Source bulletin 63-2011
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Source bulletin 63-2011

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SOURCE Bulletin is published quarterly by IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre in ...

SOURCE Bulletin is published quarterly by IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre in
cooperation with the Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council.
Editor: Dick de Jong (jong@irc.nl). Contributors: Cor Dietvorst (dietvorst@irc.nl); Caridad
Machin Camacho (camacho@irc.nl); Petra Brussee (brussee@irc.nl); Nick Dickinson
(dickinson@irc.nl); Marielle Snel (Snel@irc.nl); Peter McIntyre (petermcintyre@btconnect.
com); Dave Trouba (david.trouba@wsscc.org).
IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, P.O. Box 82327, 2508 EH, The Hague, The
Netherlands, tel. +31 70 3044000, fax +31 70 3044044, e-mail: general@irc.nl. Internet:
http://www.irc.nl
You can subscribe to Source Weekly and the quarterly Special Features Edition via the Source
web page at: http://www.source.irc.nl/ or by sending a message to: sourceweekly-join@
watsan.net.

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    Source bulletin 63-2011 Source bulletin 63-2011 Document Transcript

    • w w w. s o u r c e . i r c . n l /“WASH services that last” focus in 2011How can WASH services be built to • The need to pull together key data andlast? This critical question for sustainable methodology and sell it to decision In cooperation withservices will be given a special focus in makers in donor organisations andthe four Source feature issues planned for government was one of the central2011. In each issue we will publish stories messages to emerge from the IRCthat will be tagged as “WASH services Symposium, Pumps, Pipes and Promisesthat last”. in November 2010. A round-up report from Peter McIntyre highlights the highIn this issue of Source Bulletin, three cost of failed services and the way inarticles highlight outputs and lessons from which households have to pick up thethe two major programmes WASHCost pieces themselves (Page 9).and Triple-S that are funded by the Billand Melinda Gates Foundation: Cover the costs of maintenance• Quotes highlighting the links in the and replacement chain for sustainable services, a field The Triple-S study found a critical lack of story from Ghana. Nick Dickinson spent life-cycle costing for capital investment, two months recently in Ghana assisting minor and major repairs, direct and the process documentation work of indirect support costs and the costs of IRC and WASHCost teams there and he worked with photographer Peter capital for asset replacement. Even in the DiCampo on a photo story to highlight USA, rural water service providers must the governance issues involved in tap soft loans and grants to cover major Highlights securing water services (Page 5). repairs and replacements. • “WASH services that lasts” focus in 2011• Ensuring rural water services that While three quarters of the total cost of • Can we close the loop by making money from last: lessons from a 13-country study, meeting the MDG water and sanitation poop? Gladys Quispe thinks so by Sarah Garriger, who highlights target is needed for maintaining and • Northern Uganda: Water’s open door lessons from a recently completed a • Helping the people of Masaba sub-county access replacing existing structures, only 13% of 13-country study to identify factors water and sanitation through joining hands current funding for water and sanitation that contribute to, or constrain, the • Sustainable WASH services from eight major donor agencies is in fact delivery of sustainable rural water • Quotes highlighting the links in the chain for earmarked for this. services at scale. Sarah is providing sustainable services communication support to the Triple-S Dick de Jong • Ensuring rural water services that last: Lessons project (Page 8). from a 13-country study • IRC Symposium challenges WASH sector to cost and finance sustainable services Confirm your interest to receive Source Bulletin News from the WSSCC • The road to SACOSAN IV: addressing equity and Dear reader of the paper version of Source Bulletin, in order to reduce the increasing inclusion issues distribution costs we are asking you to renew your interest to receive Source Bulletin. • West African delegates visit Bangladesh – a As of now we will be offering Source Bulletin still free of charge by e-mail in various great example of sharing and learning between versions. countries • Menstrual Hygiene Management E-mail us at sourceregistration@irc.nl with your e-mail, name and organisation if you • WSSCC to Host Global Forum on Sanitation and want to change your paper subscription to an e-mail version. Hygiene • Confirm your WSSCC membership or join now! If you live in a developing country and do not have e-mail you can still receive the paper version free of charge. You need to fill out the form on the pre-addressed return News from IRC card, and send it to us by regular mail. • Switching politicians on to sustainable city water • Cities can show the way to sustainable, efficient If you don’t send the form back to us we assume that you don’t want to receive Source and equitable management of water resources Bulletin anymore and we will stop sending the paper version to your address. • World Water Day 2011: Waste water is a liquid asset The Source team • IRC to help African communities and schools boost community-led sanitationSource Bulletin No. 63 - March 2011 Page 1
    • Can we close the loop by making money from poop? Gladys Quispe thinks so I wipe the dust from my eyes for what We had a toilet in the basement, and surely feels like the hundredth time, resist the it must have flooded too? A similar thing urge to scratch the nagging bites around happens in San Pedro, but it happens every my ankles, and lean in closer to hear what year and is not solved with a sump pump Gladys Quispe has to say, as the squeaking and two crabby parents. Most homes pigs and clucking chickens compete with consist of three separate structures; one the feisty Bolivian woman. We have found room where the family sleeps- from 4-12 the only shade in her patio underneath people; a kitchen where women and girls a banana grove on this unusually hot spend most of the day preparing and morning. Gladys doesn’t know it, but she’s cooking food over wood fires, and finally, famous. Word that a woman had organised usually in the corner of the lot-as far other women in her barrio into a woman- away as possible, but still on the family’s run business had reached me and I was property-is a three-sided, un-roofed, waist- eager to meet the ‘compost’ lady. high simple pit latrine. I can see the indents from the latrines of past years; those whose In San Pedro, Bolivia, a town of mostly contents were spread throughout the migrants from other parts of Bolivia, we neighbourhood with the yearly rains. are here to listen, learn, and improve our sanitation programming. The town is cut off Comfort and money from the rest of the world for 2-4 months We can’t stop the rains, but we can stop out of the year when the nearby River Pirai them from spreading shit into people’s swells its banks and covers everything. Gladys Quispe, the ‘compost’ lady cooking areas, bedrooms, and neighbours’ Nearly all the houses are made from wood homes. For several years, we have been or chuchillo, a local plant that reminds me supporting an ecological sanitation is starting to see some of her investments of super-sized sugar cane. Men spend all programme in the region, in which come back and surely this cold hard cash day-or week-in their fields tending to rice, elevated, alternating-twin pit toilets have prize will help take this to the next level. soy, and sugarcane. been constructed with local government, Bathroom Few own their land, and many have lost community, and Water For People support. the last two years of rice to erratic weather. It was time to have a look and see what As we saunter under umbrellas from housePage 2 Women, and more often than not, their was working and what was