Rio Antirio Bridge - Report


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Information about the Mega Bridge Rio Antirio

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Rio Antirio Bridge - Report

  1. 1. 1 | P a g e Acknowledgement All praise is to Allah, The Lord of The Creation. Certainly Almighty Allah gave us the strength & courage to make this report. We are grateful to our teacher Miss Sultana, who gave us the opportunity to implement our skills in making a report which surely was a great experience.
  2. 2. 2 | P a g e TABLE OF CONTENTS  Introduction 3  Name 4  Location 4  Concept, Design and Construction 5  Main Bridge Concepts 6  Pylon 6  Deck 8  Construction and Completion 8  Trouble with Cable Links 9  Monitoring System 9  Records 10  Conclusion 11  Bibliography 12
  3. 3. 3 | P a g e Introduction The Gulf of CorinthinGreece isdeep,wide andlong.Greatattributesformarine trafficbuta nightmare for those travellingbyland.The Gulf of CorinthvirtuallychopsGreece intwo.The onlylandroute betweensouthernGreece andthe WesternEurope is240 kmeast.Bridgingthe Gulf is beenagoal more than a centurybut itis neverbeenpossibleuntil now. The water istoo deep,the seabedtoosoftand an earthquake faultline comes inthe middle. Challenges of buildingbridge here weremindboggling.The biggestproblemwasEarthquake.Bridgeshave been builtinthe earthquake zone before,butthisbridge hadtocross an active faultline.Ontopof that the waterhere isextremelydeepi.e.60 meters.Nootherbridge hasbeenbuiltwithfoundationslikethat. In April 1996 the onlyway to crossThe Gulf of Corinthwasby meansof Ferryboat. Ina perfectweather the journeywouldtake 45 minutes,a bridge will reduce thattofive. SofordecadesThe Greece Governmenthasbeenlookingfornewbridge designs,the bridge will have tobe extraordinary.The Designof the bridge looksverysimple.368 steel cables,4conical towersanda yellow ribbonof roadway that glowsat night.
  4. 4. 4 | P a g e Mega Structure – Rio Antirio Bridge Name Its official name isthe CharilaosTrikoupisBridge. CharilaosTrikoupis wasa19th century Greekprime minister,andsuggestedthe ideaof buildingabridge betweenRionandAntirion;however,the endeavourwastoo expensive atthe time,whenGreece wastryingtogeta late footintothe Industrial Revolution. Location The 2,880 m (9,449 ft) longbridge islocatedinGreece andit joinssouthernGreece tothe Western Europe,makingthe journeyasshortas 5 minuteswhichusedtobe 45 minutesina ferryor viathe isthmusof Corinth at itsextreme eastend.
  5. 5. 5 | P a g e Concept, Design, and Construction All Bridge designsare basedonfourtypes: Beam Bridges: The longestbridgesinthe worldare beambridgesbutitwouldn’tworkhere because itwill blockthe wayof shiptraffic. Arch Bridges: An Archbridge can stay clearof huge shiptrafficbuta span of Gulf Corinthwill require 4timesbigger than anyarch bridge builtbefore.Thisdesignwastoorisky Suspension Bridges: A suspensionbridge canbe of longest distances,butsuspensionbridgesare tooexpensive.Greece couldn'taffordto buildone.
  6. 6. 6 | P a g e Cable Stayed Bridges: Thisleftonlyone possibleoption,A Cable StayedBridge.Inthisdesignthere are noexpensive main cables(unlike SuspensionBridges), insteadthe smallercablesare directlylinkedtothe towers.Itwill be able to fulfill the demandsof thisBridge. Main Bridge Concepts: Pylons For challengeslike theseBridge made of 3 central spans, 560 m inlengthand2 side spans,286 m longwasselected. The correspondingfourpylonsreston large concrete substructure foundations, 90m in diameter,65mhigh,whichdistribute all the forcesto the soil.Below thissubstructure, the bearingcapacity of the heterogeneous and weaksoil wasimprovedbymeansof inclusions, whichconsistof 20mmthick steel pipes,25 to 30 m longand 2m in diameter, drivenata regularspacingof 7 or 8m. The piersare not buriedintothe seabed,but rather reston a bedof gravel whichwas meticulouslyleveledtoanevensurface (adifficultendeavoratthisdepth).Duringanearthquake,the piersshouldbe allowedtomove laterallyonthe seabedwiththe gravelbedabsorbingthe energy.
  7. 7. 7 | P a g e Initially,aconcrete blockwhichacts as the base of 4 concrete legs convergingatthe top of the pylons and givingthemthe appropriate rigiditywassupported bythese huge foundationsthroughoctagonal pylonshafts,pyramidal capitals andasophisticatedsetof bearingdevices, post-tensionedtendonsand springdampers. Thiswasabsolutely necessarysince eachpylonsupporteda symmetricalcantilever510 m longand eachcantileverwasconnectedtothe adjacentone or tothe approachesbya simply supporteddeckgirder50m long.Careful analysesof the behaviorof the reinforcedsoil and improvementsof thisinnovative conceptledto givingupthe initial staticscheme of the mainbridge and to adopta muchmore efficientstructure withacontinuouspylon (fromseabedtopylonhead) anda continuousfullysuspendeddeck isolatedasmuchas possible fromthe pylons. Thisallowedthe depthof the deckand therefore alsothe windeffectsonthe bridge tobe reduced.
