Packing Guide for groceries
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Packing Guide for groceries

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Packing Guide for groceries
From producers to consumers' (updated 2008-09-01), is intended to provide guidelines to facilitate the definition and design of new packaging or adjustment of existing ones. This is based on a broad holistic approach to all types of packaging in the flow of goods and information from producer to consumer.
Packaging Wizard consists of two parts with Part 1 explains the basic principles for the development or modification of the packaging. In Part 1, there is also a glossary explaining some of the words and abbreviations used in the packaging in the grocery industry. Part 2 contains a checklist which is a tool to achieve the best possible handling of goods and information flow. It is important to coordinate with all the checklists matter what type of packaging that is being used.

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  • 1. IS SU ED SE PT EM BE R 20 08 Packaging guide for FMCG From manufacturer to consumer
  • 2. ECR (“Efficient Consumer Response”) Europe lates to working more efficiently with product was founded more than ten years ago. At that ranges, product introductions and campaigns. time, new findings in the field of goods supply An example of issues related to supply of goods indicated that the retail trade and suppliers is demand-led goods replenishment, which in- could meet the consumers’ needs better, faster cludes topics such as computer assisted ordering and more efficiently by collaborating on sector- and transport optimisation. wide, yet competition-neutral issues. The ECR concept has spread around the Other factors that contributed to the ECR world. ECR Europe was founded in 1994. movement picking up speed were improvements ECR Sweden was established two years later within information technology, increasing com- by Dagligvaruleverantörers Förbund (DLF, Gro- petition, globalisation and the new, larger Euro- cery Manufacturers of Sweden) and Svensk pean market, which made it possible to move Dagligvaruhandel (SDH, Swedish Food and goods and services across national borders more Drink Retailers’ Federation). easily. At the same time, consumer demand came to focus on more factors than before, such ECR Sweden’s duties and goals are to: as a better product range, easy accessibility, • Spread knowledge about ECR to all Swedish quality, freshness and product safety. grocery industry players. ECR is all about creating a holistic approach to the entire value chain throughout the goods’ • Take the initiative and assist in sector journey via subcontractors, producers and retail- activities within the ECR field and to carry ers to the consumer. Benefit for the consumer is out investigations and projects, when ECR’s philosophy. All the work is aimed at in- competition-neutral conditions exist. creasing efficiency in the flow of goods and in- • Conduct training courses, seminars and formation and creating added value for the con- conferences under the name ECR-FORUM at sumer. all levels within the companies in the sector. ECR is divided into two main areas: demand and the supply of goods. The demand aspect re- For further information, see www.ecr.se Grocery Manufacturers Swedish Food & Drink of Sweden (DLF) Retailers’ Federation (SDH) DLF is a trade association of approximately 160 member SDH is an alliance of the trading companies companies who produce and import the majority of all Axfood Sweden, ICA Sweden, Coop Sweden goods sold in Sweden’s grocery stores. DLF’s business and BergendahlsGruppen. The purpose is to concept is to develop and inspire companies and leaders satisfy the interests of consumers. In addition, in the grocery business to provide increased customer SDH will co-ordinate and optimise the grocery and consumer benefits. DLF also represents its member trade’s investments in non-competitive areas of companies in non-competitive industry matters before development. SDH works in three areas: authorities, retailers and other interested parties. Product safety, Economic policy and Logistics. www.dlf.se www.dagligvaror.se WORKING GROUP The Packaging guide for FMCG has been produced by a working group appointed by ECR Sweden comprising the following individuals: Lars Bernhardsson, ICA Sweden, Per-Arne Gustafsson, Metsä Tissue, Ingemar Hansson, ECR Sweden, Anita Kasselstrand, Procordia Food, Mia Lenman, GS1 Sweden, Ivan Lundmark, Axfood Sweden, Mikael Moberg, BergendahlsGruppen, Bert Rosenquist, Sardus, Christina Stockinger, ICA Sweden, Anders Vesterblom, Coop Sweden. ISSUED BY: ECR Sweden, Box 1178, SE-111 91 Stockholm, Sweden Tel: +46 (0)8 - 501 010 62, Fax: +46 (0)8 - 501 010 01, E-mail: info@ecr.se, www.ecr.se EDITING AND LAYOUT: Kerstin Fahlskog and Cati Galli ILLUSTRATIONS: Dick Holst PRINTING: EO Print ECR Sweden holds the exclusive entitlement to make changes in the text. ECR Sweden reserves the right to duplicate the text for commercial use.