not. Gladys to house, we stop at a large piece of land daughters, stay at home doing all that is one of the women “thinking out of the that she is renting for the construction of needs to be done to get by in places where bowl” in her community, and seeing how a much larger production area. Gulping wood needs chopping before you can ecological sanitation can make her life down chicha de maiz, she points out the cook, water needs to be stored to wash more comfortable, beyond having a safe, work that they have already done and the clothes, and the never-ending fight against private, place to go to the bathroom, but excitement in her voice for her future plans dust requires constant efforts. Mother also putting some much-needed income in is contagious. “Ese baño es una maravilla,” Nature was particularly nasty this year, her pocket. she says as she gives it a gentle pat, “no bringing flood levels not seen in years solamente no huele, es más sano, y me Gladys breaks out into a hearty laugh as we and hemorrhagic dengue in addition to da unos bolivianitos.” (This bathroom is come up with creative strategies on how “regular” dengue. The water level marks on a wonder; not only does it not smell bad, to get difficult men in the neighbourhood the homes tell stories of past floods and the it’s healthier and gives me a little bit of on the pot, as we walk over to her field hardships that go along living in several feet income). trial site. Since emptying her toilet last of water each year. Glady’s story is a bright one in a sea year for the first time, Gladys has been Taking stock of Gladys’s home, I remember experimenting with plants and fertilizers. of failed sanitation projects not only our basement flooding when I was a child. She thinks she has found the magic mix, in San Pedro, but the world over. One after trying several different types of of the lessons learned after the 1980s fertilizers on a variety of ornamental plants International Water and Sanitation Decade, and citrus fruits. was that sanitation programming must be determined by customer demand. Gladys is She doesn’t think small, though, this 34 an “early adopter” as marketers would call year old mother of three. Recently, her her and her successful toilet-fertiliser-plant women’s group won a 30,000 Boliviano business could be just the local catalyst ($4,200) prize for productive sanitation. needed to convince others to use their They have been collecting neighbours’ bathroom effectively, and to reap some of compost and they started a small business the “unconventional” benefits, too. selling plants. Her customers say that her One of the prize winning field stories in the plants are larger than others of the same Source story contest 2010. Kate Fogelberg age and in the past few months since the (KFogelberg@waterforpeople.org), Regional business began, she has pulled in several Manager, South America, Water For People. Gladys’nursery using manure from her toilet with hundred bolivianos. This is the first year she plants in used yoghurt bags. Page 2
    • Northern Uganda: Water’s open doorAt Akodokodoi village in Northern Uganda, At this point, the pace of the conversationthe tree divides us. On one side, we the picks up. There is some back and forthproject staff from CARE and partner between the men and the women. The restorganisations sit on short wooden folding of us wait impatiently for the translation.chairs, forming a loose circle with the men. As I understand it, the men’s viewpoint boilsOn the other side of the tree the women down to this: collecting water is a woman’ssettle themselves on the ground. I wonder burden to shoulder. One of the men goesif they prefer this shield of separateness, the as far as to say that he paid a bride pricebetter to breastfeed their children or shift for his wife and the issue of going to verifythem around on their laps. Some look off how long it takes to get water is none ofinto the distance or tug distractedly at tufts his business, she must work. A womanof grass, their legs stretched out in front of Meeting with men, Photo: CARE 2010 counters that she finds the issue of bridethem. price insulting. seen from direct experience in projects thatBut to assume the women to be prioritise women’s involvement, but also has The situation in Akodokodoi village is bydisinterested observers would be a mistake. far-reaching repercussions, as these norms are no means typical. But it’s far from unusual.After the men speak of how the community also at the heart of many other poverty and It was proof to me that water is not aworked with us to get the borehole that social justice issues. neutral issue but rather a deeply genderedis now their main water source, we ask and political one. Women get stuck with Willing to challenge the status quo?the women what difference the borehole the burden of collecting it, a matter inhas made for them. They speak without For development organisations, what if one which they have little choice. Women arehesitation and with the precision of those of our criteria for selecting communities to usually left out of decisions about howthat know what they’re talking about. The assist with water access was whether they water is used and accessed, particularlyfirst thing a woman named Janet Adongo would be willing to challenge the status when it is used for productive purposes likesays is that that their husbands don’t beat quo, having men and boys help with water agriculture.them anymore. In the past, they would collection responsibilities? What if policyleave early in the morning to walk three Access to safe water reduces death from makers prioritised women’s control andkilometres to the nearest water point at a diarrhoeal disease, helps keep children in ownership of water and land as an importantschool. Once there, they stood in line for school and frees up time that can be spent issue as their right to an education? What ifhours. They came home to find husbands making a living. But this only temporarily councils and watershed management bodiesirate with hunger because lunch hadn’t ameliorates some of the unfairness to actively sought the participation of womenbeen prepared yet and suspicious of their women and girls. If water scarcity increases in decision-making bodies, realising that menwives’ whereabouts. Violence ensued. once again, girls will be the first ones to and women think about and use water in very be pulled out of school to search for water different ways? What if donors supported“This facility is encouraging our husbands while their brothers remain undisturbed. smarter policies towards the provision ofto love us more,” says one woman. What are the implications for development water and sanitation?The fact that lack of water close by leads to organisations, donors, governments and After its heated turn, the conversationdomestic violence was no surprise to me, other actors who promote, advocate in Akodokodoi village flowed to otherhaving seen in other countries how water and directly implement interventions testimonies of what a critical difference thescarcity affects practically every aspects that increase access to safe water and water point made for the community. But Iof domestic life. Yet this situation seemed sanitation? If providing access to safe water was most moved by the early words of thoseparticularly egregious. and sanitation puts us at the nexus of women who were not afraid to speak the“Why,” I question with the boldness of the power and prejudice it also gives us an open truth. Let’s act with the same boldness.naïve, “do the men not believe their wives door into changing and challenging cultural One of the prize winning field stories in the Sourcewhen they say it takes half a day to get and institutional norms that perpetuate stories contest.water?” inequity. Doing so not only improves the Malaika Wright, Learning and Communications effectiveness of the programmes, as we’ve Officer, CARE USA Water Team, mwright@care.orgHelping the people of Masaba sub-county access water and sanitationthrough joining handsI am Bilabi Moses, a second year student that flood and contaminate the waters reached, women move for fairly longof the Uganda Christian University. I come making it unsafe for drinking. The poor distances to look for protected springs.from Buboolo parish, Bukissa Village, sanitation in Masaba communities is mainly The number of latrines in families is lowMasaba sub-county in Sironko district of due to ignorance and conservativeness since compared to the population in that someEastern Uganda. Masaba sub-county is almost 60% of the population is illiterate. families have resorted to sharing latrinescharacterised as being hilly since it is in the The water and sanitation problems have and this is as a result of poverty, lazinessMt Elgon region and blessed with many resulted in poverty because of constant and lack of knowledge on sanitation.rivers. visits to hospitals as a result of water and Intervention sanitation related diseases. In some placesThe sanitation and safety of the water here As a young boy, the Masiyompo Movement where our intervention in water has notis still poor because of constant heavy rains which works in this sub-county, supportedSource Bulletin No. 63 - March 2011 Page 3
