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The main directions of the modern politology

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  • 1. 1 The main directions of the modern politology The main directions of the modern politology are going to be considered in this essay. To begin with we would like to provide definition of the term “politology”. In our opinion, one of the most appropriate definitions of this term is the following. “Politology is the study of government and political processes, institutions, and behavior. Government and politics have been studied and commented on since the time of the ancient Greeks. However, it is only with the general systematization of the social sciences in the last 100 years that political science has emerged as a separate definable area of study” (Politology Definition). In our time, American political science researches are conducted in the following areas: Study of the principles of management and policy (national political institutions, electoral technology, political leadership, political behavior, etc.; Comparative politics that is concerned with the study of political problems in many countries; International relations and world politics (the study of the problems of war and peace, of international organizations, monitoring disarmament, international public organizations); Political philosophy and political science (the development of a wide range of issues in political science and its philosophical interpretations). Development of content and methods of applied political science that studies the practical aspects of policy at different levels (individual, social group, society in general). In the postwar period in Europe various national schools of political science have been developed. They have their own specifics and peculiarities. Modern British political science deals primarily with behavioral studies, which can be divided into two main areas: economic and sociological. Economic policy direction regards to sphere of rational people who want to have maximum profit. Sociological direction
  • 2. 2 considers political behavior the result of cultural traditions and value systems in which the person complies in most cases unconsciously. The emergence of political science in France is associated with the names of Dyuhy L., M. Oriu, A. Esmena. But the most famous scientists among French political scientists are Raymond Aron and Maurice Duverger, whose most attention in was paid to the problems of power-sharing, the ratio of power and authority, liberal democracy and political parties. Political science in Germany has its own specific features. Since its inception German political science has had political and philosophical nature and it can be seen in the research of Max Weber and Robert Michels. Weber developed the concept of "bureaucratic democracy." He believed that the main threat to a democratic government is based on the increasing bureaucratization of the state and society, because this technology requires the selection of the political elite, which would enable subordinate bureaucracy democratic goals. Since the 70's of the twentieth century, political science research in Germany has been developing quite rapidly. The main areas have been the following: the normative political science, which is based on an analysis of the moral norms of political activity. etc. Pretty strong political science schools are established in Italy and Canada. Within the sociological trend in political science Pareto and Mosca developed the foundations of modern concepts elite. They considered historical feature of all human societies, their division into elite and non elite and elite vortex stabilization and degradation - the driving force of social development. Significant contribution to the development of modern political science has been done Polish national school. Leading political scientists of Poland are A. Bodnar, E. Vyatr, J. Hyde, M. Karvat, T. Klementovych.
  • 3. 3 Among the main problems of the Western political science the following ones may be pointed out: the problem of defining of the subject of political science - the rule of democracy and public opinion - the study of pluralistic nature of the political process - the priority of civil and human rights as the foundation of freedom. As for the definition of the modern political science, the Western Political researches spread understanding of politics as an activity aimed at the reconciliation of different interests within the state. Such a broad definition of politics is a broad understanding of science and political science, which combines political philosophy and political theory, the theory of state and law, sociology and political theory of representation and elections, sociology, political relations and political economy. Increased attention to the issue of democracy and the rule of public opinion is a testament to the process of democratization of social life in all its manifestations. Industrial capitalism requires mobile and active personality type. A central axiom that underpins the Western system is sovereignty of public opinion. Before World War I issue of public opinion had developed within the theory of popular sovereignty. Then it was thought that public opinion can be determined by the public if its implementation is perceived minority, which it did not approve. After the First World War began stage survey of public opinion formation and social institutions associated with the formation and operation of public opinion as a political force. The main practical issue was how to make people to think the same way they did? After the first attempt to manipulate public opinion sociological evidence of sovereignty of public opinion and its positive role in society was needed. It is one of the main trends in this science nowadays.
  • 4. 4 Works cited Crovelli, M. Modern Political Science Is a Farce. 25 Oct. 2012, <http://www.lewrockwell.com/crovelli/crovelli10.html> Politology Definition. 25 Oct. 2012, <http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Politology> Political Science. 25 Oct. 2012, <http://www.lsa.umich.edu/polisci>

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