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The impact of tourism on the community of Clarens Presentation Transcript

  • 1. AcknowledgementsThe authors would like to thank the following persons and institutions for their contributionsto, and help for, the completion of this study: 1. The National Research Foundation for funding this project. 2. All the friendly residents of Clarens for willingly completing the questionnaires. 3. Prof Elmarie Slabbert for managing the survey and for making this project possible. 4. All the fieldworkers who helped to distribute and capture the questionnaires: • Annari van der Merwe • Tanya de Jongh • Kiera Seymour • Hennie Visser • Lizbé Sauer • Marco Scholtz 5. Malcolm Ellis for language editing. i
  • 2. Table of contents1. Introduction 12. Aims of research 23. Research methodology 24. Results 3Section A: Demographic information 34.1 Age 34.2 Length of stay in Clarens 34.3 Highest level of education 4Section B: Feelings towards tourism 54.4 Influence of tourism on personal life 54.5 Influence of tourism on community 54.6 Involvement in tourism businesses 54.7 Feelings towards tourism 74.8 Opinions regarding tourism in Clarens 7Section C: Specific social impacts of tourism on Clarens 84.9 Social impacts of tourism on Clarens 8Section D: Image of Clarens 114.10 The cognitive image of Clarens 114.11 Affective image of Clarens 135. Conclusions & recommendations 155.1 Profiling residents of Clarens 155.2 Recommendations made by researchers 175.3 Recommendations made by community members 18 ii
  • 3. List of tablesTable 1: Personal quality of life 5Table 2: Influence of tourism on community 5Table 3: Types of tourism businesses 6Table 4: Feelings towards tourism 7Table 5: Tourism statement 7Table 6: Social impact of tourism on Clarens 10Table 7: Clarens’ image 12Table 8: Profile of Clarens residents 14 List of figuresFigure 1 Age of respondents 3Figure 2: Length of stay in Clarens 4Figure 3: Highest level of education 4Figure 4: Involvement in tourism businesses 6Figure 5: Cognitive image mean ratings 13Figure 6: Excitement levels of Clarens 14Figure 7: Clarens pleasantness 14 List of mapsMap 1: Location of West Coast National Park 1Map 2: Map of West Coast National Park 2 iii
  • 4. 1. IntroductionClarens, also known as the “Jewel of the Free State”, is a very small town near the MalutiMountains and in close proximity to the Golden Gate National Park and Bethlehem. Clarens isseen as a place for artists that inspires them with its beautiful scenery. Its dramaticmountainous landscapes have become well known through many paintings found in SouthAfrican homes today. The town has a number of art galleries, restaurants, curios and manyforms of accommodation that, when taken together, makes it a haven for the tourists that flockto this town every weekend (www.clarens.co.za). Map 1: Clarens (Source: www.sa-venues.com)However, with the increase in tourism in Clarens, more businesses become dependent on thetourism industry and more residents come in contact with tourists. Therefore different culturesand people interact with each another on a daily basis. This interaction may be experienced aseither positive or negative by community members and it might also influence their behaviourtowards these tourists and to their quality of life. It is therefore important to analyse the attitudesof residents and to ensure that it remains positive. If this can be achieved, the town will be seenas tourist friendly and welcoming and the tourism industry in Clarens will grow still further. 1
  • 5. 2. Aims of researchThis research report had the following aims: • To determine the demographic profile of residents participating in the survey. • To determine the feelings of the Clarens residents towards tourism. • To determine the social impacts of tourism on the community. • To determine the image of Clarens from the view of residents. 3. Research methodologyIn order to achieve the above-mentioned aims, a questionnaire was developed which measuredthe following: • Demographic information; • Residents’ feelings towards tourism; • Social impact of tourism on Clarens; and the • Perceived image of Clarens.The convenience sampling method was used due to a lack of access to an updated list ofClarens residents. Fieldworkers distributed questionnaires in shops, as well as to the variousneighbourhoods of Clarens. Residents were approached in shops, on the streets, as well as attheir homes, where the aims of the research was explained to them. After the explanations, therespondents willingly completed the questionnaires. The distribution of questionnaires tookplace between the 24th - 26th of August 2012 when 251 questionnaires were successfullycompleted. 2