    • me as an orphan and this motivated me Disseminating lessons to has reached so that sustainability is to take up some of the challenges they communities realised. were facing in order to address the water 4. I have developed a data bank with We have developed an extensive base of pictorials showing water and sanitation and sanitation needs of the communities. WASH information so that communities are activities so that communities can In 2004, they saw the need to set up a able to join hands in taking up the challenge learn from within and outside their sustainable water project in Masaba sub- of improving the accessibility of water and geographical locations hence improving county and this project was instituted. It has sanitation. I am also documenting several the access. supplied several communities in sub-county proposals requesting for funds so that our 5. There is increased community with safe piped water using gravity flow communities can access more water and participation and sharing of knowledge technology. Today this has helped families improve their hygiene and sanitation state. through door to door sensitisations, joint to spend less on medication as it used I have imitated the idea of promoting action on water and sanitation activities to do because the water is 90% safe for learning forums at the parish level every five and learning forums. consumption and free from contaminations months where we call together community 6. Sanitation and hygiene has improved up by man and animals, unlike river water. leaders of water and sanitation activities so to 40% through effective and innovative Sanitation has improved at least by 10% that they can share achievements, problem approaches. from 30% to 40%. and failures What have you done to ensure that In 2009, I started an active role in seeing you and your neighbour get water and that water and sanitation improves through Positive outcomes improve hygiene and sanitation? my effort. I started going for various A number of positive outcomes have been workshops on water and sanitation to realised as a result our effort in struggling Dear ladies, gentlemen and children the gather more information on best practices to address the water and sanitation issues access of water and sanitation calls for a from other organisations, donors’ advice of the communities in Masaba sub-counties: joint effort and not only governments and and line ministry advice and bringing it donors as many of us think. As an individual 1. Firstly our effort has resulted in the home for practical experience. For example, what have you done to ensure that you construction of the multimillion gravity I attended conferences in Speke Resort and your neighbour get water and improve flow scheme. This has helped women Munyonyo in October 2009 and East hygiene and sanitation? It calls for love for and children to access clean safe African sanitation conference on 2nd- water from nearby. It has reduced the one another so that we realise the need for 4th March 2010. I gave presentations prevalence of related diseases. sharing the few water resources around us. there and got knowledge in an effort to 2. In addition, through learning forums and It gives me pleasure to give this message improve the water and sanitation in our community sensitisation, communities and the contribution we have made communities. This enabled me to bring have gained more knowledge on including my effort to see communities inPage 4 Masaba happy especially on the issue of home pictorials, books to our communities sanitation promotion in homes and so that they can learn as they derive lessons water management. water and sanitation. on what they see. 3. On water management, we have One of the prize winning field stories in the instituted water management Source stories contest. committees composed of three men and Moses Bilabi is a 23-year old community water two women in every village were water and sanitation promoter, Ugandan Christian University, Mbale campus, P.O.Box 189, Mbale, Uganda, e-mail: mossebi@yahoo.com Top three Source hits feature online articles in 2010 IRC endeavours to generate and post on downgraded if pupils also have access Mayling Simpson-Hebert and Dennis line the best, most insightful, informative, to urinals. It seems like the concept of Warner) took third place, with 395 and provocative WASH stories from the urinals for girls was one that intrigued views. The ArborLoo is the simplest of field we can find, using the online Source readers. all eco toilets and treats human excreta pages and “The voice from communities” 2. IRC ran a contest entitled “Tell us a as a resource to be utilised rather than blog http://voiceofcommunities.wordpress. story – for pride and a prize” (http:// waste to be avoided. The ArborLoo com/. www.irc.nl/page/51946) (Author: is steadily becoming part of Ethopian Caridad Machín Camacho). And Source rural culture. After each use, a cup of The top three most viewed Source articles Bulletin sent out an international call soil and wood ash mixture is added to on the IRC website last year were: for stories based on communities and encourage composting, reduce smell, 1. Atono school in Kenya (http://www. applied interventions which helped and discourage insects. irc.nl/page/54200) (Authors: Dick de (or failed to improve) sanitation and Jong and Ingeborg Krukkert), was part IRC will continue to track website activity hygiene situations. 399 people followed of the Regional Programme - East Africa in 2011 in order to spot trends and useful this post during 2010, and 30 stories newsfeed. The picture story focused ways to share stories and information. were submitted. Thanks to the positive on water and sanitation improvements reaction from readers, IRC decided to Please send you stories to: storycontest@irc.nl at this school in Kenya and attracted continue the contest into 2011. Caridad Machín Camacho & Angelica de Jesus 684 viewers. The Antono school study 3. Another Source feature: “Ethiopia: the aimed to find out if the Kenyan Ministry success of the ArborLoo latrine” (http:// of Health’s standard ratio of 1 latrine to www.irc.nl/page/51945) (Authors: 25 girls and 1 toilet to 30 boys can be Page 4
