The Bushmeat Crisis in Eastern Africa <br />By: Iregi Mwenja<br />Conservation Biologist<br />A Presentation University of...
Definitions <br />Bushmeat: the illegal, unsustainable trade in wildlife for meat and income<br />Wild Meat: the legal, su...
What Is Bushmeat?<br />Bushmeat is meat that is illegally, commercially or unsustainably derived from wildlife including:<...
Why is There a Bushmeat Crisis?<br />Uncontrolled access to wildlife, <br />rising demand,<br />lack of economic alternati...
Why do we care?<br />Overhunting wildlife for food can cause extinction – both local and global<br />Rural communities bec...
A Global Challenge<br />Local, subsistence vs long distance-commercial<br />Urbanization and globalization<br />Effective ...
Global Human Health<br /><ul><li>2002 and 2003 Ebola outbreak among gorillas in Congo;
2001 Ebola outbreak in Gabon and Republic of Congo linked to gorillas;
Wolfe (2009) reports that HIV jumped from chimps to human 100 years ago in Cameroun through bushmeat
Links between SIVs and HIV and high infection rate among 26 species of primates commonly eaten in bushmeat trade.
Anthrax and Rift Valley Fever outbreak suspected here in Kenya
H1N1</li></ul>Ebola virus<br />
Bushmeat in Africa<br />Bushmeat trade is a significant source of  protein and income for many poor communities in Africa<...
Bushmeat is a Band-Aid<br />The commercialization of bushmeat is a temporary solution to numerous problems caused by exter...
Bushmeat: End of the Wild*<br />Weedy Species - plants, animals and other organisms that thrive incontinually disturbed, h...
Wildlife forensics<br />DNA Barcoding for bushmeat<br />
Bushmeat in East Africa<br />Dramatic increase in Demand in EA driven by;<br /><ul><li>rapidly increasing human populations,
rising poverty,
high food prices,
political instability,
lack of alternatives,	</li></ul>inadequate awareness,<br /><ul><li>weak law enforcement
lack of ownership right</li></li></ul><li>MENTOR Fellowship Program<br />Raise the capacity of emerging wildlife managers ...
Bushmeat Assessments<br />Done in Kenya, S. Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda<br /><ul><li>National Assessments
Site Level Assessments
Multiple methods applied
Aim to identify and evaluate current bushmeat trade,
Identify Potential solutions & partners</li></li></ul><li>Regional findings<br />Commonalities<br /><ul><li>Inadequate awa...
Inadequate enforcement of laws, capacity and technology
Inadequate collaboration among stakeholders
Decreasing wildlife population
Common drivers
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The Bushmeat Crisis In Eastern Africa – Presentation to the University of Exeter

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The Bushmeat Crisis In Eastern Africa was a talk given to a visitng MSc class from University of Exeter at Naivasha\' Fisherman\'s Camp in January 2010.

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  • Excellent overview of the issues, achievements, challenges, and needs! Thanks for posting. -BarcodingBushmeat.org
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  • Wildlife outside PAs is seen as a freely exploitable, uncared-for resource that benefits only those who use it first
  • Consumptive wildlife uses are relatively unimportant in terms ofeconomic contribution, but they are the only use values possiblein the less well-endowed two thirds of the wildlife estate
  • Successive years of degradation of the L. Jipe and its catchment have resulted in the deterioration of the lake and the lake basin’s ecological and socio-economic values resulting rise in poverty and food insecurity in Taveta district. This has led to the escalation of inter-tribal and human-wildlife conflicts over the use of the natural resources, leading to rise in unsustainable exploitation of the natural resources worsening the poverty situation of the people living in the area.Due to the degradation of the lake ecosystems and its catchment, fish types, fishing activities and fish trade in and around Lake Jipe and Lumi River are said to have decreased by more than 90% over the last decade
  • Successive years of degradation of the L. Jipe and its catchment have resulted in the deterioration of the lake and the lake basin’s ecological and socio-economic values resulting rise in poverty and food insecurity in Taveta district. This has led to the escalation of inter-tribal and human-wildlife conflicts over the use of the natural resources, leading to rise in unsustainable exploitation of the natural resources worsening the poverty situation of the people living in the area.Due to the degradation of the lake ecosystems and its catchment, fish types, fishing activities and fish trade in and around Lake Jipe and Lumi River are said to have decreased by more than 90% over the last decade
  • The Bushmeat Crisis In Eastern Africa – Presentation to the University of Exeter

    1. 1. The Bushmeat Crisis in Eastern Africa <br />By: Iregi Mwenja<br />Conservation Biologist<br />A Presentation University of Exeter<br />January 9th 2010 <br />