  • 6. 4. Results Section A: Demographic information4.1 AgeThirty-six percent (36%) of respondents were between the ages of 25 and 34 years, followed bythe 21% in the 35 to 49 years category, 17% who were in the 20 to 24 years category and 11%in the 50 to 64 years age category (Figure 1). Seven percent (7%) of respondents were betweenthe ages of 65 and 79, 3% were 19 years old or younger while only 1% was 80 years or older.The average age of Clarens respondents was 37 years. 36% 25% 17% 11% 7% 3% 1% < 19 yrs 20–24yrs 25-34 yrs 35-49 yrs 50-64 yrs 65-79 yrs 80+ yrsFigure 1: Age of respondents4.2 Length of stay in ClarensAccording to Figure 2, more than half of the respondents (58%) had been residents in Clarensfor 10 years or less, while 22% had been residents for 11 to 20 years, 14% for 21 to 30 years,5% for 31 to 40 years and only 1% had lived in Clarens for 41 years or more. The averagelength of residence in Clarens was 12.28 years. These residents had therefore been part ofand/or had witnessed the growth of tourism in Clarens. This makes their opinions even moreimportant seeing as they would have a more holistic view of the growth process. 3
  • 7. 58% 22% 14% 5% 1% 0 - 10 years 11 - 20 years 21 - 30 years 31 - 40 years 41+ yearsFigure 2: Length of stay in Clarens4.3 Highest level of educationThe majority of respondents (55%) had obtained a matric (grade 12) qualification, followed bythose holding a diploma or degree (25%) and by 6% of respondents who had obtained otherqualifications. This included respondents who had left school in either grade 6, 8, 9, 10 or 11(see Figure 3). Five percent (5%) had obtained postgraduate and professional degrees (5%each) while 4% had no formal schooling. Other 6% Professional 5% Postgraduate 5% Diploma / degree 25% Matric / Grade 12 55% No school 4%Figure 3: Highest level of education 4
  • 8. Section B: Feelings towards tourism4.4 Influence of tourism on personal lifeTable 1 indicates that 50% of respondents felt that tourism affect their personal lives in a verypositive way, while 20% felt that it had a positive impact to a larger extent. Only 17% felt thattourism did not affect them at all. Three percent (3%) felt that tourism had a very negativeimpact on their lives and 2% felt that it had a slightly negative affect.Table 1: Personal quality of lifeVery negative No effect Very positive -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 3% 0% 2% 17% 8% 20% 50%4.5 Influence of tourism on communitySixty-one (61%) of respondents felt that tourism affected the community in a very positive way,while 18% felt that it had a positive impact to a larger extent. Only 8% felt that tourism did notaffect them at all. Two percent (2%) felt that tourism had a very negative or slightly negative,respectively, impact on their lives.Table 2: Influence of tourism on communityVery negative No effect Very positive -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 2% 1% 2% 8% 8% 18% 61%4.6 Involvement in tourism businessesWhile bearing in mind that business in Clarens is to a large extent driven by tourism, it wasinteresting to note only 37% of respondents owned, or were part of, tourism related businesses(Figure 4), while 63% were not. 5
  • 9. Yes 37% No 63%Figure 4: Involvement in tourism businessesA further analysis into the types of businesses that the respondents were involved with foundthat 37% of respondents were working in accommodation, followed by 24% who worked in thefood and beverage sector, 20% in arts and crafts and 6% in tour operations (Table 3). Fourpercent (4%) worked in event planning, 3% in health and wellbeing and 1% at antique stores orat the information office, respectively. Finally, 4% worked in other unspecified tourismbusinesses.Table 3: Types of tourism businessesBUSINESS TYPE PERCENTAGEAccommodation 37%Food & beverage 24%Arts & Curios 20%Tour operations 6%Event planning 4%Health & Wellbeing 3%Antiques 1%Information office 1%Other 4% 6
  • 10. 4.7 Feelings towards ClarensAccording to Table 4, 45% of respondents indicated that they loved living in Clarens and thatthey would never want to live anywhere else. Others enjoyed living in Clarens (42%), but couldthink of other places where they would also like to live. Thirteen percent (13%) of respondentsstated that they would have liked to leave Clarens, but their circumstances did not allow them todo so. Overall, it is clear that residents enjoyed living in this town.Table 4: Feelings towards ClarensI love it, I can’t think of anywhere else I would rather live. 45%I enjoy living in Clarens but I can think of other places I would equally enjoy staying. 42%I stay here only because circumstances do not allow me to leave. 13%4.8 Opinions regarding tourism in ClarensRespondents were asked to give their feelings regarding tourism development in Clarens asshown in Table 5. Respondents indicated that they agree to fully agree with the followingstatements:Tourism forms part of the “heart beat” of Clarens 95%My general attitude towards tourism development in Clarens is positive 93%Tourism has more positive than negative impacts on Clarens 93%Tourism in Clarens is well organised 83%Table 5: Tourism statement SOMEWHAT SOMEWHAT STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE AGREE AGREE AGREE FULLYTOURISM STATEMENTS1. My general attitude towards tourism development in Clarens is 2% 5% 22% 15% 56% positive2. Tourism in Clarens is well organised 4% 13% 27% 18% 38% 7