    • Quotes highlighting the links in the chain for sustainableservicesGhanaian planning processes do not communities with services that they can manages the local watersystematically address the full range afford and for the communities to be able system. He accepts theof post-construction costs to ensure to assess what goes into the management challenge of providingindefinite provision of WASH services, of a facility. That would help the directorate a continuous flow of potable water to aaccording to Dr. Kwabena Nyarko, of the to budget properly and communities to growing population, but points out thatKwame Nkrumah University of Science make their contributions. According to the “local funds cannot cover the costs ofand Technology. He is the director of the director, “Once we know how much it will expansion”.WASHCost project in Ghana which has cost to provide these levels of services, then Mr. Augustine Owusu, Abono WatSanfound inadequate co-ordination between it will help us also to make appropriate Committee Treasurer, verifies the costs ofplanning, budgeting and finance. financial commitments to be able to deliver parts from the area mechanic. He feels the service.”The sustainability of water services for his community should charge more forpeople in rural and peri-urban areas Mrs Theodora Adomako-Adjei, the water, like other communities do. Too littledepends on a whole chain of things going Extension Services Co-ordinator for the revenue is generated because some peopleright - from the Ministry of Water, Works Community Water and Sanitation Agency would rather go to the lake for free.and Housing in the capital down to the (CWSA) understands a good service as Kune Banahene,water vendor in a community. convenience, availability and accessibility. an area mechanic Her focus is on equipping people with theThis chain is reflected in a photo story for 11 years, right knowledge, information, the skills,produced by IRC with WASHCost Ghana says that towns and, “the right attitude to take care of theand the Resource Centre Network in sometimes fail to facility.” Her question is, “How much will itGhana. In “From Top to Bottom” a whole maintain systems cost to actually change human behaviour?”chain of people from the Minister for Water but still expect theResources, Works and Housing to a water Mrs. Fay Ephrim, Eastern Zonal Planner company or NGOvendor in the community reflect on the link for CWSA says the focus should be on to come backbetween costs and services from their own long-term planning that looks at trends in and repair theunique point of view. costs, housing, and energy. CWSA wants system. He only communities to be able to sustain services repairs systems as long as possible. of communities who are serious Bosomtwe District about maintaining Much of the burden to plan and deliver facilities. sustainable services falls to district Water vendor Akua Afriyei is concerned professionals. District Water and Sanitation that if the pump in a village borehole breaks Plans address the capital costs for down it is impossible to maintain services. installation of new systems, but do not yet The community cannot afford to install address significant reinvestment in keeping another borehole itself, but if they had infrastructure going nor the costs of one more borehole they could maintain it institutional support related to monitoringThe Hon. Alban S. K. Bagbin, Minister without taking loans. and training. In practice, when a majorfor Water Resources, Works and Housing breakdown occurs, the facilities are typically The photo story was made in Ghana byhimself grew up in a rural area and abandoned. Nick Dickinson with photographer Peterunderstands the challenge of meeting the DiCampo. Bismark Dwumfour-Asare fromMillennium Development Goals. “We are In Bosomtwe District in the Ashanti WASHCost did some of the interviews andcompelled to spend a lot more in replacing region, professionals reflect on Rebecca Obuobisa-Darko provided thebroken down water systems, either because these issues narration.of lack of maintenance, or because of lack Mr. Bartholomew Amponsah, the District Nick Dickinsonof knowledge,” he says. Water and Sanitation Engineer, is involvedMinta Aboagye, Director of the Water in proposing district budgets to the districtDirectorate, stresses the need to provide assembly. Sometimes, the district does not have enough money to cover monitoring costs, which prevents visits to communities. According to the engineer, if you do not visit, some communities will let anybody fetch water for free and fail to generate the required revenue. Mr. Francis Asare Kusi of the Kuntanase Water and Sanitation Development BoardSource Bulletin No. 63 - March 2011 Page 5
    • News from WSSCC Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative CouncilThe road to SACOSAN IV: addressing equity and inclusion issuesThe 4th South Asian Conference on Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), months in the region with our partners andSanitation (SACOSAN 4) will be hosted national think tanks and non-governmental government, inviting suggestions and usingfrom 4-8 April 2011 in Sri Lanka. South organisations have undertaken studies on opportunities presented nationally.Asia has progressed relatively well with specific dimensions of equity and inclusion The overall aim is to prepare a regionalsanitation and hygiene policies, institutions in South Asia. Using SACOSAN as an synthesis that will be shared nationallyand investments. However it remains the opportunity, four organisations (UNICEF, and then be used to catalyse discussionsregion of the world with the largest number WA, WSP and WSSCC) have come together during the SACOSAN conference itself withof people without sanitation, together to prepare a regional synthesis paper on the aim of generating practical joined-upwith widespread poor hygienic practices, equity and inclusion in South Asia, to take action and advocacy from civil society andand consequently is unlikely to achieve the stock of what is available and work that mainstream sector actors (government,MDGs on sanitation. Several sector players has already been done, to learn lessons and donors, investors, implementers) in order tohave teamed up in the run-up to SACOSAN catalyse thinking and action for the future. direct investments, research and action to4 to bring the voices of the people to the The paper and accompanying audio- where it is needed most.podium and raise the challenges around visuals will be shared over the next twothe unserved in the region, with a view As in previous SACOSAN meetings, strongto seeing increased commitments and civil society participation is being enabledmeaningful collaborative action reflected in through collaborative action and supportthe meeting outcomes and beyond. by Fresh Water Action Network-South Asia (FANSA), WA and WSSCC and otherA hugely challenging area for support agencies in the region. National committeesacross South Asia is the difficulty of have been set up to strengthen grassrootsreaching largely invisible, marginalised engagement for SACOSAN 4 with activitiesgroups and individuals. Equity and that include civil society pre-meetings,inclusion remains an intention, rather than national consultations, research on servicea systematic approach. Action toward delivery in the region and a linked video onthe improvement of menstrual hygiene people’s views on sanitation services. Themanagement and services for disabled People’s Perceptions Research especiallypeople are implemented in specific projects, addresses groups that are left out orbut are not mainstreamed in larger national unserved in some way and is commissionedprogrammes. Several international and by the regional partnership of WSSCC,national actors such UNICEF, WaterAid, Water Aid, Freshwater Action NetworkUN Habitat, the Water and Sanitation Toilets that are designed for disabled people, such as here in Dhaka, remain an exception (FAN).Program (WSP), the Water Supply and (photo: Amanda Marlin, WSSCC) For more information contact ina.jurga@wsscc.org.West African delegates visit Bangladesh – a great example of sharing andlearning between countriesWhen faced with a difficult problem, one and violence, certain geographic features, and youth groups. The week-longof the best ways to determine the way increased urbanisation, extreme poverty programme involved meetings and siteahead is to ask the advice of someone among many members of society and visits to examine different programmaticwho has faced a similar situation. This logic huge challenges to improve the access to approaches, including Community-Led Totalmotivated a group of extremely enthusiastic safe sanitation. But they also share many Sanitation (CLTS), sanitation marketing,WASH practitioners from Liberia and Sierra of the same advantages: community and urban programming. ParticipantsLeone to visit Bangladesh in November leaders committed to improving social and were