    2. 2. Definitions <br />Bushmeat: the illegal, unsustainable trade in wildlife for meat and income<br />Wild Meat: the legal, sustainable trade in wildlife for meat and income<br />Game Meat: the legal, sustainable trade of farmed or ranched wildlife for meat and income<br />
    3. 3. What Is Bushmeat?<br />Bushmeat is meat that is illegally, commercially or unsustainably derived from wildlife including:<br />Illegal methods of hunting (snares, unregistered guns)<br />Illegal species (endangered, threatened, or otherwise protected)<br />At unsustainable levels of exploitation<br />Taken from unauthorized areas<br />
    4. 4. Why is There a Bushmeat Crisis?<br />Uncontrolled access to wildlife, <br />rising demand,<br />lack of economic alternatives, <br />absence of substitutes, <br />minimal capacity to enforce laws<br />Have resulted in <br />an unsustainable, illegal, commercial, trade in wildlife<br /> across Africa and the globe.<br />
    5. 5. Why do we care?<br />Overhunting wildlife for food can cause extinction – both local and global<br />Rural communities become further impoverished<br />Political instability as natural resource base eroded<br />Ecosystem services compromised<br />Loss of cultural heritage<br />
    6. 6. A Global Challenge<br />Local, subsistence vs long distance-commercial<br />Urbanization and globalization<br />Effective management engages many different governance structures<br />Global response supported by simultaneous local action needed<br />1992 – 2002, US trade in wildlife and wildlife products increased by 75%<br />Trade volume to China from nearly all continents has dramatically increased in recent years<br />
    7. 7. Global Human Health<br /><ul><li>2002 and 2003 Ebola outbreak among gorillas in Congo;
    8. 8. 2001 Ebola outbreak in Gabon and Republic of Congo linked to gorillas;
    9. 9. Wolfe (2009) reports that HIV jumped from chimps to human 100 years ago in Cameroun through bushmeat
    10. 10. Links between SIVs and HIV and high infection rate among 26 species of primates commonly eaten in bushmeat trade.
    11. 11. Anthrax and Rift Valley Fever outbreak suspected here in Kenya
    12. 12. H1N1</li></ul>Ebola virus<br />
    13. 13. Bushmeat in Africa<br />Bushmeat trade is a significant source of protein and income for many poor communities in Africa<br />Central Africa- 30 million consumers in consuming ~ 2.5 million metric tons of meat annually<br />West Africa- has already extirpated many large mammal species leaving ‘weed sp.’<br />East Africa- dramatic increases in trade and its commercialization lately <br />Southern Africa = growing bushmeat trade particularly in areas of civil unrest<br />
    14. 14. Bushmeat is a Band-Aid<br />The commercialization of bushmeat is a temporary solution to numerous problems caused by external driving forces.<br />Dealing with those causal factors immediately will be the only solution for both wildlife and human communities.<br />© RG Ruggiero<br />
    15. 15. Bushmeat: End of the Wild*<br />Weedy Species - plants, animals and other organisms that thrive incontinually disturbed, human-dominated environments (West Africabushmeat trade: largely cane rats and blue duikers harvested from secondary growth landscapes – very little wildlife remaining).<br />Relic Species - cannot thrive in human-dominated environments -whichnow nearly cover the planet and require heavy management (prairie dogs, elephants, pandas, California condor…)<br />Ghost Species - organisms that cannot or will not be allowed to surviveon a planet with billions of people (East Asian giant soft-shell turtle, tigers, tuna, swordfish, wolves…)<br />Extinction Debt: In the past century we have accumulated a vast extinction debt that will be paid, with interest, in the century ahead…over the next hundred years, upwards of half of the earth&apos;s species are destined to become relics or ghosts, while weedy species will constitute an ever-growing proportion of the plants and animals around us.<br />*Meyer, S. 2006. End of the Wild. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.<br />
    16. 16. Wildlife forensics<br />DNA Barcoding for bushmeat<br />
    17. 17. Bushmeat in East Africa<br />Dramatic increase in Demand in EA driven by;<br /><ul><li>rapidly increasing human populations,
    18. 18. rising poverty,
    19. 19. high food prices,
    20. 20. political instability,
    21. 21. lack of alternatives, </li></ul>inadequate awareness,<br /><ul><li>weak law enforcement
    22. 22. lack of ownership right</li></li></ul><li>MENTOR Fellowship Program<br />Raise the capacity of emerging wildlife managers and leaders in eastern Africa to reduce the illegal, unsustainable exploitation of wildlife for bushmeat.<br />Wildlife Without Borders – Africa Cooperative Agreement:<br />U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS), <br />College of African Wildlife Management-<br /> Mweka, Tanzania (CAWM), <br />Africa Biodiversity Collaborative Group<br /> (ABCG) <br />
    23. 23. Bushmeat Assessments<br />Done in Kenya, S. Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda<br /><ul><li>National Assessments
    24. 24. Site Level Assessments
