significant Positive Linear Correlationbetween primate species richness and mean annual rainfall globally      Extent of O...
Significant Negative Linear Correlation between primate species richness and seasonality globally   Extent of Occurrence  ...
Conservation Implications 2000      Mean annual rainfall 2000WorldClim database (Hijmans et al. 2005)
2080                     Conservation ImplicationsLegendMean Annual Rainfall 2080Rainfall (mm) "    0 - 250 "    251 - 500...
Conservation Implications• Globally we predict a 2.3% decline in primate species  richness capacity by the year 2080.• Var...
TARSIERS:    A Critical Taxon for Southeast Asian         Biodiversity Conservation   Why my taxon is an excellentindicato...
63
What I meant . . .(i.e. the whole quote before the editors chopped it out!                                                ...
Western   Philippine   EasternTarsiers are classified inthree species groups,each endemic to a distinctbiogeographic regio...
Taxonomy and Distribution of Tarsiers
Primates are found throughout the tropics, butextant tarsiers are found only in insular southeast Asia
Tarsiers Are Very Oldessentially a third independent branch of primatesessentially a third, nearly independent lineage of ...
•Capacity Building for Sustainable Community-Based Ecotourism DevelopmentDr. Myron ShekelleDirector, tarsier.orgUSA   Less...
Take Home MessageThere is enormous potential for sustainable community based “ecotourism” inBIMP-EAGA with this recipe:•Na...
How long does it take?                                   . . .the hitch.•At Tangkoko, the process from the arrival of the ...
Summary of Section Three• Educational messages outside of our circle of the  converted• Adaptation: Using science to estim...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia(primarily Ind...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia(primarily Ind...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15  years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia  (primarily...
FOR HOW LONG?                                                $               donates money                                ...
If we want to continue getting money for foreign-sponsored  habitat conservation projects, we must practice good  business...
The unconverted and unconvertible are in the USA, too.Successful joint project to mitigate climate change here, helps sway...
Thank you!       From “Wild Indonesia” by Tigress Films, 1998 filme                       by Justin Maguire
22nd Pacific Science Congress                              • Kuala Lumpur,                                Malaysia        ...
Question: Does the Climate Research Unit email hackingincident show that a cabal of scientists are trying to rig thepublis...
Question: Does the Climate Research Unit email hackingincident show that a cabal of scientists are trying to rig thepublis...
Question: Does the Climate Research Unit email hackingincident show that a cabal of scientists are trying to rig thepublis...
Question: Do erroneous predictions about Himalayanglaciers discredit the science of global warming?                       ...
Question: Do erroneous predictions about Himalayanglaciers discredit the science of global warming?                       ...
Question: But what if the “errors” were on purpose???                                                        96
Question: But what if the “errors” were on purpose???                                                        97
Question: But what if the “errors” were on purpose???                                                        98
Question: What about the American government’s repeatedinsistence on transparency for programs like REDD-plus . . .       ...
Question: What about the American government’s repeatedinsistence on transparency for programs like REDD-plus . . .while w...
Conclusion Part 2  Has the science been discredited?                    Not at all!The science is compelling in spite of t...
COP 15: What is the Impact on Malaysia and Southeast Asia?
COP 15: What is the Impact on Malaysia and Southeast Asia?
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COP 15: What is the Impact on Malaysia and Southeast Asia?

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Dr. Myron Shekelle will discuss the Copenhagen Summit (COP 15) and what he thinks the intended effects are for cooperation between the United States and Southeast Asian nations, notably Malaysia. In line with this, he will discuss how his experiences in the region have illuminated some potential solutions, and many of the very real pitfalls, for foreign-sponsored, collaborative biodiversity research and conservation in Southeast Asia.”

Dr. Shekelle received a B.A., with departmental honors, from the University of California (UCLA) in 1991. He was then awarded a National Science Foundation Predoctoral Fellowship and attended Washington University in St. Louis, where earned an M.A. (1993) and a Ph.D (2003). He was awarded a National Science Foundation International Postdoctoral Research Fellow, and was based at the University of Indonesia. Subsequently he was a teaching fellow at the National University of Singapore within their flagship undergraduate educational institution, the University Scholars Program, with a joint appointment in the Department of Biological Sciences. With more than 10 years of experience living and working in Southeast Asia as a professional conservation biologist, he returned to the USA in 2008 to found his own science-based conservation organization, tarsier.org.