enthusiastic to learn about sanitary2010. They came to talk to people in Dhaka economic development, forward looking toilets adapted for disabled people, andand rural Chittagong about how to address populations who are optimistic about the about ecological sanitation and biogas.issues of sanitation, hygiene and water prospects for their children, and dedicated Staff members from the national NGOssupply. professionals who recognise the urgency Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK) and Village of ensuring good sanitation, hygiene and Education Resource Centre (VERC), theBangladesh was chosen as their destination water for all members of society. Water and Sanitation Program of the Worldbecause the country has been a global Bank (WSP), and members of the Waterleader in implementing new approaches The delegates from West Africa, nine Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Councildriven by community-led demand creation. from Liberia and two from Sierra (WSSCC) National Coalition BangladeshThe countries have much in common. Leone, represented a cross-section from were generous in sharing their expertiseThey share similar challenges including the government and civil society, including and time with the delegates. The learningdisruption of societies torn apart by war faith-based groups, women’s alliances Page 6
    • WSSCC, 15, chemin Louis-Dunant, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland.Tel.: +41 22 560 8181, fax: +41 22 560 8184, e-mail: wsscc@wsscc.org, http://www.wsscc.org WSSCC sees this style of learning trip as atrip was devised, and primarily funded The participants left with notebooks full of great example of South-South exchange.by WSSCC, with support to individual good ideas, a draft plan for implementation Preparation before the trip, hard work indelegates being offered by WaterAid in their countries, and names and email country, and ongoing follow-up, have alland WASH Consortium Liberia. Visits to addresses of many in Bangladesh who been aimed at ensuring lasting benefits –programme sites resulted in questions and offered to stay in touch. They had also especially when these experiences will bediscussions with project staff and members been glad to have the opportunity to used to improve WASH for the poorest andof the community. In the evenings, share their own solutions and approaches those in most need.delegates shared their impressions and with colleagues in Bangladesh – in clear More details about the learning trip can beplanned how to apply what they had learnt recognition that good learning is always a obtained from amanda.marlin@wsscc.org.to challenges back home. two-way process.Menstrual Hygiene ManagementIn November 2010, WaterAid, with • Establish a community of practice of It cuts across other vulnerabilities such assupport from the research consortium individuals and institutions passionate disability, location, poverty, class, caste andSHARE, brought together 16 practitioners about this issue; to share, work, religion according to the context.”and researchers with expertise in water, influence and therefore respond to the Menstrual hygiene management is complexsanitation and hygiene (WASH), health, strategic and practical challenges of and needs to be addressed holistically andequity and inclusion, education and gender women and girls regarding MHM. in context as a package of services thatto share knowledge and experiences The overall spirit and sentiments of the includes voice and space to talk about theand develop a research programme for roundtable can be summarised by the issue, adequate water, privacy, facilitiesmenstrual hygiene management (MHM). following statement: “Menstrual hygiene for washing and disposal, and, mostThe roundtable was convened to bring management is fundamental to the dignity importantly, increased awareness amongsttogether a multi-disciplinary group of of women and girls and an integral part of men, women, boys and girls.experts on menstrual hygiene management basic sanitation and hygiene services for To download the briefing note issued after thein order to: which every woman and girl has a right. roundtable please visit http://www.wsscc.org/• Assess the state of knowledge on MHM; Menstrual hygiene management needs to resources/resource-publications/briefing-note- menstrual-hygiene-management. For more• Identify key research questions for policy be seen also within the overall equity and information contact: archana.patkar@wsscc.org. and practice; inclusion paradigm as a neglected issue.WSSCC to Host Global Forum on Sanitation and HygieneWSSCC will host a Global Forum on and regional sessions; special events and to key programmes and sites in India’sSanitation and Hygiene from 9 to 14 field visits; and a “Bottom of the Pyramid Maharashtra State, which is a leader inOctober 2011 at the Mumbai Renaissance WASH Fair” of organisations, products and the region in innovative service delivery atConvention Centre, bringing some 500 services, and ideas. scale. It will feature a unique blend of sectorWSSCC members and sector professionals professionals (both WSSCC members and The meeting provides a global platformtogether in India for a week of sharing and non-members), active global advocates and for sharing knowledge and findings fromlearning around vital sanitation and hygiene development experts. the regional sanitation conferences heldtopics. recently or coming up in East Asia, South A participant selection process will ensureThe overarching themes for the week Asia, Africa and Latin America. It also draws balanced representation between WSSCCare “Accelerating Change,” “Building in lessons from the impressive sanitation members and non-members, and fromKnowledge and Capacity,” and “Sharing accomplishments in China and will offer developing and developed countries. ForAcross Regions”. These and other cross- instructive and inspirational field visits more information, or to join the mailing listcutting topics will be reflected in the for forum updates, visit www.wsscc.org.forum’s programme via plenary, break-outConfirm your WSSCC membership or join now!WSSCC is a membership organisation focus of WSSCC’s work is connected to all members who joined before Novemberthat aims at mobilising people with the local communities and local issues. Since 2010 need to register again at http://www.collective ambition of ensuring access to November 2010 WSSCC has a new website wsscc.org/members/apply-membership.sanitation, water supply and hygiene for with a member-dedicated area where Prospective members can visit http://www.all; informing, engaging and enabling members can participate in the WSSCC wsscc.org/members/about-membershippeople to better carry out their WASH governance process, search and network and register online for free.work, particularly through networking and with one-another, engage in conversations For any question regarding membership pleaseknowledge sharing; and ensuring that the and more. To remain connected to WSSCC contact: astrid.salcedo@wsscc.org. Source Bulletin No. 63 - March 2011 Page 7