  • 3. Packaging guide for FMCG From manufacturer to consumer Foreword Why do we need a Packaging guide for FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods)? For many years, the package has had three main purposes: • to protect and seal the products • to be a bearer for the brand • to be an information carrier to the consumer In recent decades, the package has also developed into one of the corner- stones of efficient logistics. This means that the package must both carry more information of benefit for distribution from manufacturer to con- sumer, as well as fit in with more rational physical handling. The flow of goods and information from manufacturer to consumer has become in- creasingly complex, which affects those who sell and supply packaged goods. Additional wishes and demands are placed on and by the players on the market. The Packaging guide for FMCG is intended to provide guidelines for the formation and design of new packages or the adjustment of existing ones. This edition, published in September 2008, has been updated to cover ECR Europe’s Blue Book “Shelf Ready Packaging”. The Packaging guide deals with various packages as a whole, where the consumer package is one part of this whole from manufacturer to the shop shelf and the store check- out. The whole comprises consumer packages, outer packages, multiunit packages and pallets. However, the Packaging guide does not deal with the consumer package from a strict consumer perspective, such as storage and how it is handled in the home. At the end of Part I there is a glossary and useful website addresses. Part II of the Packaging guide contains checklists to be used during the process when developing new packages or adjusting existing ones. The use of checklists creates the right conditions for the package’s handling through all the stages from manufacturer to shop shelf and consumer. It is important that all the checklists are checked off, irrespective of the pack- age type in question. The Packaging guide for FMCG has been produced in close collaboration between the various representatives of the grocery industry. The author of the guide is ECR Sweden. The packaging guide can be found on ECR Sweden’s website www.ecr.se, where any updates will subsequently be displayed. It is possi- ble to print the entire guide or individual checklists from the website.
  • 4. Contents Part I Chapter 1 – Broad holistic approach and the focus on the consumer 3–7 What can happen Guidelines Requirements and wishes The package as an information carrier Chapter 2 – Consumer packages 8–9 Durable labelling and exposure Chapter 3 – Outer packages 10 – 12 Labelling Shelf Ready Packaging Chapter 4 – Multiunit packages 13 Labelling Chapter 5 – Pallets 14 – 16 Creating a pallet Chapter 6 – Modular system 17 – 18 Efficient flow of goods based on modules Chapter 7 – Labelling 19 – 22 GS1 article numbers and bar codes Choosing numbering principle Bar codes Choice of bar code Printing quality for bar codes Correct information The bar code’s location Chapter 8 – Trade Item Declaration 23 What do Trade Item Declarations have to do with the package? The key to information How does this work? GS1s Package Measurement Rules Glossary 24 – 26 Web addresses 26 Part II Checklists 27 – 31 Consumer packages (CP) Outer packages (OP) Multiunit packages (MP) Pallets
  • 5. PA RT 1 I Chapter Broad holistic approach and the focus on the consumer This chapter gives a general explanation of times. At the same time, all requirements and the flow of goods from manufacturer to con- wishes from manufacturer through to con- sumer, information about this flow and the sumer must be considered and taken into ac- package types on which the system is based: count in the decisions that are taken. The package must be rational and effective to • Consumer package transport and handle, it must be informative • Outer package and promote sales in the store, and it must be functional for the consumer. The package • Multiunit package must protect and preserve the product from • Pallet manufacturer to consumer. For some goods, it can also contribute to extending the shelf life. A central factor in the development of new The package is also an important handling packages and when reviewing existing ones is aid, which must function on loading pallets to have a broad holistic approach. and in containers. The focus must be on the consumer at all The package’s function as product protection and handling aid from manufacturer to store and consumer. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 3
