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Summary of Major Events in Special Education

Summary of Major Events in Special Education

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Timeline Of Relevant Events In Special Education Myrnas Version Timeline Of Relevant Events In Special Education Myrnas Version Presentation Transcript

  • Timeline of Relevant Events in Special Education Dra. Myrna Ayala
    • 1817
    • The American School for the Deaf is founded in Hartford, Connecticut
    • First school for disabled children anywhere in the Western Hemisphere.
    • 1848
    • The Perkins Institution, founded by Samuel Gridley Howe in Boston, Massachusetts, was the first residential institution for people with mental retardation .
    • Over the next century, hundreds of thousands of developmentally disabled children and adults were institutionalized , many for the rest of their lives.
    • 1864
    • Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind was authorized by the U.S. Congress to grant college degrees.
    • It was the first college in the world established for people with disabilities.
    • 1883
    • Eugenics is a term that was coined by Sir Francis Galton in his book Essays in Eugenics . Americans embraced the eugenics movement by passing laws to prevent people with disabilities from moving to the U.S., marrying or having children.
    • Eugenics laws led to the institutionalization and forced sterilization of disabled adults and children.
    • 1912
    • The Threat of the Feeble Minded (pamphlet) created a climate of hysteria allowing for massive human rights abuses of people with disabilities, including institutionalization and forced sterilization.
    • 1922
    • Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) (founded) Council works to inform parents, teachers, and administration about the education of individuals with disabilities. It is dedicated to helping improved the education for all disabled peoples by advocating policies, educating the public, and setting professional standards.
    • 1954
    • The U.S. Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruled that separate schools for black and white children are unequal and unconstitutional.
    • This pivotal decision became a catalyst for the Civil Rights Movement.
  • 60’s and 70’s - Inclusion
    • In the sixties and seventies , initial provision consisted of special education within segregated education provisions .
    • Historically, children with disabilities have been treated as “in-valid” or inferior and in need of very special protection and thus as not being able to benefit from education.
  • 60’s and 70’s - Inclusion
    • This conceptualization led to exclusion and the construction of institutions to accommodate these children. In this view, the child was to blame for not being able to benefit from education.
    • Integration , which began in the West, in the late seventies and early eighties was spurred by a progressive educational ideology.
  • 60’s and 70’s - Inclusion
    • The parallel system to traditional schooling that developed, came to be known as Special Education.
    • The second stage in this development has taken the form of Special Needs Education. Special Needs Education, is a system of education for children with disabilities within ordinary schools . This form of education represents an effort to provide education in more ‘normal’ settings. However, a common characteristic of this provision of education is that it has been offered in special classes and not in cooperation with other ‘mainstream’ children.
  • 60’s and 70’s - Inclusion
    • Inclusive education was originally set out to meet the needs of learners who were being traditionally excluded from the school or were otherwise marginalized within the classroom.
    • A series of shifts from focusing on the disabled child as a problem to focusing on changes in the management of the classroom, revealed surprising changes in learning.
    • The results demonstrated benefits to those who were traditionally excluded from learning as well as all the others in the classroom.
    • Today inclusive education or ‘inclusion in education’ is a conceptual approach aimed at achieving quality education by making changes to accommodate all learners regardless of their physical, social or psychological differences.
  • 60’s and 70’s - Inclusion
    • Inclusive education differs from previously held notion of ‘integration’ and ‘mainstreaming,’ which tended to be concerned principally with ‘special educational needs’ and implied learners changing or becoming ‘ready for’ accommodation by the mainstream.
    • By contrast, inclusion is about the child’s right to participate and the school’s duty to accept and ensure this right.
  • 60’s and 70’s - Inclusion
    • Inclusion is seen as a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education .
  • 60’s and 70’s - Inclusion
    • Four (4) key elements have tended to feature strongly in the conceptualisation of inclusion
      • Is a process : has to be seen as a never-ending search to find better ways of responding to diversity
      • 2. Is concerned with the identification and removal of barriers : involves collecting, collating and evaluating information from a wide variety of sources in order to plan for improvements in policy and practice. It is about using evidence of various kinds to stimulate creativity and problem-solving.
  • 60’s and 70’s - Inclusion
    • Four (4) key elements ...
      • 3. Is about the presence, participation and achievement of all students : ‘presence’ is concerned with where children are educated, and how reliably and punctually they attend; ‘participation’ relates to the quality of their experiences and, therefore, must incorporate the views of the learners themselves; and ‘achievement’ is about the outcomes of learning across the curriculum, not merely test or examination results.
      • 4. Involves a particular emphasis on those groups of learners who may be at risk of marginalisation, exclusion or underachievement . This indicates the moral responsibility to ensure that those groups that are statistically most ‘at risk’ are carefully monitored, and that, where necessary, steps are taken to ensure their presence, participation and achievement in the education system.
    • 1972
    • The U.S. District Court, District of Columbia ruled in Mills v. Board of Education that the District of Columbia could not exclude disabled children from the public schools.
    • The U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, in PARC v. Pennsylvania struck down various state laws used to exclude disabled children from the public schools. Advocates cited these decisions during public hearings that led to the passage of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.  
    • 1973
    • The Rehabilitation Act was passed.
    • Sections 501, 503 and 504 prohibited discrimination in federal programs and services and all other programs or services receiving federal funds.
    • 1973
    • The Rehabilitation Act
    • Key language: “No otherwise qualified handicapped individual in the United States, shall, solely by reason of his handicap, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
    • 1975
    • The Education of All Handicapped Children Act ( PL 94-142 ) required free, appropriate public Education ( FAPE ) in the least restrictive ( LRE ) setting.
    • This Act was later renamed The Individuals With Disabilities Education Act ( IDEA ).
    • 1975
    • The Association of Persons with Severe Handicaps ( TASH ) was founded by special education professionals in response to PARC v. Pennsylvania (1972) and other right-to-education cases.
    • This organization called for the end of aversive behavior modification and the closing of all residential institutions for people with disabilities.
  • 1988 The "Deaf President Now" protest was held at Gallaudet University. I. King Jordan became the first deaf president of Gallaudet University .
    • 1990
    • The Americans with Disabilities Act
    • (signed by George W. Bush)
    • Provided comprehensive civil rights protection for people with disabilities.
    • Mandated access in public transportation, communication, and in other areas of public life.
    • 1990
    • ADA law was the most sweeping disability rights legislation in history.
    • It mandated that local, state and federal governments and programs be accessible ,
    • that businesses with more than 15 employees make “reasonable accommodations ” for disabled workers and
    • that public accommodations such as restaurants and stores make “reasonable modifications” to ensure access for disabled members of the public.
    • 1990
    • The Education for All Handicapped Children Act was amended and renamed the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    • 2001
    • The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law becomes enacted calling for ALL students to become proficient in reading and math by the year 2014.
    • 2004
    • Re authorization of IDEA
  • Timeline of Relevant Events in Special Education Dra. Myrna Ayala