DATE AND TIME AND VENUE OF PROGRAMS:

Kota Kinabalu
·March 01, 2010 (Monday), 9.30 am -11.30 am: Environmental Action Committee, Le Meridien Hotel, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah.
·March 01, 2010 (Monday), 2.30 am – 4.30 pm: Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu.

Kuching
·March 03, 2010 (Wednesday), 9.30 am -11.30 am: Sarawak Development Institute, Kuching, Sarawak.
·March 03, 2010 (Wednesday), 2.30 am - 4.30 pm: Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak.

Kuala Lumpur
·March 05, 2010 (Friday), 10.00 am – 12.00 pm: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor.
·March 05, 2010 (Friday), 3.30 – 5.30 pm: Forest Research Institute, Kepong, Kuala Lumpur.
·March 06, 2010 (Saturday), 9.30 am – 11.00 am: Dialogue with Bloggers and Students on Global Environment, Avenue K, Kuala Lumpur.
·March 06, 2010 (Saturday), 12.00 pm – 2.00 pm: Central Market Annex, Kuala Lumpur.

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  • Two years later Kay et. al studied Asia and Neotropics. They found a non-linear relationship. This corresponded to the non-linear relationship of plant productivity in the neotropics and hence they concluded that species richness is mainly determined by plant productivity.
  • These are results for combined region- we can see that we found a strong correlation here
  • So as I had mentioned before, we found significant negative relationship in combined region. However in the strtified analysis we noticed that 6-10 strata had nearly constant species richness. Hence we reanalysed this using breakpoint regression megthod and found a break point at 6.67 th stratum. It becomes important to note that strata 6-10 had over 5 dry months per year.
  • COP 15: What is the Impact on Malaysia and Southeast Asia?

    1. 1. COP 15: What is the Impact on Malaysia and Southeast Asia?Dr. Myron Shekelletarsier.orgVisiting Assistant Professor Department of BiologyAdjunct Curator Museum of Vertebrate ZoologyPortland State UniversityPortland, Oregon, USA US State Department Speaker/Specialist Series Embassy of the United States of America, Public Affairs Section Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia March 1st – 6th , 2010
    2. 2. ORGANIZATION of this presentation1. Why am I here? Who am I? Why should you care to listen?2. COP 15 and American policy.3. Personal experiences, comments, & observations.
    3. 3. A brief introduction . . .travelled Sulawesi for 14years, researching tarsiers19941995199619972000200120042005
    4. 4. What are tarsiers and why study them?
    5. 5. from “Wild Indonesia: The Mystery of Sulawesi”filmed July 1997 in Tangkoko Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi essentially a third, nearly independent lineage of primates
    6. 6. Some conclusions from my research. . .Eastern tarsiers are a cluster of 16+ related species within a population formerly classified as a single subspecies!• Old fashioned science (taxonomy, biogeography)• New technology (genetics, bioacoustics)• Greatly improved understanding of the true scope of biodiversity Shekelle et al. (2008) Stephen tumpara Nash
    7. 7. Some conclusions from my research. . . Eastern tarsiers are a cluster of 16+ related species within a population formerly classified as a single subspecies! • Old fashioned science (taxonomy, biogeography) • New technology (genetics, bioacoustics) • Greatly improved understanding of the true scope of biodiversityBiodiversity on Sulawesiunderestimated by anorder of magnitude?!? Shekelle et al. (2008) Stephen tumpara Nash
    8. 8. Some implications from my research. . . Sulawesi is subdivided into 16+ subregions of endemism.
    9. 9. Some implications from my research. . . Sulawesi is subdivided into 16+ subregions of endemism. l Biodiversity will be better conserved by conserving primary habitat (like tropical forest), within each of these subregions.
    10. 10. Some implications from my research. . . Sulawesi is subdivided into 16+ subregions of endemism. l Biodiversity will be better conserved by conserving primary habitat (like tropical forest), within each of these subregions. l All forest conservation is not the same when it comes to preserving biodiversity!