  8. 8. 8 | P a g e Deck The deck isa composite steel-concretestructure, 20m wide,consistingof a concrete slab,25 to 35 cm thick,connected totwinlongitudinal steel I girders, 2,20m high,braced every4m by transverse cross beams. Itis continuousoveritstotal lengthof 2252 m, withexpansionjointsatboth ends,andisfully suspendedby8setsof 23 pairsof cables.Inthe longitudinaldirectionthe deckisfree toaccommodate all movementsdue tothermal and seismicactionsandthe jointsare designed toaccommodate 2,5m displacements underservice conditionsand movementsof upto 5,0m in an extreme seismicevent. In the transverse directionitisconnected toeachpylonwith4 hydraulicdampersof 3500 KN capacity each and a horizontal metallicstrutof 10 000KN capacity. The stay cablesare arranged intwoinclined planes ina semi-fanconfiguration. Theyare made of 43 to 73 parallel galvanizedstrandsindividuallyprotected by an HDPE sheath. Construction and Completion The leadarchitectwas Berdj Mikaelian.Site preparationanddredgingbeganinJuly1998, and constructionof the massive supportingpylonsin 2000. With these complete in2003, workbeganon the trafficdecksand supportingcables.OnMay21, 2004, the mainconstructionwascompleted;only equipment(sidewalks,railings,etc.) andwaterproofingremainedtobe installed. The bridge wasfinally inauguratedonAugust7, 2004, a weekbefore the openingof the 2004 SummerOlympics inAthens.The total cost of the bridge wasabout€ 630,000,000, funded byGreekstate funds.
  9. 9. 9 | P a g e Trouble with cable links On 28 January2005, six monthsafterthe openingof the bridge,one of the cable linksof the bridge snappedfromthe top of the M3 pylonandcame crashing downonthe deck.Traffic wasimmediately halted.The firstinvestigationclaimedthata fire hadbrokenouton the top of the M3 pylon,aftera lightningstrike inone of the cables.The cable wasimmediatelyrestoredandthe bridge re-opened. Monitoring System A structural Healthmonitoringsystemwasinstalledduringconstructiononthe bridge.Itisstill inplace todayand providesa24/7 surveillance of the structure.The systemhasmore than100 sensors, including  3D accelerometersonthe deck,pylons,staycables,andonthe groundto characterize wind movementsandseismictremors  Straingaugesand loadcellsonthe stay cablesandtheirgussets  Displacementsensorsonthe expansionjointstomeasure the thermal expansionof the deck  Water-levelsensorsonthe pylonbasestodetectinfiltration  Temperature sensorsinthe decktodetectfreezingconditions  Linearvariable differentialtransducer(LVDT) sensorsonthe staycablesto measure movement  Load cellsonthe restrainersforrecalibrationinthe eventof anearthquake  Two weatherstationstomeasure windintensity,direction,airtemperature,andrelative humidity One specificelementof the systemis the abilitytodetectandspecificallytreatEarthquake events.
  10. 10. 10 | P a g e Records ThisBridge enteredthe recordbooks:  It isthe longestcable stayedsuspensionbridgeinthe world.  It has longestfullysuspendedcontinousdecki.e.2200 meters.  It has the world’s largestbridge foundationsandthe deepest,sitting60 metersunderthe sea. Innovative engineeringallowsthe RioAntirioBridgetosurvive wherethe otherdesignswouldfail.It standsas one of the world’smegabridges. A beautifulview at night
  11. 11. 11 | P a g e Conclusion The Rio-Antirio Bridge is a major and impressive link when compared to other major cable-stayed bridges such as the second Severn Bridge and even to the Normandy Bridge. The design and construction of this $ 750 million project undertaken under a private BOT (build-operate-transfer) scheme could overcome an exceptional combination of adverse environmental conditions thanks to the choice of an appropriate concept and seismic design philosophy. The pylons are founded directly on a gravel layer placed on the sea bed allowing them to undergo controlled displacements under the most severe earthquake and, based on an innovative concept, the top 20 m of soil located under the large diameter bases (90 m) of the pylons are reinforced by means of steel inclusions to resist high soil-structure interaction loads. The 2252 m long deck of the cable-stayed bridge is continuous, fully suspended and therefore isolated as much as possible from the worst seismic motions.
  12. 12. 12 | P a g e Bibliography:  Wikipedia  National Geographic Documentary  Google Images 