  • 6. What can happen In short, handling can be described as fol- either a returnable or a non-returnable crate, lows: which is open or easy to open at the top and The package manufacturer supplies the which can be stacked on a pallet. The pallet manufacturer with packaging material or is sent to a warehouse, and then on to a dis- prepackages. The manufacturer fills the goods tribution centre or directly to the store. It is into the consumer packages, often directly in important to remember that goods are often connection with the production line. handled in several different stages before Occasionally, both package manufacture they reach the store. Throughout the distrib- and filling take place as part of the produc- ution chain, the pallets are handled using tion process. An example of such a process is forklift trucks. Order picking takes place in milk. The consumer packages are then pack- the distribution centre, and the outer pack- aged in outer packages, either returnable or ages are placed in roller containers or on non-returnable crates, which are stacked on a loading pallets for transport to the store. loading pallet. The outer package can also be When designing both consumer and outer a pallet. packages, it is important to take into consid- When the outer package or the product eration the fact that the goods are handled cannot be stacked directly on loading pallets, many times on their way from manufacturer a multiunit package solution is used. This is to the shelf in the store, and from there to the 4 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 7. consumer. The same applies to the choice of packaging material, this should be approved package type, such as bottle or tray, and by Normpack (www.packforsk.se). The choice when choosing the packaging material and of material for consumer and outer package the thickness of the material. should be made on the basis of the total envi- The outer package is often made of corru- ronmental load being as little as possible. gated board or plastic. These materials work The stresses can be great. It is therefore in existing recycling and return systems. For important to view the consumer package and the consumer package, materials such as its outer package as a single unit that must be cardboard, plastic, glass and sheet metal are able to cope with all the handling right up to used. If food comes into contact with plastic the shop shelf. Guidelines For the flow of goods and information, stan- pallet are well filled. In order for the flow of dards are issued by organisations such as the information to function, a set of rules has been ISO (International Standardisation Organisa- produced by GS1 (www.gs1.se). GS1 article tion) and SIS (Swedish Standards Institute) numbers and bar codes must be present on (www.sis.se). consumer packages and outer packages. Pal- A basic module measuring 600 x 400 mm lets and, where applicable, multiunit pack- has been developed by SIS in collaboration ages must each have their own GS1 article with the grocery industry. This module has number for identification in TID (Trade Item been a guiding influence in the design of all Declaration), see chapter 8 Trade Item Decla- types of package. These various packages will ration. Pallets must be marked with GS1 pal- therefore fit on the pallet irrespective of let labels. These labels contain for example in- whether they measure 800 x 1200 mm or formation about the number of outer pack- 1000 x 1200 mm. The latter size occurs in ages and their GS1 article number. Using some European countries. scanner reading and/or transfer of messages When developing new packages, a number via EDI, various functions in the flow of in- of different factors have to be taken into con- formation and goods, such as acceptance sideration. One of the most important is to checks, can be rationalised. check the sizes of the various package types. There are also sector agreements and rec- The consumer package should be designed so ommendations for e.g. Trade Item Declara- that the outer package and tions (TID) (www.gs1.se) and for pallet height. NOTE! The Packaging guide is intended to provide guidelines for the formation and design of new packages and the ad- RESTRICTIONS justment of existing The Packaging guide for FMCG deals with ones. various packages as a whole, where the EXEMPTIONS consumer package is one part of this In special circumstances, exemptions from whole from manufacturer to the shelf in standard, sector-wide agreements or similar the store and the store checkout. It deals can be justified. One example might be if the with the package’s function, but not its saving or the efficiency gain in one stage ex- environmental load. The guide does not ceeds the corresponding negative effects in deal with the consumer package from a other stages. Agreements can then be strict consumer perspective, such as sto reached between the parties in question. age and how it is handled in the home. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 5
  • 8. Requirements and wishes The flow of goods and information includes many stages, and in each stage there are players that have requirements and wishes regarding the package. These vary de- pending on the product and the relevant stage in the chain. Everything that is done is for the consumer’s best. Here are a few examples: • A maximum weight of 15 kg applies for outer packages that will be picked/ handled manually, unless otherwise agreed by the affected parties. THE MANUFACTURER • The packaging costs must be as low as possible. • Consumer and outer packages must be easy to fill and seal. THE STORE • The outer package must be marked so that it is easy to identify the content. • The bar codes on both the outer package THE HAULIER and the consumer package must be suffi- • Pallet overhang can cause damage to ciently clear that they can be read using goods and should therefore be avoided. a