Specific learning disabilities


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A workshop for special education paraprofessionals on special learning Disabilities.

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Specific learning disabilities

  1. 1. Specific Learning Disabilities A Neurological Disorder A Workshop for Paraprofessionals
  2. 2. Who am I?Gale E. Cossette, Ph.D.Reading interventionist VVCSLD Specialist/Reading SpecialistHighly Qualified in Elementary Special Education,Reading, Elementary Educator, and Early ChildhoodPresident of the NH Branch of the Learning DisabilityAssociationDevelop online professional development courses forOPEN NH and teach them.
  3. 3. AGENDAIndividual activityThe brain and learningLearning disabilities and causesNH definition of SLDTypesWhat they look likeIn class strategiesResources
  4. 4. The BrainFrontal LobeBehavior, attention,creativity, intellect,libido, abstractthought, reasoning,non-verbal learning, Occipital Lobespeech, and smell Reading, vision Temporal Lobe Hearing, memory fear, some language, speech and auditory memories
  5. 5. Left Side & Right Side Left Right Lots of reading New learning Writing Pictures, diagrams Assignments Video involving reading Talks about feelings and analyzing Social Activities Attention to detail Music Quantitative The Big Picture methods Organized approach Creative projects to assignments New LearningEducation favors the left side of the brain – Best to teach to both
  6. 6. How Learning OccursThe more dendrites the betterCan increase dendrites through active learningTransmit nerve signals to the brain at 200 mph Axon Dendrites
  7. 7. LearningElectrical charges – synapsesDopamine helps electrical charges go to dendritesRepeated activities strengthen chargesAn active and challenged brain creates more dendrites Synapse
  8. 8. The Brain and Learning Disabilities Exposure to toxins Genetics Birthing factors Symmetry of brain Developmental disruptions Nutrition Tobacco/Alcohol/Drugs
  9. 9. Learning DisabilitiesAny disability that affects/inhibits achild to acquire and apply knowledge Autism Traumatic Brain Disorder Mental Retardation Specific Learning Disability
  10. 10. Specific Learning Disability It is a lifelong disability. RTI Discrepancy Model Child does not achieve according to age and ability levels in one or more identified criteria and has been provided with the opportunity to achieve.
  11. 11. NH Specific Learning Disability Criteria Team find a severe discrepancy in: Oral Expression Listening ComprehensionWritten Expression
  12. 12. Criteria - ContinuedBasic Reading SkillReading ComprehensionMathematics CalculationMathematics Reasoning
  13. 13. BUT, Not a Learning Disability, If: Severe discrepancy is a result of Visual, hearing, or motor impairment Mental Retardation Emotional Disturbance Environmental, Cultural, or Economic Disadvantage
  14. 14. DisclaimerThe following are different types of learning disabilities,what they might look like in the classroom, andstrategies to use in the classroom.They do not suggest that a student has a disabilitybecause he/she displays these signs.To identify a child as having a learning disability entailsa team approach and the following of the specialeducational process.
  15. 15. Listening Comprehension Central Auditory Processing DisorderDifficulty processing information or language, but no problems withremembering non-verbal language or soundProcess sounds slowly, but difficulty in repeating them.Misspells/mispronounces similar sounding words (celery/salary, three/free)Often distracted by other noisesDifficulty in staying focused on and remember verbal presentationsMisinterpret or difficulty following verbal directionsDifficulty with rapid speech“Ignores” people, especially when engrossedSays “What?” a lot, even when he has just “heard” what was saidLiteral, does not get puns or jokes
  16. 16. Listening Comprehension StrategiesStudent to constantly verbalize conceptsAllow student 5-10 seconds to respondShow vs. explainingSpeak slowerVisual cues, manipulatives, handoutsVary pitch and toneReword/help understand confusing oral directionsAvoid child listening and writing at the same timeAsk specific questions to see if student understandsReduce or space directions – “Ready?”Provide favorable seating – less distractionsTeachers look at student when speaking
  17. 17. Visual Perceptual/Motor Deficit Affects Reading/Writing/ComprehensionSubstitutes small sight words (I/me, he/she)Letter reversalsEye itches, blurs, painHolds head at odd angles while readingHolds pencil too tightly/breaks pencilsCannot copy accuratelyLooses place while readingStruggles to cut and/or pasteMessy papers/misaligned letters
  18. 18. Oral ExpressionDifficulty in expressing thoughts verballyDifficulty labeling objectsFrustrated by having to say a lot and no way tosay itCan describe a word or draw it, but cannot retrievethe wordDifficulty getting jokes
  19. 19. Oral Expression StrategiesProvide alternatives:Video taping/tape recordWritten/visualWork/practice with a peerProvide plenty of opportunities to build priorknowledgeProvide classroom discussion topics before handSpeaking slowlyPractice story mappingGraphic organizers
  20. 20. Introduce F.A.T. CitySimulationHow children with a learningdisability perceives the classroomand its daily activities.
  21. 21. Three Dys’sBad, impairedDyslexiaDygraphiaDyscalculia
  22. 22. Dyslexia ReadingSlow, painful readingDecoding errors/reversalsEncoding problemsMay have difficulty w/writingDifficulty recalling known wordsWritten languageMath computations
  23. 23. DyslexiaQuiet areas for reading activitiesBooks on tapeLarge print books/big spacesDon’t count off for spellingLaptop for writingMulti-sensory methods of teachingUse logic vs. rote memoryPresent material in small unitsUse different colored chalk on board for each linePre-teach in class reading and assign a passagePaired reading
  24. 24. Dyslexia Strategies, ContSpelling RulesTeach to find errorsAllow students to dictate creative storiesTracking toolsExperiment with pastel, embossed, or raisedline paperRestrict copying tasks
  25. 25. Dysgraphia Written ExpressionHard to read writingMixture of cursive/printingUnfinished words/letters or omits wordsOdd wrist, body, or paper positionDifficulty pre-visualizing lettersWriting very slow and laboriousPoor spatial planning on paperCramped or unusual gripDifficulty thinking and writing notes at the same time
  26. 26. DysgraphiaUse a word processorCorrections about writing privatelyOral testingTape recorderProvide notes/note takerPre-printed math problemsWide rule paper or linesPencil gripsAlternatives to writing assignmentsGrade content vs. writing
  27. 27. Dyscalculia MathDifficulty understanding math concepts (place value, quantity, numberlines)Word problemsSequencingSteps in solving problemsUnderstanding fractionsDifficulty recognizing patterns in X, -, +, and /Challenged when making changePutting language to math processesTime, days of the week, keeping numbers lined upOrganization on paper
  28. 28. Dyscalculia – Allow the use of finger/other devices – Use diagrams/draw out concepts – Peer assistance – Graph paper, colored pencilsManipulativesTeach how to draw picturesMnemonic devicesRhythm/MusicComputersPlenty of scratch paper w/linesSpace
  29. 29. Resourceshttp://www.ldanh.org/ NH Branch ofLDAhttp://www.bookshare.org/web/Welcome.html Books on tape - free forschoolshttp://www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/adults/index.asp Adults with learningdisabilities
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