    • News from IRC and partnersEnsuring rural water services that last: Lessons from a 13-country studyApproximately one in three rural water the study also revealed a number of approaches. In thesupply systems in developing countries common weak points. case of Uganda,does not function at all or is performing for example, there Considering all the costswell below its expected level. Failure on is a strong nationalthis scale represents hundreds of millions One of the most critical gaps is the lack policy frameworkof dollars in wasted investment and of life-cycle costing - costing that includes supported by amillions of people who have had to return everything from capital investment to SWAp (Sector Wideto fetching dirty drinking water from minor and major repairs, direct and Approach).distant sources - to the detriment of their indirect support costs and the costs of One of the main lessons from the study ishealth, education, and livelihoods. capital for asset replacement. Even in the that attempting to make changes through USA, rural water service providers mustWhile the problem of poor sustainability isolated projects and programmes does tap various and unstructured sources- and the threat it poses to achieving the not work. To achieve real change, the of soft loans and grants from state andMDGs - may be well recognised, concrete entire system needs to be addressed: federal government to cover major repairssteps for addressing it are considerably less policy, institutions, legislation and and replacement costs.clear. Triple-S - an IRC initiative funded structures need to be clarified andby the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation In many of the other countries studied, modified as necessary to enable the- recently completed a 13-country study communities must wait for a major delivery of a service, rather than simplyto identify factors that contribute to, or breakdown and then apply to local the construction of infrastructure.constrain, the delivery of sustainable rural government, the NGO that implemented The study has identified ten key factorswater services at scale. the original project, or donors for funds. in improving sustainability of rural water These are often not readily available,The study - which examined trends in supply services: leading to long, and sometimes 1. Professionalisation of communityrural water supply in Benin, Burkina Faso, permanent, disruptions in service. Burkina management, including appropriateEthiopia, Ghana, Mozambique, South Faso provided one of the few examples legal status for water committees,Africa, Uganda, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, of a structured approach to capital support services and strongerColombia, Honduras, and the United maintenance financing. Here 40 small monitoring and oversight functions.States - showed that many countries are towns and rural villages were able to pool 2. Increased recognition and promotionmoving from a focus on infrastructure together resources, contract a private of alternative service provider optionsto a service delivery approach - one that operator to handle maintenance, and including small-scale private operatorswould support the reliable and continuous institute a revolving fund to cover major and self supply.delivery of rural water services. However, expenditures. 3. Sustainability indicators and targets for services delivered and performance of In addition, the study showed that service providers. financing for functions such as post- 4. Standardisation of implementation construction support, back-up for approaches defining common national- communities, support to local government level frameworks - or ‘rules of the and learning platforms is seldom game’ - with norms and standards, but accounted for, although these functions with flexibility in implementation. have proved to be key to the reliable 5. Post-construction support to service provision of services. Clear financial providers established and funded to frameworks at sector level that clarify back-up and monitor community the costs of such support and learning management entities, or small private appears to be one of the missing links in operators. sustainable rural service delivery. 6. Capacity support to decentralised government (service authorities) Coordinating all the players covering all key functions in the life- Harmonisation and coordination between cycle of rural water supply services. different actors working in the sector was 7. Learning and sharing of experience also an issue across the board, and not supported at national and only in the more aid-dependent countries. decentralised levels. Common agreement and adherence to 8. Planning for asset management carried sector policy, norms and guidelines is an out systematically with financial essential building block for working at forecasting and inventory updates. 9. Adequate frameworks for financial scale. Thailand, South Africa and Uganda planning to cover all life-cycle costs, were the standouts in terms of scalablePage 8
    • IRC, P.O. Box 82327, 2508 EH, The Hague, the Netherlands, Tel. : +31 70 3044000, fax: +31 70 3044044, e-mail: general@irc.nl,http://www.irc.nl. particularly capital maintenance costs 10. Regulation of rural services and and direct and indirect costs of post- service providers through appropriate construction support. mechanisms/regulatory agents at the local level.Fast facts on sustainability• Percentage of hand pumps in sub-Saharan Africa that are not functioning: 36%• Number of water supply systems in Tanzania that fail within two years of installation: 1 in 4• Amount needed to address water supply and sanitation capital maintenance backlogs in the United States over the next 20 years: US$ 1.3 trillion• Percentage of the estimated cost of meeting the MDG water and sanitation target that is needed for maintenance and replacement of existing infrastructure: 74%• Percentage of drinking-water and sanitation funding from eight major donor agencies that goes to maintenance or replacement of existing infrastructure: 13%.Sarah GarrigerIRC Symposium challenges WASH sector to cost and finance sustainable servicesThe IRC 2010 international symposium More openness of data will empower service delivery arrangements have beenposed a series of challenges to the water decision makers and the people who hold highlighted.”and sanitation sector to improve its the decision makers to account. However, Crisis at community levelability to cost and finance sustainable donors and governmental decisionservices – and to understand the price that makers were under-represented at the The high level of support needed tocommunities pay when those services fail. Symposium. There is a communication keep community services running in rural challenge to reach them with these areas was underlined by detailed figuresThe symposium, Pumps, Pipes and arguments and this information. There from two municipalities in South AfricaPromises held in the Hague from 16-18 was a call for the methodologies for where technical support costs representedNovember brought together 120 collecting costs and key messages from between a half and two thirds of the totalresearchers, practitioners, economists, the research to be documented and operational costs for water services andengineers and governance specialists communicated effectively, with training to repairs to pumps were often beyond thefrom 27 countries to draw together issues spread these skills. capacity of village based CBOs.around costs, financing and accountability. Accountability gives citizens the One area in the spotlight was the failureIt was strongly supported, with 40 papers right to challenge abuses of community management to providepresented from UNICEF, WaterAid, a mechanism to deal with substantialPlan, Water and Sanitation Program, There was a consensus that corruption maintenance, in a context where a US$Transparency International and many needs to be tackled wherever it occurs. 50,000 borehole often fails because theother key sector organisations. The first This means having effective regulatory US$ 500 handpump cannot be replaced.preliminary results from the WASHCost bodies, and providing citizens with clear Patrick Moriarty of IRC pointed out thatproject to identify costs in four countries information so that they can challenge it is unreasonable to expect communitieswere released in a series of papers. misuse of funds and resources. Without to keep large enough reserves for larger transparency, accountability, and improvedSustainable services is the aim scale repairs and capital maintenance. access to information, cost data is unlikely Alternative mechanisms, such as someThe overall focus was the need to to improve outcomes.switch from infrastructure to sustainable The background paper for the Symposium,services in water, sanitation and hygiene. (Pezon, Fonseca & Butterworth, 2010)It reflected a shift in the WASH sector points out that decentralisation has thetowards greater clarity in planning and potential to build a stronger link betweenfinancing services that reach people with citizens and their services. “However,the regularity and quality they demand. administrative capacities and checks andThe Symposium called for data that can be balances are also generally less developedunderstood by those who make funding at this level, and the dangers of corruptiondecisions and greater accountability and taking root within newly decentralisedtransparency on costs and services. Burkina Faso working groupSource Bulletin No. 63 - March 2011 Page 9