scanner. • Clear marking on the pallets, in accor- • The outer package must be easy to open. dance with the applicable regulations. • When the outer package is a tray, the • Two pallets on top of each other, with a edge must be sufficiently high that the pallet height of not more than 1250 mm consumer packages are securely held once including the loading pallets, give lower the outer package has been opened. transport costs. • Sales-promotional information on the consumer package must be clearly visible, even when the package is standing in a tray on the shelf. • The number of consumer packages in an outer package should be adapted so that the degree of filling is optimised, at the THE DISTRIBUTION CENTRE same time as the store turn-over for the • Outer packages and pallets must be easy article is sufficiently quick. to identify, both in plain text and with bar codes. • The bar code must be printed with clear contrasts in order that it can be read with a scanner. • It must be possible for various outer pack- ages to be mixed in a roller container or THE CONSUMER on a loading pallet, without the goods • The information sustaining damage. on the package must be easy to read. • The outer packages must be modularly • The consumer package must be easy to adapted to provide the greatest degree of open and to use. filling in the roller container or on the loading pallet. 6 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 9. The package as an information carrier In each stage of the flow of goods, the package trading companies and their suppliers increas- plays an important role as an information car- es the potential to evaluate campaigns. In ad- rier. The consumer package, outer package, dition, POS data can be used to help ratio- multiunit package and pallet are all informa- nalise the flow of goods. tion carriers, but in different ways. The infor- The bar code’s legibility and location on mation occurs both in the form of article num- the consumer and outer packages as well as on bers and bar codes, in accordance with GS1’s pallets are important. The printing must be of regulations, as well as in the form of plain text. a sufficiently high quality that the bar code can The GS1 labelling is one of the preconditions be read off using a scanner even after the pack- for rationalising operations, both internally age and the pallet have been handled through and between various players. the entire distribution chain. GS1 article numbers and GS1 bar codes on outer packages and pallets are a means of achieving logistical efficiency throughout the entire distribution chain. For example, this is a way of facilitating acceptance checks and en- suring that the right pallets are entered into and removed from the warehouse. It can ensure that the right outer packages are picked from the pallet and invoiced. The bar code’s The consumer package can carry the decla- legibility and location are important. ration of ingredients, instructions for users, best-before-date and information about whom the consumer should contact for further infor- In addition to being used for identification, mation about the product. The consumer the information contained on the package can package must be supplied with an GS1 bar also be used for traceability and for marking code. This is registered at the checkout in the origin. store to provide the consumer with informa- One piece of the jigsaw for an efficient flow tion about the price of the product. of goods and information is the existence of a Scanner reading in stores (POS data, Point Trade Item Declaration (TID) for a package. of Sale) forms the basis for payment and sales This contains information about length, statistics. For example, it can be used to evalu- width, height, the number of consumer pack- ate how well a product launch has succeeded or ages in an outer package, the number of outer to check sales trends in total or for individual packages on a loading pallet, whether the out- articles. er package is a slotted crate or a wrap-around The direct exchange of POS data between package, etc. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 7
  • 10. 2 Chapter Consumer packages There are many consumer Other names for package variants. consumer packages can include: • Consumer Unit The consumer package must promote sales • CoP of the product through an attractive design • C-pack and décor, as well as protecting and preserv- ing the product. • Primary package Examples of other factors to take into • Multiple pack consideration when designing a consumer • Multipack package include product information, size of the package and whether it is easy to open and reseal. The consumer package’s outer di- is reduced and the logistical efficiency is im- mensions are important. Along with the paired. A reduced degree of filling affects the outer package, these must be adapted to the risk of damage to goods when pallets are Modular system (see chapter 6, Modular sys- placed on top of one another. The store’s fix- tem). Consideration must be given to the tures and fittings are another important fac- material thickness of the outer package. If tor to take into consideration. Store shelves the outer packages do not fill the loading are adapted to the basic module, which