    25. 25. Multiple methods applied
    26. 26. Aim to identify and evaluate current bushmeat trade,
    27. 27. Identify Potential solutions & partners</li></li></ul><li>Regional findings<br />Commonalities<br /><ul><li>Inadequate awareness (diseases, wildlife laws, impact of bushmeat) across the region
    28. 28. Inadequate enforcement of laws, capacity and technology
    29. 29. Inadequate collaboration among stakeholders
    30. 30. Decreasing wildlife population
    31. 31. Common drivers
    32. 32. Common hunting tools</li></ul>Differences<br /><ul><li>Values of wildlife from legal </li></ul>perspectives <br /><ul><li>Policies and laws</li></li></ul><li>The Bushmeat-free Eastern Africa Network (BEAN), an interdisciplinary and multi-institutional network consisting of different stakeholders, that emerged out of the MENTOR Program to implement and expand upon efforts on illegal bushmeat exploitation developed through the training.<br />www.bushmeatnetwork.org<br />
    33. 33. Bushmeat solutions - BEAN<br />BEAN Field Officers initiate projects<br />Kenya: wildlife education / protein-income alternatives<br />Kenya: wildlife education / training game scouts for monitoring<br />Uganda/Kenya/Tanzania/Southern Sudan: law enforcement capacity building<br />Uganda: protein/income alternatives <br />Tanzania: protein alternatives <br />
    34. 34. Kenya findings<br />Assessment findings<br />At least 50% wildlife decline in last 30 years<br />Bushmeat No. one direct cause of wildlife loss<br />Economic incentives for private land owners to protect wildlife outside PAs is essential <br />Bushmeat trade supports unmet needs for income and protein among the poor<br />
    35. 35. National wildlife populations trends<br />19<br />Total wildlife populations for all parks with matching ecosystem counts. The parks include Tsavo East, Tsavo West, Amboseli and Nairobi. (Western, et, al 2006)<br />
    36. 36. Bushmeat utilisation in Kenya<br />20<br />... Stakeholders Reponses <br />
    37. 37. Pertinent issues <br />Data from long-term bushmeat monitoring lacking .....<br />Difficult to determine % contribution of bushmeat poaching to the overall decline in wildlife population<br />Demand for bush meat will continue to rise, leading to more decline in wildlife and lose of food and livelihoods sources <br />“Use it or lose it” - Theoretical justification for conservation is of little use if it cannot translate into tangible benefits to people hosting wildlife.<br />This situation is exacerbated by the increasing costs of living with wildlife – conflict, disease,<br />21<br />
    38. 38. My Project<br />
    39. 39. Why Tsavo West <br />Degradation of the L. Jipe and its catchment resulted in;<br />Loss of lake & basin’s ecological and socio-economic values<br /> Collapse of the fisheries industries in last decade<br />The problem is exacerbated;<br />high population growth rate - immigration<br />High squatter population<br />Human wildlife conflict <br />Drought<br />
    40. 40. Project goal<br />Overall Objective<br />Reduce the illegal trade in bushmeat in Taveta and the surrounding areas<br />Specific Objectives<br />To raise awareness on the illegal bushmeat trade.<br />To build the capacity of local CBOs on fish farming.<br />To enhance access to competitively priced alt. protein<br />Develop customized bushmeat education materials <br />Train environmental educators on bushmeat education <br />
    41. 41. Key activities<br />Training on alternative sustainable livelihoods <br />Bushmeat education outreach<br />Training for Bushmeat educators <br />Development of customized bushmeat education materials for Tsavo<br />Initiating alternative protein projects – fish farming and chicken production<br />
    42. 42. Achievements so far<br />Training workshop on livelihoods and institutional capacity strengthening for 10 CBOs<br />Five Fish farming project initiated/ rehabilitated.<br />Three CBOs have already received fish fingerlings<br />Bushmeat awareness outreach activities done<br />200 copies of Swara donated to schools<br />Bushmeat play developed and played on Kenyatta day<br />
    43. 43. Ongoing Activities <br />Fish pond rehabilitation in Mrabani, Mahoo, Ndarajani and Kiwalwa<br />Training for bushmeat Educators<br />Chicken vaccination against ND<br />More education outreach<br />More education materials<br />Construction of a hatchery <br />
    44. 44. Challenges <br />High cost of constructing/rehabilitating concrete fish ponds<br />High cost of fingerlings only available in Mombasa 350 km away<br />Inadequate of information on the implementation conservation and development projects<br />
    45. 45. What you can do<br />Never buy wildlife products without proper certification<br />Take precaution against zoonotic diseases<br />Spread the word<br />Read Bushmeat in Kenya blog regularly<br />Support conservation initiatives<br />‘Adopt’ an ex-poacher<br /> and livelihood project<br />
    46. 46. Acknowledgement <br />BEAN Team<br />Dr Heather Eves<br />Dr Sarah Burgess-Herbert <br />High Tech high<br />EAWLS<br />

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