Market research presentation - Emilie MOLIES

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Fear, guilt & shame: The use of emotions in advertising to change public behaviour

Fear, guilt & shame: The use of emotions in advertising to change public behaviour

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  • Advert 1: 2008 – Anti-smoking campaign made for CONAC (Chilean Corporation Against Cancer). Slogan « Smoking isn’t just suicide. It’s murder. »
    Advert 2: 2011 – Alcohol and side-effects… made for PLCB (Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board) – part of « Control tonight » media-campaign
    Advert 3: 2012 – Advert for the French movie « Les Infidèles »
    Popular way to advert. Emotion generated by an advert are linked to consumer’s reaction
  • Timotei (2005): Styling mousse (http://theinspirationroom.com/daily/2006/timotei-styling-mousse-lion/)
    Nespresso (2007): « Nespresso. What else? »
    Perrier (1976): « Perrier, c’est fou » (http://lescopainsd-abord.over-blog.com/article-la-main-baladeuse-culte-de-la-pub-perrier-1976-par-nath-didile-114801916.html)
    Williams, K. C. () « Improving fear appeal ethics », Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, [Electronic], http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/11906.pdf [Feb. 25th 2013]
  • Fear Appeal Messages and Their Effectiveness in Advertising: http://voices.yahoo.com/fear-appeal-messages-their-effectiveness-advertising-31626.html
    Fear Marketing: http://loyaltysquare.com/fear_marketing.php
  • http://amyjokim.com/2012/09/26/negative-emotions-in-advertising-and-game-design/
    http://sad-vertising.blogspot.fr/index.html
    Pearson, B. (2012) « From Selling Beauty to Selling Fear – Sunshine is dangerous », The Conference Board Review, [Electronic], http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=78349096&lang=fr&site=ehost-live [March 8th 2013]
  • Thai life insurance advert: http://youtu.be/FCHPWH-ZQ_k
  • Moore, D. J., and Hoenig, S., (1989), « Negative Emotions As Mediators of Attitudes in Advertising Appeals”, NA - Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 16, pp. 581-586, http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=6966
    [March 11th 2013]
  • Advert for child abuse: banned by ASA in 2008 because the statistic figures where too old (study made in 2000) and was therefore misleading (campaignlive.co.uk)
    NHS advert: “highest number of complaints in 2007”. To show addiction to smoking.
    AIM of this adverts: COMPLAINTS/BUZZ
  • International Code of Advertising practices: http://actrav.itcilo.org/actrav-english/telearn/global/ilo/guide/iccadv.htm#Basic%20Principles
  • £2billion loss: fraud and errors in the system
  • DWP (2009): “Benefit thieves. It’s not if we catch you, it’s when.”
  • Results from DWP report “Reducing Fraud in the Benefit System” (2005)
    DWP advert from 2009: “Benefit thieves. It’s not if we catch you, it’s when.”
  • Anorexia: Shown during Milano’s fashion week (2007)
    NSPCC (National Society for Preventing Child Cruelty): « Don’t lose control » (2005 - http://www.thirdsector.co.uk/news/616297/)
  • NSPCC (National Society for Preventing Child Cruelty): « Don’t lose control » (2005 - http://www.thirdsector.co.uk/news/616297/)
  • Bushmaster firearms advert (2010): « Considered your man card reissued »
    Shoot ‘em up (2007): these posters were banned in UK, scared to « glorify the use of guns » (http://snarkerati.com/movie-news/shoot-em-up-adverts-banned-in-uk-for-glamorising-violent-gun-culture/)
    Williams, K. C. () « Improving fear appeal ethics », Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, [Electronic], http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/11906.pdf [Feb. 25th 2013]
  • Alcohol and side-effects of binge drinking (banned)… made for PLCB (Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board) – part of « Control tonight » media-campaign
    http://osocio.org/message/bad_anti_drinking_campaign_ends_in_regret/
    http://controltonight.com/
  • Common real fears – other examples: anti-ageing products, lose weight,…
    Pearson, B. (2012) « From Selling Beauty to Selling Fear – Sunshine is dangerous », The Conference Board Review, [Electronic], http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=78349096&lang=fr&site=ehost-live [March 8th 2013]
    “How often have you been warned that if you no longer visit a specific store, you'll miss its supersales and great offers?”
  • Mukherjee, A. and Dubé, L. (2012) « Mixing emotions: The use of humor in fear advertising », Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Wiley Online Library [Electronic], DOI: 10.1002/cb.389 [March 7th 2013]
  • Wade, L. (2009), « Threatening women with unattractiveness for a good cause », The Society Pages, http://thesocietypages.org/socimages/2009/01/31/threatening-women-with-unattractiveness/ [March 11th 2013]
    « Wine doesn’t just come with cheese. For women it’s also accompanied by hair loss, wrinkles, and obesity, plus the other problems like breast cancer, early menopause and memory loss”
    Militzer, J. (2013), “Fear Factor: Should we scare people into healthy behavior?”, http://www.nextbillion.net/blogpost.aspx?blogid=3097 [March 11th 2013]
    (CDC – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – US)
  • K-fee (~2006): «so wach warst du noch nie » ~ you have never been so awake (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5fybBwlxHNc&feature=youtu.be)
  • Nicotinell advert (2008) for World No Tobacco Day (May 31st)