    11. 11. Take Home Message: Old science + new technology = greatly improved conservation priority setting
    12. 12. What’s the goal of biodiversity conservation anyway???To minimize the effects of anthropogenic loss of biodiversity, from genes tospecies.
    13. 13. What’s the goal of biodiversity conservation anyway???• To minimize the effects of anthropogenic loss of biodiversity, from genes to species.• To keep the actual extinction rate at or near the level of the “background extinction rate.”
    14. 14. Why is biodiversity conservation important???• Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass extinction of living things
    15. 15. Why is biodiversity conservation important???• Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass extinction of living things• This mass extinction is the fastest in Earths 4.5-billion-year history and, unlike prior extinctions, is mainly the result of human activity and not of natural phenomena.
    16. 16. Why is biodiversity conservation important???• Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass extinction of living things• This mass extinction is the fastest in Earths 4.5-billion-year history and, unlike prior extinctions, is mainly the result of human activity and not of natural phenomena.• Scientists rate biodiversity loss as a more serious environmental problem than the depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, or pollution and contamination.
    17. 17. Why is biodiversity conservation important???• Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass extinction of living things• This mass extinction is the fastest in Earths 4.5-billion-year history and, unlike prior extinctions, is mainly the result of human activity and not of natural phenomena.• Scientists rate biodiversity loss as a more serious environmental problem than the depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, or pollution and contamination.• Anthropogenic biodiversity loss is a global problem, on par with anthropogenic climate change!
    18. 18. Why is biodiversity conservation important???• Seven out of ten biologists believe that we are in the midst of a mass extinction of living things• This mass extinction is the fastest in Earths 4.5-billion-year history and, unlike prior extinctions, is mainly the result of human activity and not of natural phenomena.• Scientists rate biodiversity loss as a more serious environmental problem than the depletion of the ozone layer, global warming, or pollution and contamination.• Anthropogenic biodiversity loss is a global problem, on par with anthropogenic climate change!
    19. 19. Can anything be done about biodiversity conservation???“Flagship species” raise awareness and funds 20
    20. 20. Can tarsiers serve as flagships for biodiversity conservation?
    21. 21. Can tarsiers serve as flagships for biodiversity conservation?The Force says “Yes”!!!
    22. 22. Tarsiers as Flagships
    23. 23. Can anything be done about biodiversity conservation???Nature can be co-opted to help conserve itself! 24
    24. 24. Conclusion Part 1 Why study tarsiers?1. Better understand distribution of biodiversity.2. Charismatic animals can serve as flagship species.And• Biodiversity loss is a worldwide problem on a level similar to that with global warming• Habit conservation in this region is operationally quite similar to mitigation efforts for global warming.
    25. 25. Conclusion Part 1 Why study tarsiers?1. Better understand distribution of biodiversity.2. Charismatic animals can serve as flagship species.And . . . we get two for one!4. Biodiversity loss is a worldwide problem on a level similar to that with global warming5. Habit conservation in this region is operationally quite similar to mitigation efforts for global warming.