  • 11. 3. Tourism has more positive than negative impacts on Clarens 2% 5% 20% 16% 57%4. Tourism forms part of the “heart beat” of Clarens 2% 3% 19% 13% 63% Section C: Specific social impacts of tourism on Clarens 4.9 Social impact of tourism on ClarensRespondents were asked to analyse what they believed to be the impact of tourism on Clarensand its community (Table 6). Respondents indicated that they agree to fully agree with thefollowing statements: Positive / Tangible /BECAUSE OF TOURISM… Percentage Intangible Negative impact • Clarens has become famous. 96% Positive Intangible • Clarens has a positive image. 93% Positive Intangible • I am proud to stay in my community. 91% Positive Intangible • Clarens look better and that makes me happy. 89% Positive Tangible • My community’s natural environment is 88% Positive Tangible protected. • I developed respect and understanding towards 87% Positive Intangible visiting cultures. • The price of properties and homes has 87% Negative Intangible increased. • Business in Clarens is only good during certain 85% Negative Intangible times of the year. • The total cost of living has increased. 83% Negative Tangible • There are opportunities for you to learn more 79% Positive Intangible about your community. 8
  • 12. • There are more tourism developments. 79% Positive Tangible • There are many leisure opportunities for the 78% Positive Tangible community.It is evident from the information above that residents value the intangible impacts of tourismvery highly and that these impacts are positively experienced.Respondents indicated that they disagree somewhat or strongly disagree with the following: Positive / Tangible /BECAUSE OF TOURISM… Percentage Intangible impact Negative • There are opportunities for residents to be 83% Negative Tangible part of tourism planning. • There are more traffic problems. 70% Positive Tangible • There has been a rise in crime. 68% Positive Tangible • Vandalism has increased. 66% Positive Tangible • The air looks dirtier. 63% Positive Tangible • My environment is noisier. 62% Positive Tangible • The lives of residents are disrupted. 60% Positive IntangibleIn the section above, the tangible aspects were highlighted and were also considered to bemore positive. The balance between tangible and intangible impacts is important if the status ofthe tourism industry is to be improved. 9
  • 13. Table 6: Social impact of tourism on Clarens FULLY AGREE SOMEWHAT SOMEWHAT STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE AGREE AGREEBECAUSE OF TOURISM…a. there are many leisure opportunities for the community. 11% 11% 36% 16% 26%b. there are opportunities for you to learn more about your 8% 13% 35% 20% 24%community.c. the air looks dirtier. 39% 24% 16% 10% 11%d. there are more traffic problems. 48% 22% 12% 6% 12%e. the price of properties and homes have increased. 5% 8% 23% 16% 48%f. the total cost of living has increased. 8% 9% 22% 15% 46%g. the community makes more money. 30% 14% 17% 19% 20%h. there has been a rise in crime. 38% 30% 17% 7% 8%i. cultural traditions are damaged. 27% 24% 31% 8% 10%j. vandalism has increased. 34% 32% 15% 11% 8%k. my everyday lifestyle has improved. 13% 15% 30% 22% 20%l. my community’s natural environment is protected. 3% 9% 24% 22% 42%there are too many visitors in my town. 16% 14% 11% 16% 43%n. I am proud to stay in my community. 3% 6% 20% 10% 61%o. Clarens has got a positive image. 1% 6% 22% 16% 55%p. Clarens look better and that makes me happy. 3% 8% 25% 20% 44%q. my environment looks dirty/ugly. 16% 14% 27% 15% 28%r. my environment is noisier. 36% 26% 18% 7% 13%s. I learn more about other cultures. 22% 20% 28% 16% 14%t. new infrastructure is developed. 16% 13% 30% 21% 20%u. Clarens has become famous. 1% 3% 19% 16% 61%v. local areas and infrastructure (such as roads) are maintained. 13% 19% 26% 19% 23% 10