Transcript

  • 1. Fear, guilt and shame The use of emotions in advertising to change public behaviour Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 1/24
  • 2. Table of contents Use of emotions: why? Negative emotions: why? How to regulate? Case study: Benefit fraud Other examples To go further... Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 2/24
  • 3. Use of emotions: why? • • • • To “attract attention” To be unforgettable To “create particular brand associations”  Finally: to sell the product/service Effectiveness? Manipulation? Ethics? Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 3/24
  • 4. Why negative emotions? • A way to persuade people to change (Severin and Tankard) • ”To persuade the audience in avoiding the negative effect by practicing the positive behavior” (LaTour, et al.).  oftenly used in addiction/public health/security campaigns Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 4/24
  • 5. Why negative emotions? • “Sad-vertising” (David Bonnet) - Thai life insurance advert “The marketing message behind all of these products is the same: if you don’t buy it, something bad will happen. You’ll get fat. You’ll go bald. You won’t perform. No one will love you. Your family will be left homeless and penniless. You’ll be an outcast”. (Pearson, 2012:24) http://youtu.be/FCHPWH-ZQ_k Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 5/24
  • 6. Why negative emotions? Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 6/24
  • 7. Why negative emotions? • Sad-vertising: why it works? Moore and Henig, (1989) Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 7/24
  • 8. Negative emotions: examples • • • Benetton: shocking campaigns NHS (UK): addiction to smoking NSPCC (UK): child abuse Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 8/24
  • 9. How to regulate? • ASA (Advertising Standards Authority) in UK • International Code of Advertising Practice: “Advertisements should not without justifiable reason play on fear”  Fairly subjective  Should negative emotions should be used? Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 9/24
  • 10. Case study: Benefit fraud • Purpose: “to change the culture of tolerance that sustains fraud”, benefit fraud = real crime • Commissioned by: DWP (Department for Work and Pensions) • Loss estimation: £2billion/year (2003) • 60% are linked to Income Support, Jobseeker’s Allowance & Housing benefits (2003) • Launched nationally in Feb. 2001 • Ways to advert: Internet, TV, press, radio, outdoor adverts http://youtu.be/394Fs2Hj4W4 Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 10/24
  • 11. Case study: Benefit fraud Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 11/24
  • 12. Case study: Benefit fraud • • Results: 41% benefit fraud (1998-2005) UK government: biggest spender on advertising during this period in UK Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 12/24
  • 13. Case study: Benefit fraud Emotions: FEAR - GUILT • Being trapped: Big Brother is watching you • Living in the fear to be caught • Don’t be a benefit fraud partner: tell us about it Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 13/24
  • 14. Other examples • Anorexia (fear, shame, guilt) Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 14/24
  • 15. Other examples • Child cruelty (shame, guilt) Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 15/24
  • 16. Other examples • Buying flowers (guilt, shame) Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 16/24
  • 17. To go further... • Can any product be advertised in any way? What about ethics? Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 17/24
  • 18. To go further... • Is the advert really clear?  what’s the message here? Perceived message = Don’t drink otherwise you can be raped! Real message = Help your friends stay in control Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 18/24
  • 19. To go further... • Different ways to use FEAR when promoting your product  Using common real fears (Pearson, 2012: 24) e.g. sunscreens, Viagra, insurance Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 19/24
  • 20. To go further... • Different ways to use FEAR when promoting your product  Using humor to mitigate “defensive response” and “increase the persuasiveness of fear advertising” (Mukherjee and Dubé, 2012) High fear  high defensive answers  less persuasive message High fear + humor  less defensive answers  more persuasive message Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 20/24
  • 21. To go further... Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 21/24
  • 22. To go further... • Different ways to use FEAR when promoting your product  Using “instant fear” (Coffee advert) http://youtu.be/5fybBwlxHNc Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 22/24
  • 23. To go further... Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 23/24
  • 24. Thank you! Emilie Moliés – Market Research - 2013 24/24