    26. 26. -Global Climate Change-The Copenhagen Summit and Accord-My interpretation of the intended effectsfor cooperation between the United Statesand Southeast Asian nations, notablyMalaysia. 27
    27. 27. Background to global climate change . . . A) It’s not new!Global climate change estimates from oxygen isotoperatios during the Phanerozoic Eon (542 Ma!) 28
    28. 28. Background to global climate change . . . B) The effects are profound!Artists impression of Earth during the last glacialmaximum, ca. 12,000 years ago. 29
    29. 29. Background to global climate change . . . B) The effects are profound! North America during last glacial maximum 30
    30. 30. Background to global climate change . . . B) The effects are profound! (even in the tropics!!!) Canon et al. (2009) 31
    31. 31. Background to global climate change . . . Two responses for human society •Mitigation •Adaptation 32
    32. 32. Global Climate Change the American position“We in the Administration are of the view that thescience is not only compelling but indicates the need forprompt and substantial efforts at a global level to reducegreenhouse gas emissions.”--Jonathan Pershing, Deputy Climate Envoy, Department of State 33
    33. 33. Global Climate Change What was COP 15?1. COP 15 = the 15th Conference of Parties, annual meetings dating back to 1995.• Based upon the “Earth Summit” in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, which produced the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change).• COP 3 produced the Kyoto Protocol, 1997: legally binding reductions in emissions. (not ratified by USA). 34
    34. 34. Global Climate Change What happened in Copenhagen1. Representatives from 192 countries.2. Plan was to agree upon a framework for climate change mitigation.3. This did not happen. One expert described it as: “Global geo politics exposed at it rawest level.”4. What did come out, however, was the final product called the Copenhagen Accord, which was not adopted by UNFCCC, and is informal document. 35
    35. 35. Global Climate Change What is the Copenhagen Accord1. Endorses continuation of the Kyoto Protocol.2. Sets mitigation target at 2 degrees Celsius.3. Recognizes "the crucial role of reducing emission from deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas emission by forests", and the need to establish a mechanism (including REDD-plus). 36
    36. 36. Global Climate Change What is REDD-plus, and what does it all mean?1. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation.2. “plus” = Some finance to low deforestation countries so that deforestation doesn’t leak into those areas. Safegaurds: indigenous people, community rights, biodiversity. 37
    37. 37. Global Climate Change What happened in Copenhagen?1. "The meeting has had a positive result, everyone should be happy.” --Chinese delegation. 38
    38. 38. Global Climate Change the American position what does it mean for this region?1. The current administration obviously feels the science of global climate change is compelling and warrants action• The administration is committed to providing mitigation assistance, and sees promise in the REDD-plus option for countries like Malaysia (and Heart of Borneo is one of several likely project that this could be applied to)• It will be much easier to assist Malaysia in this way if it supports the Copenhagen Accord. 39
    39. 39. Global Climate Change the American positionTake home message:The Obama administration is looking for partners to do goodmitigation projects with Southeast Asian nations through someform of cap-and trade in carbon, and is willing to providesubstantial sums of money to accomplish this.(Just a guess, but it’s not rocket science) 40
    40. 40. Haze
    41. 41. HazeBreaking the Cycle
    42. 42. HazeBreaking the Cyclewith Primate Conservation?
    43. 43. HazeBreaking the Cyclewith Primate Conservation?
    44. 44. HazeBreaking the Cyclewith Primate Conservation? Dr. Myron Shekelle Department of Biological Sciences & University Scholars Programme National University of Singapore
    45. 45. Why reduce emissions? Myron Shekelle © 1997 Haze on Borneo, December 1997
    46. 46. Student projects: Independent Studies Module (Fall 2006)“Haze” and Primate Conservation “Preaching to the unconvertible” Breaking the Haze Cycle with Primate Conservation? with Syahirah Bte Abdul Karim & Suhaila Bte Haji Taher with financial assistance from the NUS University Scholars Programme
    47. 47. The Cost USD $4.5 billion . . . in 1997 alone! 85% borne by Indonesia(they did little then, so don’t expect Indonesia to see it in their self-interest to end this problem soon) What can Singaporeans do?
    48. 48. SP1201B_SL1: Haze and Primate Conservation 50
    49. 49. Biodiversity is the Raw Material of Biotechnology:The case of Tarsiers in SE Asia •SE Asia is a biodiversity warehouse. •Singapore is ideally positioned study it. •Biotechnology without biodiversity won’t have utility or value.
    50. 50. Biodiversity is the Raw Material of Biotechnology:The case of Tarsiers in SE Asia •SE Asia is a biodiversity warehouse. •Singapore is ideally positioned study it. •Biotechnology without biodiversity won’t have utility or value.