    • in hygiene, show that many people in poor Who pays for what? countries across the world are investing Keynote speaker, David Hall, Director of the huge amounts of money, effort and time in Public Services International Research Unit, improving their lives.” argued that the main provider of finance is The high cost of failure and will continue to be the Governments of developing countries themselves. He called Catarina Fonseca, Director of the for aid to be redirected to support countries WASHCost Project, pointed out how that have low tax revenues, and said that expensive it is to provide low quality water the private sector has little role to play in and sanitation services. WASHCost research financing water and sanitation services in suggests that switching from boreholes low income countries. with handpumps to small piped services can Eddy Perez and Arjan Naafs sharing knowledge triple the costs of service delivery, but often Symposium combined research and leaves people with service levels somewhere practical experience between sub-standard and basic. “The cost form of mutualisation, are needed to spread The symposium was hailed as a success by ranges are huge for providing the same the risks. organisers and participants. Alana Potter low levels of service – for water between said: “What‘s exciting is that we are starting Households carry the burden sub-standard and basic. What we are to see the synthesis of three critical ideas in finding is if you want to go from basic to There is much less understanding of the terms of costs, accountability and financing, the next stage higher up, you need a much costs of sanitation and hygiene than of which are often seen as particular disciplines higher investment effort, not in the capital water – but it is clear from the preliminary in themselves. We are starting to see more expenditure component – but in all the findings from WASHCost that many interdisciplinary sharing and the synergies other components.” households bear the majority of these costs starting to emerge between those three themselves. WASHCost has proposed service ladders content areas. “ for water and sanitation with five levels: no Symposium organiser and facilitator, Alana Peter McIntyre service, sub-standard, basic, intermediate Potter from IRC, said: “Findings coming Download the 19 page Synthesis report from the and high. It is no longer enough to count out of WASHCost with respect to the kinds Symposium at http://www.irc.nl/page/61225. the number of water points or toilets of investments households are making in - providing safe, reliable services is all water and sanitation improvement but also important.Page 10 World Water Day 2011: Waste water is a liquid asset Waste water is a liquid asset was the slogan • Proposed slogan for the messages under • The word ‘local government’ is not that came up in a discussion on World the sanitation and pollution theme: reflected in the messages – they are the Water Day 2011 during the last day of the waste water is a liquid asset. ones that have to make things happen at international conference Sustainable Water • Education and capacity building were the local level. Management in Cities in Zaragoza. On missing in the WWD 2011 messages • Financing needs to go to local 17 December 2010 participants discussed provided by UN-HABITAT. governments, not central governments. WWD 2011 messages that UN-HABITAT • There need to be concrete messages for More inputs received on the messages had tabled. Participants gave their inputs to what people can do at household level. will be made available in the conference the messages by writing their comments on • We need fewer and simpe messages. highlights booklet. • Create the messages in such a way that posters that were displayed for days in the they provide the solution. UN-HABITAT is the lead UN agency for this year’s corridors of the venue. World Water Day that has as theme Water for Here is a summary of the comments and Cities: Responding to the Urban Challenge, see inputs: their site http://www.worldwaterday2011.org. Switching politicians on to sustainable city water Politicians do not want to be associated discussions about the political opportunities • Find politicians who can influence with things that are bad. It is important to and challenges for sustainable water changes in the legal frameworks. support and engage politicians to learn how management in cities. • Highlight the benefits for engaging the water management can be improved and politician. Other political lessons include: improve the environment. • Science provides trust – it is something • Positive messages are critical. for politicians to rely on. These two important lessons for water • Raise awareness among the public. • Politicians may only be ‘decision- sector advocates emerged from the Political will begins with the people. approvers’, while civil servants may December 2010 conference Sustainable • Tailor your approach. Political be the key decision-makers. The latter Water Management in Cities: engaging frameworks differ in different countries. can be easier to engage too, so a good stakeholders for effective change, held • Engage and treat politicians as tactic. in Zaragoza, Spain . They came out of stakeholders. Politicians have interest in providing water to the people. Page 10
    • • Important that good things are not on board for more sustainable city water compromised by political changes - management. Of the 157 participants, they need to be institutionalised. 23 were political representatives, such• Create awareness and build alliances, as mayors and councillors, 26 were high before taking on difficult and level public administration directors, 18 controversial issues. were media and communication expertsThe Zaragoza City Council, the UN-Water (but only 8 of these were independentDecade Programme on Advocacy and journalists).Communication, the SWITCH consortium “If they want the politicians to engage,and the United Nations Human Settlements why are they organising a separate fieldProgramme (UN-HABITAT), organised this visit for them?”, asked one of the political John Butterworth of IRC.five day conference from, 13-17 December representatives in the Conference Daily2010 to contribute to the sustainable newsletter. Roel Landingin from the Philippines stressedmanagement of water in cities. It brought Lessons on media engagement that you could not just expect journalists totogether experts, local government write what you wanted. They would takeofficials, media specialists, key water There were lessons too on how to engage their own line.operators and political representatives of with the media – and how not to!cities and stakeholder groups to discuss ”We are really two different worlds. There Dalia Abdel-Salam, from Egypt, said: are two different agendas. It is good toissues, propose practical ways to progress “Sometimes as journalists we are in big recognise that for realistic engagement. Athe international agenda and share trouble. Experts expect that the journalists good journalist is not expected to repeat,solutions for engaging stakeholders. This write about their research in their paper, but but to own and add value to a story. Theyevent was also used as an intermediary they do not try to simplify their research - won’t choose the intended story. This canstep in preparations for World Water and make it accessible for the reader.” be good and bad. You can’t hope to useDay 2011, which focuses on urban water Rebecca Munetsi, from Namibia, needs them.”management. good ammunition to ensure her stories This means that there is tension betweenPolitical and media engagement are well used. “The problem I’m facing being a journalist and being an advocate forwas the main target comes