Personality refers to an individual’s unique pattern of enduring psychological and behavioral characteristics, which allow us to identify the differences between people.
Aspects of Personality
The mental aspects
The emotional aspect.
The social aspects.
The moral aspects.
Projective tests are assessment techniques that require individuals to respond to unstructured or ambiguous stimuli that have no obvious meaning.
Objective tests are typically paper-and-pencil tests which require an individual to provide a self-report on various aspects of their personality.
APPROACHES IN STUDYING PERSONALITY
PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES -Freud proposed that the mind consists of three separate but interacting elements: the id, ego , and superego . The id operates on the pleasure principle , whereas the ego operates on the reality principle
Defense Mechanisms by Sigmund Freud (Lupdag, 2005)
Compensation- Ones cover up weaknesses be emphasizing desirable traits or by making up for frustration in one area by over gratification in another area.
Denial of Reality- Protection of oneself from unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it.
Displacement- Directing one’s anger or other emotions and feelings to objects or persons other than those had aroused said emotions/ feelings/.
Emotional Insulation- One withdraws from others to avoid being hurt.
Fantasy- Frustrated desired are gratified through imaginary achievements.
Identification- Increasing self worth by identifying with well known person(s) or institution(s).
Projection- The person blames others or attributes one’s undesirable desires to others.
Rationalization- One gives reason for failures to protect his self worth.
Reaction Formation- A person behaves differently from his true desires.
Regression- Behaving in a manner associated with a lower level of development.
Repression- Preventing painful or dangerous thoughts from entering consciousness.
Sublimation- One’s frustrated sexual desires are gratified by substitute non-sexual activities.
Undoing- one atones counteracts a previous undesirable act.
PHENOMENOLOGICAL or HUMANISTIC APPROACHES –
Abraham Maslow believed that humans have a hierarchical set of needs which must be fulfilled in the following order: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization .
APA defines personality disorder as:
“ An enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture, is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment”
Cluster A -- People who appear "odd or eccentric."
These are among the most unpleasant people in the world. Every remark you make is exhaustively analyzed for hidden meanings; everything you do is interpreted in the worst possible light; everyone is believed to have an agenda, an angle.
Schizoid means split-off, in this case split-off from society. These are the loners of the world. Emotionally cold, they don't have friends or family, and they are quite content with that situation.
It is only when you add a little paranoia, a degree of social isolation and some social anxiety.
a combination of slight psychotic tendencies mixed with social anxiety and/or Asperger's syndrome.
Cluster B -- Highly egocentric people who may appear "dramatic, emotional, erratic."
Consistent disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others
Parasite and/or predatory lifestyle
Erratic and intense relationships
Alternates between over-idealization and and devaluation of others
Inappropriately intense anger and/or mood swings
Chronic feelings of emptiness
This may lead to the quest for stimulation through provocation or escalation of conflict
Pattern of excessive emotionality
Need for excitement
Flamboyant and theatrical in speech and behavior
Impressionistic and impulsive
has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements)
is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love
believes that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
is interpersonally exploitive, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends; lacks empathy
is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others
is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her
shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.
requires excessive admiration; has a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations
Cluster C -- People who appear "anxious or fearful."
Pattern of social inhibition
Feelings of inadequacy
Hypersensitivity to criticism
Pattern of submissive and clinging behavior
Excessive need for care and nurturance
They cling to others to receive guidance and direction
Obsessive- Compulsive PD
These are the perfectionists among us - not the ones who simply want to do their best, but the ones who panic when things aren't perfect.
Psychotherapy is a general term that describes psychological treatments designed to help people resolve behavioral, emotional, and interpersonal problems and improve the quality of their lives. Clinical psychologists and counseling psychologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and behavioral problems.
Based primarily on the work of Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis emphasizes the uncovering of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association, dream interpretation, and transference .
B ehavior modification.
Social skills training is designed to improve interpersonal skills that emphasizes modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and shaping.
Biofeedback a bodily function is monitored, and information about the function is fed back to the person to facilitate improved control of the physiological process.
Involves administering an electric shock in order to produce a cortical seizure.
Include a variety of compounds used to treat various symptoms of the psychological disorders, but none of them provides a cure for these disorders.
Anxiolytics (e.g., valium) relieve tension, apprehension, and nervousness (i.e., anxiety).
Antipsychotics (e.g., thorazine) gradually reduce the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia.
Antidepressants (e.g., prozac) gradually elevate mood and bring people out of a depression.
Lithium is a drug used to control the mood swings of bipolar disorder.