    51. 51. Correlating Primate Species Richness with Climate• Srivathsan et al. (submitted to International Journal of Primatology). “Southeast Asian Primate Species Richness Correlates Linearly With Rainfall Using GIS Modeling” Sunday, March 16, 2008 Singapore
    52. 52. Species Richness and RainfallCombined Region (Mainland, Sumatra, and Borneo) r2=0.23, p<0.001 r2=0.926, p= 8.4 x 10 -6
    53. 53. Species Richness and SeasonalityCombined Region (Mainland, Sumatra, and Borneo) r2=0.41, p= <0.001 r2Breakpoint=6.67, 6th stratum ≈5 dry months/year =0.84, p= 1.8 x 10-4
    54. 54. Global Analyses
    55. 55. Significant Positive Linear Correlationbetween primate species richness and mean annual rainfall globally Extent of Occurrence Extent of Occurrence (Polygon, No Isolated Regions)
    56. 56. Significant Negative Linear Correlation between primate species richness and seasonality globally Extent of Occurrence Extent of Occurrence (Polygon, No Isolated Regions)
    57. 57. Conservation Implications 2000 Mean annual rainfall 2000WorldClim database (Hijmans et al. 2005)
    58. 58. 2080 Conservation ImplicationsLegendMean Annual Rainfall 2080Rainfall (mm) " 0 - 250 " 251 - 500 " 501 - 750 " 751 - 1000 Mean annual rainfall 2080 " 1001 - 1250 " 1251 - 1500 " 1501 - 1750 WorldClim database (Hijmans et al. 2005) " 1751 - 2000 " 2001 - 2250 " 2251 - 2500 " 2501 - 10000
    59. 59. Conservation Implications• Globally we predict a 2.3% decline in primate species richness capacity by the year 2080.• Variation among regions is large:o Tanjung Puting: -3.8%o Kutai: -7.3%o Vietnam: -8.7%o Central Suriname Reserve: -15.5%
    60. 60. TARSIERS: A Critical Taxon for Southeast Asian Biodiversity Conservation Why my taxon is an excellentindicator/flagship/umbrella species! Dr. Myron Shekelle, Ph.D. Department of Biological Sciences National University of Singapore www.tarsier.org
    61. 61. 63
    62. 62. What I meant . . .(i.e. the whole quote before the editors chopped it out! 64
    63. 63. Western Philippine EasternTarsiers are classified inthree species groups,each endemic to a distinctbiogeographic region. 65
    64. 64. Taxonomy and Distribution of Tarsiers
    65. 65. Primates are found throughout the tropics, butextant tarsiers are found only in insular southeast Asia
    66. 66. Tarsiers Are Very Oldessentially a third independent branch of primatesessentially a third, nearly independent lineage of primates Phylogram of Tarsier Evolutionary History (based on nDNA, Meireles et al. 2003)
    67. 67. •Capacity Building for Sustainable Community-Based Ecotourism DevelopmentDr. Myron ShekelleDirector, tarsier.orgUSA Lessons Learned from Tangkoko BIMP-EAGA Community-Based Ecotourism Conference Driving Growth and Alleviation through Community-based Ecotourism in the BIMP-EAGA Strengthening EAGA Communities through Conservation Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia October 30th - November 1st, 2008
    68. 68. Take Home MessageThere is enormous potential for sustainable community based “ecotourism” inBIMP-EAGA with this recipe:•Nature attracts scientists•Scientists spend grant money locally and train local people as assistants•Adventure tourists trickle in•Former field assistants start small businesses as tour guides and open homestays•Accessibility improves with infrastructure to exploit tourism•Natural history documentary makers consult scientists about where and how to film nature, and scientists recommend their field site, resulting in television crew arriving and spending money locally, hiring former field assistants as laborers and expert assistants•The nature television program provides free marketing about the ecotourism
    69. 69. How long does it take? . . .the hitch.•At Tangkoko, the process from the arrival of the first long-term science project to the present day has been more than 30 years.•But now that we know the recipe, we can hope that future projects can become functional much more quickly How well does it work? . . . other the hitch. It only works so-so.•Partial conservation of nature: Locals actively work to guard against illegal exploitation of the nature reserve in the parts that are profitable to them, but in other regions of the reserve this may not be the case.•Partial fulfillment of economic needs: Economic conditions in the village are aided by “ecotourism”, but still lag well behind expectations, but . . . the local people have not fully tapped the economic potential of Tangkoko.