from the newsroom. That is where a cause. the pressure comes from. For them waterConference organisers targeted political and Dick de Jong and Petra Brussee is old news. I always have to convince mymedia people by spending a day on each editor.”discussing with them how best to get themCities can show the way to sustainable, efficient and equitable managementof water resourcesAchieving sustainable development requires new policies. One group argued that Specific outcomes of the meeting – especiallythat we institutionalise and act upon sustainability is more likely from good case studies – will be presented on Worldlessons learned in the arena of urban water stakeholder engagement. Water Day on 22 March 2011.management and city development. • Contexts are very different. Stakeholder A selection of SWITCH cities’ stories of change engagement is more alien and difficult in are available at: www.irc.nl/page/61309Holistic approaches, methods and skills are some places than others. See the official conference website at: www.needed to enable successful cooperation • Stakeholder engagement processes un.org/waterforlifedecade/swm_cities_and collaboration, including communication always have their objectives (it is done zaragoza_2010/index.shtmltechniques which enable stakeholders The daily newsletter with interviews of for a reason), and this is one reason why participants and reports from the sessionsto exchange knowledge, views and processes all look very different. is available at: http://www.un.org/preferences so as to build a collective, • Many transferable lessons were waterforlifedecade/swm_cities_zaragoza_2010/feasible vision of the future and an effective identified, including the need for daily_newsletter.shtmlprogramme of implementation. intensive facilitation, a common baseline Petra Brussee of information, involving stakeholders• To make the case for stakeholder in action research and creating the right engagement we have to show incentives. outcomes such as reduced pollution orSource Bulletin No. 63 - March 2011 Page 11
    • IRC to help African communities and schools boost community-led sanitation The principles of community-led total Schools can act as centres for change as Sanitation networks in sanitation are being extended to schools schoolchildren bring home the lessons they each country and urban areas in eight African countries. have learnt about toilet use and hygiene IRC will contribute especially to the school- behaviour, and are in contact with peers in In order to coordinate led total sanitation (SLTS) component in a the community. these approaches, the broader five-year programme led by Plan sanitation and hygiene To encourage the development of a market implementation activities Netherlands. for toilets, the programme will engage and results will be shared Community-led total sanitation (CLTS), the private sector, supporting local small in a sanitation network, as originally devised, relies on community or medium entrepreneurs to market the which still has to be created efforts to stop open defecation, promote construction and maintenance of sanitation in most of the countries. use of toilets and improve hygiene facilities. Another programme element in Plan has established firm practices. There are no subsidies for building which IRC will play a role is in setting up Village toilet working relations at national toilets and no ‘rewards’ for communities national and international CLTS networks. and regional level with several that achieve 100% free status. organisations and governments. With the The Plan programme, “Empowering self- support of the Institute of Development Sustainability of CLTS outcomes Studies (IDS), the knowledge hub of help sanitation of rural and peri-urban over time CLTS, and IRC, these national networks communities and schools in Africa”, started in 2010 and will expand existing self- Having capable long-term facilitators will support coordination as well as lobby help sanitation programmes in six African and community sanitation management for these approaches to be included countries, Sierra Leone, Ethiopia, Uganda, organisations has been a major challenge in sanitation policies. By approaching Kenya, Zambia and Malawi, and introduce in large CLTS programmes. Often, the these networks through learning it into Ghana and Niger. initial trigger is easier than sustaining a alliances, coordination and quality will be programme as the population continues strengthened. IDS is also doing research on Adding in schools and urban areas to grow and toilets grow older and need effectiveness of CLTS. to be emptied, replaced, or upgraded. IRC has done many years of work on The total budget for the programme is € 8.4 The crucial issue to ensure that ODF school sanitation and hygiene education million, half of which is provided as a grant status is maintained over time, is to get with UNICEF, and will lead on aspects of and train committed and long-term by the Netherlands Directorate-General the school-led total sanitation programme, facilitators and community sanitation for International Cooperation (DGIS), focusing on two areas: management bodies at and below local one third is the estimated investment byPage 12 research on the effect of • Action government level. As the approach communities in their own development, linking schools to the CLTS approach becomes locally institutionalised, local and the remaining part comes via Plan – do schools add impact to the overall leadership often takes over, as in a peri- Netherlands from fund raising activities by approach? urban CLTS project in Sumatra (ISSDP, Dutch primary school children. • Learning alliance platforms in each of the 2007) and in the Women, Wellbeing, For more information read the programme’s countries Work, Waste and Sanitation (4WS) executive summary: http://sanitationupdates. project in Bangladesh, Kerala and Sri wordpress.com/2010/06/. Plan is also working on an urban total Lanka (IRC et al., 2007). In Nepal and For more information on CLTS go to www. sanitation component adapting what has communityledtotalsanitation.org Pakistan, primary schools have been been learnt in rural areas to urban and peri- made part of the organisational support Contacts: urban settings. Plan has some experience system for CLTS. Experience reported • Plan Nederland, Mascha Singeling, e-mail: on this in Dhaka, Bangladesh but not yet at the Regional Practitioners’ workshop mascha.singeling@plannederland.nl, www. in Africa. However, urbanisation is growing organised by IRC, WaterAid, BRAC and plannederland.nl rapidly in Africa and existing sanitation and • IDS, Robert Chambers, e-mail: WSSCC showed that especially where R.Chambers@ids.ac.uk and Petra Bongartz, hygiene circumstances are poor in peri- there is an unsettled society, schools email: P.Bongartz@ids.ac.uk, www. urban and urban areas, and the timing is can provide an effective and politically communityledtotalsanitation.org right to start pilots in these countries. neutral entry point for CLTS (Khan et al • IRC, Marielle Snel, email: snel@irc.nl, www. 2008). irc.nl/sanitation This programme aims to reach the schools Dick de Jong and Marielle Snel in both peri-urban and rural communities. SOURCE Bulletin is published quarterly by IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre in cooperation with the Water Supply & Sanitation Collaborative Council. Editor: Dick de Jong (jong@irc.nl). Contributors: Cor Dietvorst (dietvorst@irc.nl); Caridad Machin Camacho (camacho@irc.nl); Petra Brussee (brussee@irc.nl); Nick Dickinson (dickinson@irc.nl); Marielle Snel (Snel@irc.nl); Peter McIntyre (petermcintyre@btconnect. com); Dave Trouba (david.trouba@wsscc.org). IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, P.O. Box 82327, 2508 EH, The Hague, The Netherlands, tel. +31 70 3044000, fax +31 70 3044044, e-mail: general@irc.nl. Internet: http://www.irc.nl You can subscribe to Source Weekly and the quarterly Special Features Edition via the Source web page at: http://www.source.irc.nl/ or by sending a message to: sourceweekly-join@ Game played by school children near Hawasa, Ethiopia. watsan.net. Page 12