  • 14. w. more jobs are created. 13% 15% 26% 22% 24%x. there are more opportunities for local businesses 12% 15% 27% 24% 22%y. business in Clarens is only good during certain times of the year. 9% 6% 29% 21% 35%z. there are more tourism developments. 10% 11% 35% 17% 27%aa. community members only showcase their culture for tourism 22% 17% 30% 11% 20%purposes.bb. the local cultures are protected. 18% 21% 32% 13% 16%cc. I developed respect and understanding towards visiting cultures. 3% 10% 27% 16% 44%dd. the lives of residents are disrupted. 35% 25% 21% 12% 7%ee. there are opportunities for residents to be part of tourism 64% 19% 8% 5% 4%planning. Section D: Image of Clarens4.10 The cognitive image of ClarensIn this question respondents were asked to state their cognitive image of Clarens. The cognitiveimage of Clarens is revealed in Table 7 and summarised below. Positive / CLARENS: Percentage Negative • is a safe tourism destination 97% Positive • is tourism friendly 97% Positive • has beautiful landscapes 96% Positive • has a good name and reputation 95% Positive • has friendly residents 94% Positive • offers a good quality of life 93% Positive • is clean 92% Positive • has good tourism infrastructure 91% Positive 11
  • 15. • offers good restaurants 90% PositiveForty-two percent (42%) of respondents felt that Clarens did not have sports facilities ofacceptable standards.Table 7: Clarens’ image FULLY AGREE SOMEWHAT SOMEWHAT STRONGLY DISAGREE DISAGREE AGREE AGREE CLARENS: a. offers a variety of fauna and flora 8% 9% 26% 27% 30% b. offers various historical and cultural attractions 7% 10% 19% 22% 42% c. has beautiful landscapes 3% 1% 6% 13% 77% d. offers interesting cultural activities 14% 12% 27% 19% 28% e. has good shopping facilities 19% 18% 27% 16% 20% f. offers great nightlife activities 19% 19% 22% 19% 21% g. offers good restaurants 4% 6% 11% 22% 57% h. offers good sport facilities 26% 16% 22% 18% 18% i. has well-developed general infrastructure 14% 12% 28% 26% 20% j. can be seen as a luxury destination 4% 9% 20% 24% 43% k. can be seen as a fashionable destination to visit 5% 6% 23% 24% 42% l. has a good name and reputation 0% 5% 16% 19% 60% m. offers a good quality of life 3% 5% 19% 22% 52% n. is a safe tourism destination 1% 2% 10% 16% 71% o. is clean 1% 7% 13% 22% 57% p. has friendly residents 2% 4% 8% 18% 68% q. has good tourism infrastructure 5% 4% 18% 25% 48% r. is tourism friendly 1% 2% 15% 20% 62% 12
  • 16. Illustrated in Figure 5 are the cognitive image mean values that create a better understanding ofhow the respondents perceived certain aspects. The importance of safety, of beautifullandscapes, friendly residents and good restaurants are evident. 5.00 4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00Figure 5: Cognitive image mean ratings4.11 Affective image of ClarensIt is evident from an examination of Figures 6 and 7 that Clarens’ residents feel that their town isa very exciting place (46%) and that it is very pleasant (61%). On average, residentsexperienced Clarens as exciting to fairly exciting (5.8) and as fairly pleasant to very pleasant(6.25). More emphasis was therefore placed on pleasantness than excitement. 13
  • 17. Very exciting place 46% Fairly exciting place 18% Exciting place 19% Neutral 12% Boring place 3% Fairly boring place 0% Very boring place 2%Figure 6: Excitement levels of Clarens Very pleasant place 61% Fairly pleasant place 16% Pleasant place 15% Neutral 6% Unpleasant place 0% Fairly unpleasant place 1% Very unpleasant place 1%Figure 7: Clarens pleasantness 14
  • 18. 5. Conclusions & recommendations5.1 Profiling residents of Clarens:Table 8 shows a profile of the average respondent living in Clarens in 2012. Table 8: Profile of Clarens residents CRITERIA COMMUNITY PROFILE Age 37 years Length of stay in Clarens 12 years Highest level of education Matric/Grade 12 (55%); Diploma/Degree (25%) Influence of tourism on personal life Very positive (50%) Influence of tourism on community Very positive (60%) Involvement in tourism businesses Yes (37%) Accommodation (37%); Food & beverage (24%); Arts & Curios (20%) Feelings towards tourism I love it, I can’t think of anywhere else I would rather live (45%); I enjoy living in Clarens but I can think of other places I would equally enjoy staying (42%) Opinions regarding tourism in Tourism forms part of the “heart beat” of Clarens (95%); My Clarens general attitude towards tourism development in Clarens is positive (93%); Tourism has more positive than negative impacts on Clarens (93%) Social impact of tourism on Clarens Because of tourism: Clarens has become famous (96%); Clarens has a positive image (93%); I am proud to stay in my community (91%) 15