    70. 70. Summary of Section Three• Educational messages outside of our circle of the converted• Adaptation: Using science to estimate which forests will be most at threat from GCC• Mitigation: deciding which forests will be most beneficial, not just for GCC, but also biodiversity loss. 72
    71. 71. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia(primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines,and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . 73
    72. 72. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia(primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines,and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . .MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign-sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and ourknowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer evenis. 74
    73. 73. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . .customer MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 75
    74. 74. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . .customer nature conservation MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 76
    75. 75. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . donates money ìcustomer nature conservation MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 77
    76. 76. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . donates money ì è pressures governmentcustomer nature conservation MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 78
    77. 77. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . donates money ì è pressures government î pressures businessescustomer nature conservation MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 79
    78. 78. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . donates money î ì CONSERVATION è pressures government è PROJECT î pressures businesses ìcustomer nature conservation MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 80
    79. 79. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . donates money î ì CONSERVATION è pressures government è PROJECT î pressures businesses ìcustomer nature conservation MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 81
    80. 80. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . $ donates money î ì $ $ CONSERVATION è pressures government è PROJECT $ $ î pressures businesses ì $customer $ MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 82
    81. 81. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . $ donates money î ì $ $ CONSERVATION è pressures government è PROJECT $ $ î pressures businesses ì $customer $ MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 83
    82. 82. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . $ donates money î ì $ $ CONSERVATION è pressures government è PROJECT $ $ î pressures businesses ì $customer $ habitat destruction and degradation continues MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 84
    83. 83. My experiences, opinions, and comments based upon 15 years of research and conservation within Southeast Asia (primarily Indonesia and Singapore, with some Philippines, and tiny bits of Cambodia and Thailand) . . . $ donates money î ì $ $ CONSERVATION è pressures government è PROJECT $ $ î pressures businesses ì $customer $ habitat destruction and degradation continues MY TWO CENTS: A large gap has sprung up between our foreign- sponsored conservation projects in Southeast Asia and our knowledge of what the customer wants, or who the customer even is. 85
    84. 84. FOR HOW LONG? $ donates money î ì $ $ CONSERVATION è pressures government è PROJECT $ î pressures businesses ì $customer $ habitat destruction and degradation continues 86
    85. 85. If we want to continue getting money for foreign-sponsored habitat conservation projects, we must practice good business sense (even in the NGO /not-for-profit sphere): KEEP THE CUSTOMER SATISFIED $ donates money î ì $ $ CONSERVATION $ è pressures government è PROJECT $ î pressures businesses ì $customer $ habitat destruction and degradation continues 1. Know what the customer wants. 2. Consistently deliver a product that meets or exceeds the customers expectations. 87
    86. 86. The unconverted and unconvertible are in the USA, too.Successful joint project to mitigate climate change here, helps sway thedebate back in the USA in favor of action, whereas failure could harm it. 88
    87. 87. Thank you! From “Wild Indonesia” by Tigress Films, 1998 filme by Justin Maguire
    88. 88. 22nd Pacific Science Congress • Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia • 13 – 17 June 2011 • www.22ndpsc.net“Asia-Pacific Science: Meeting the Challenges of Climate Change and Globalization”
    89. 89. Question: Does the Climate Research Unit email hackingincident show that a cabal of scientists are trying to rig thepublished literature in favor of anthropogenic globalwarming? 91
    90. 90. Question: Does the Climate Research Unit email hackingincident show that a cabal of scientists are trying to rig thepublished literature in favor of anthropogenic globalwarming? 92
    91. 91. Question: Does the Climate Research Unit email hackingincident show that a cabal of scientists are trying to rig thepublished literature in favor of anthropogenic globalwarming? 93
    92. 92. Question: Do erroneous predictions about Himalayanglaciers discredit the science of global warming? 94
    93. 93. Question: Do erroneous predictions about Himalayanglaciers discredit the science of global warming? 95
    94. 94. Question: But what if the “errors” were on purpose??? 96
    95. 95. Question: But what if the “errors” were on purpose??? 97
    96. 96. Question: But what if the “errors” were on purpose??? 98
    97. 97. Question: What about the American government’s repeatedinsistence on transparency for programs like REDD-plus . . . 99
    98. 98. Question: What about the American government’s repeatedinsistence on transparency for programs like REDD-plus . . .while within America, governmental programs like TARP areanything but transparent; does this indicate that theAmerican government is hypocritical? 100
    99. 99. Conclusion Part 2 Has the science been discredited? Not at all!The science is compelling in spite of the news reports we have heard that claim to discredit the science of global warming: science can sometimes be ugly, and the science of global warming is little different.

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