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Reading rocket
 

Reading rocket

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Reading rocket Reading rocket Presentation Transcript

  • Make Reading Count
  • Why teach comprehension?
    • The ability to read words is necessary for comprehension, but not sufficient
    • Comprehension uses complicated cognitive processes that take time and practice
    Teaching words alone is not enough!
  • Text Model
    • External building materials
      • Text
      • Pictures
    • Internal building materials
      • Background knowledge
      • Word knowledge
      • Comprehension strategies
    • Comprehension is an interactive process of building understanding
    Building a structure for comprehension
  • Comprehension breakdowns
    • Breakdowns in comprehension happen when:
    • background knowledge is inconsistent with author’s expectation
    • vocabulary knowledge is inconsistent with author’s expectation
    • child has limited knowledge of English language
    • child has few strategies to make processes work together
    • Good News: Each breakdown area can be taught!
      • How stories work
      • How to make inferences
      • Strategies to build on text model
  • How to teach comprehension
    • Name strategies
    • Teach kids when and where to use them
      • Inappropriate use of strategies are a waste of cognitive energy
    • Goal: Help kids develop a text model
    • Start early!
      • Kindergarteners can learn to use text information to understand what they read
  • PICTURE acronym
    • P redict – guess what will happen next
    • I magine – visualize, create a mental image
    • C larify – make sure your text model makes sense
    • T ry – ask yourself ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions
    • U se – use what you know, background knowledge
    • R eview – summarize during and after reading
    • E valuate – Did this text meet my purposes? How is it connected to other texts?
    A tool to remember comprehension strategies
  • Comprehension-focused classroom
    • Lots of language
      • talking as well as reading
      • conversations about books
    • Teachers model thinking
      • ask questions as they read
      • encourage questions from students
    • High quality literature
      • complex books and characters
    • You can’t teach comprehension quietly!
  • Connecting across grade levels
    • PICTURE acronym can be applied to all different age groups
    • CORE program materials offers strategies for use across grades
  • 4 th Grade challenge
    • Text is more complex and demanding
    • Kids are reading in areas with little background knowledge
      • Reading to build background knowledge
    • May have word recognition problems or fluency problems
    Why do comprehension scores decrease after 4 th grade?
  • What can elementary teachers do?
    • Make sure kids can decode easily and well
    • Give kids practice so they can read fluently
    • Support development of:
      • Vocabulary
      • Concept knowledge
      • Comprehension strategies
    • Provide chances to interact with teachers, text, and peers
  • Assessment
    • Ask questions!
      • Ask child to tell you what they understood from the text
    • Children with dyslexia
      • Assessment covers a spectrum of language skills, from decoding to comprehension
      • Dyslexics generally have higher vocabulary and comprehension ability than decoding ability
  • Video: Understanding Themes
    • Community School 200, Harlem, NY
    • Theme Scheme
      • Focuses on underlying theme of story
      • Helps kids understand messages, lessons
      • Relates themes to other stories and real life
  • Helping kids make connections
    • Build coherent representation
      • Connect parts of text
      • Ask kids how pieces of information fit together
    • Read, then talk about it
      • Ask “How does that connect with what we read before?”
  • Vocabulary and comprehension
    • Teach little kids big words
      • Allow kids to practice reading words they already know and words they don’t know (literary words)
      • Kids learn literary words from books, not from everyday conversation – even in highly educated households
    • Make words the focus of instructional time everyday
      • Explaining a definition is not enough
      • Discuss good and better examples of uses of a sophisticated word (example: “reluctant”)
    Teaching vocabulary for literacy
  • Which words do you teach first?
    • No hierarchy for word knowledge
      • Kids can learn complex words early on
    • One rule:
    • Must be able to explain word using concrete, simple terms
  • Ramifications of low vocabulary
    • Knowledge of word meaning and comprehension is almost the same thing
      • If you have a good vocabulary, you will likely be good at comprehension
    • Solutions:
      • Teach big words to little kids
      • Keep kids engaged with good literature and inspired teaching
  • Children with learning disabilities
    • Take instruction to a sensory level
      • Help child experience the word through imagery
      • Create a picture of the word’s meaning
  • Video: Students Take Charge
    • Frank Love Elementary School, Seattle, WA
    • Reciprocal Teaching
    • Prepares kids to run discussions, taking turns as leaders
      • Ask questions, generate a good discussion
      • Summarize, find the main idea
      • Predict outcomes
  • Importance of mental images
    • Good readers “make movies” in their heads when they read
    • Dual coding theory: reading involves interpreting verbal and nonverbal codes
      • Interplay between verbal and nonverbal codes gives text meaning
      • Individual differences alter ability to get meaning from text
        • Weak decoders have difficulty with verbal code
        • Weak comprehenders have difficulty with nonverbal code
  • How can teachers improve mental imagery?
    • Start with mental image of word, then a phrase, then a sentence
    • Help kids connect images into a connected whole, not just separate images
    • Harder for kids with weak vocabulary
    • Research base:
    • National Reading Panel Report of 2000 cited mental imagery as helpful
  • Mental imagery for ELLs
    • Research project in Pueblo, Colorado
      • 25,000 children
      • Low socioeconomic status
      • High percent minority
      • Low-achieving on state tests
      • After 8 years of lessons on imagery and verbal processes, Pueblo out-performed the state
  • Characteristics of successful schools
    • For comprehension:
    • Large capacity for collaboration; opportunity for teachers to work together to discuss and practice techniques
    • For vocabulary:
    • Willingness to go beyond traditional “look it up and write a sentence” approach to teaching vocabulary
    • Introduces hard words in interesting ways
  • Impact of federal funding
    • Reading First money brings new resources to low SES schools
      • Commercial reading programs that define and highlight comprehension strategies
      • Classroom libraries – better books!
    • Institute for Educational Sciences supports research in comprehension
  • Using writing to improve comprehension
    • Writing is an extension of reading
      • Expression is a way to interact with text
      • Utilizes vocabulary, decoding, and mental imagery
    • Students’ writing should create a mental image for reader
      • Demands use of adjectives
      • ‘ Structure words’ to make writing richer
  • Teaching comprehension to ELLs
    • Define issues
      • English labels for words they know in native language?
      • Difficulty with everyday conversation in new language?
    • Opportunity to teach older kids (4 th grade +) sophisticated words – ELL and native English speakers
    • Same teaching methods, some unique challenges
  • What can we learn from brain studies?
    • Studies are starting to focus on reading comprehension
    • Recent fMRI studies show that parts of the brain relate to mental imagery
      • Hyperlexia: flip side of dyslexia
        • Have strong decoding skills and weak comprehension
        • Often on the autism spectrum
      • Autism
        • Studies show autistic children may be able to read individual words, but have difficulty accessing neural connectors to understand what they read
  • Comprehension assessment
    • Difficult to test whether kids have built a text model
    • Likely to underestimate comprehension of novice writers and spellers when evaluated in written form
    • Written test is an important way, but not the only way
    Does written evaluation show what kids understand?
  • What can parents do?
    • Volunteer
    • Read to children and talk about what’s going on, ask questions
  • Final thoughts
    • Nanci Bell:
      • Comprehension is now getting attention it deserves
      • Hopeful that we will find new information about sensory components of comprehension
    • Sharon Walpole:
      • Both decoding and comprehension are critically important to reading
      • Both can be taught
    • Isabel Beck:
      • Use big words!
  • Thanks for watching!
    • For more information,
    • visit www.readingrockets.org