  • 19. The cognitive image of Clarens Clarens: is a safe destination (97%); is tourism friendly (97%); has beautiful landscapes (96%); has a good name and reputation (95%); has friendly residents (94%); offers a good quality life (93%)Affective image of Clarens Clarens is a very exciting place (46%); Clarens is very pleasant (61%)The average Clarens resident and his/her feelings towards tourism can thus be summarised asfollows: - Respondents were in their late thirties (37 years) and had been living in Clarens for an average of 12 years. - Community members had obtained at least a matric qualification and they felt very positive towards the influence of tourism on their personal lives as well as on their community as a whole. - A little more than a third of respondents owned or worked at a tourism orientated businesses with most working in accommodation, food and beverage or arts and curios sectors. - They felt that Clarens was safe, friendly, had a good name and reputation. It also offered a good quality of life. - They also perceived Clarens as a very exciting, pleasant place. - It was clear that respondents were happy living in Clarens and would not choose to relocate. - It was very positive to see that residents realised the importance of tourism to Clarens and readily supported the statement that tourism forms part of the “heartbeat” of Clarens. - These residents considered Clarens to be famous and holding a positive image. - They also noted that the prices of properties had increased. Of course, this was a positive in the case of property holders, but a negative if property still needed to be purchased. - This community was definitely influenced by seasonality and more effort could be made to improve this situation. 16
  • 20. - The total cost of living has increased which puts pressure on the local community. - It is alarming to see that residents feel that there were not enough opportunities for residents to be part of tourism planning. - The image that residents hold of a destination such as Clarens is very important as they form part of the word-of-mouth campaign promoting the town. It is thus important that the image held by the residents of their town must be positive. - Clarens is in the honoured position to have a very positive image based on the opinions of its residents. This town is perceived as safe and tourism friendly, of having beautiful landscapes, of holding a good name and reputation, as well as having friendly residents. These positive elements should be emphasised in marketing material. - Although not resulting in a high percentage, it should be noted that some residents desired better/more sports facilities. - On an affective (feelings) level, Clarens was rated as more pleasant than exciting.5.2 Recommendations made by researchersBased on the research results, the following recommendations can be made: • The attitudes of community members should be sustained and even cultivated, by involving as many community members as widely as possible. • The effect of seasonality as well as the effect of week/mid-week occupation should be counteracted by ideas such as themed weeks, other unique events/activities and by a focus on specific niche target markets. • Safety, tourism friendliness, etcetera, should be emphasised in the marketing campaigns. Once more, the importance of the community to marketing campaigns should not be underestimated. • The spread of tourism benefits was questioned in many cases. This too emphasises the importance of keeping the community involved and informed. • The upcoming celebration is an excellent idea; however further marketing is vital. • Shopping and sport facilities were problematic for residents and their need for improved facilities were clearly expressed. 17
  • 21. 5.3 Recommendations made by community members • More local residents should form part of tourism discussions and developments. • Effective marketing of packaged tours involving the township should be a priority. • Clarens is too expensive for the local residents. • It would be for the best if there are also developments in Clarens’ township such as a shopping centre or special tours which takes tourists into the township and teaches them more of the local cultures. • Many respondents felt that they do not have access to adequate shopping facilities seeing as the nearest major shops are in Bethlehem. • The community strongly feels that sporting facilities should be developed in Clarens for recreational purposes. • Community residents feel that the younger people of the township should be properly educated concerning what tourism is and how they can support, take part in, and benefit from it. • Residents do not want chain hotels to operate in their town believing that this takes business away from local people and leads to economic leakage for the community. • Black community members want to be more involved in the tourism planning • Respondents in current tourism operations feel that they are not earning a sufficiently large salary. 18