mea- pallets bottom surface, the degree of filling sures 600 x 400 mm. 8 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 11. Durable labelling and exposure The labelling on the consumer package must The size of the package should be adapted include GS1 bar code and information in to the space on the store shelf for the product plain text, for example the declaration of in- group in question. gredients. If the package contains goods that The consumer package’s bottom surface are hazardous to health or the environment, and height should be adapted to the store’s separate labelling is also required. The bar fixtures and the shelf space in the store for code label must be legible all the way from the product group in question. The con- manufacturer to store checkout. It must be sumer and outer packages must be designed possible to read other labelling throughout so that they can be displayed as a unit. It the lifetime of the package, i.e. at least as must also be possible to display the con- long as that stipulated by the best-before sumer package separately. It should be easy date. for the consumer to take the package from If the package is on a tray, the labelling the shelf. must be clearly visible above the edge of the tray. The edge of the tray must be sufficient- ly high that the consumer packages are securely held, but not so high that it conceals information about the product in the pack- age. Do the consumer and outer packages fit on the store’s shelves? 400 – 500 0 90 600 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 9
  • 12. 3 Chapter Outer packages In many cases the outer package is the same as an orderable unit. Outer packages are Other names for outer available in many variants. packages can include: The most important task for the outer • S-pack package is to protect and hold the consumer • ReP packages together until they reach the shop • Display pallet shelf. The outer package must be designed • Case so that it can easily be identified, picked, • Secondary package handled, stored, loaded and unloaded on its way from manufacturer to store, where it • SKU must be easy to open and subsequently han- • Trade Unit dled. Outer packages are available in many variants. 10 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 13. The pallet that comes from the manufacturer Labelling is normally split in the distribution centre. Goods from other manufacturers are loaded The outer package must be supplied with in- together here. The goods are loaded together formation in plain text, GS1 article number in roller containers or on loading pallets. and GS1 bar code, see chapter 7, Labelling. In addition to this there can be information about e.g. the manufacturers article number, the number of consumer packages in the out- er package, the best-before date and the batch number. If the package contains goods that are hazardous to health or the environ- ment, separate labelling is required. Roller container. Picking pallet It is important for the outer package to be modularly adapted so as to facilitate loading together, and to ensure that it can withstand the stresses that such handling entails. A maximum weight of 15 kg applies for outer Example of strict packages that will be picked and handled orientation of manually, unless otherwise agreed by the outer packages on affected parties. loading pallet. Other types of outer package include dis- play pallets and display units. GS1 recommends bar code labelling on at least one side. In cases where labelling is only on one side, the principal rule applies, namely to employ strict orientation when placing the outer packages on the pallets. This means that the packages must be positioned so that the bar codes are facing in the same direction as one of the two pallet labels (see Strict orienta- tion www.ecr.se). The bar code must be of at least such a printing quality that it is legible all the way until the outer package is broken. If other information in addition to the arti- Display unit. Display half-pallet cle number is to be built in, bar code GS1-128 must be used. During the development work on new pack- ages, it is important to work on the basis of the applicable modular system. This is described in greater detail in chapter 6, Modular system. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 11
  • 14. Shelf ready packaging Shelf ready packaging (SRP) is a term which is used to describe a package which is ready Other terms for Shelf Ready to be placed on the store shelf. The idea is to Packaging can be: reduce the amount of handling of the prod- • SRP uct between production and the store shelf or • RRP shelf-end display. It must be easy to identify, • Retail Ready Packaging easy to open, easy to display, easy to handle, and easy to buy. Shelf ready packaging (SRP) includes all types of package including dis- plays, palettes, trays, crates, etc. EASY TO IDENTIFY EASY TO BUY • Easy to identify throughout the supply • The outer pack- chain, see chapter 7, Labelling. age and con- sumer package EASY TO OPEN together should • There must be clear look attractive opening instructions, and consumer in- ideally with illustrations formation should and an effective opening be easily visible. It should be easy to take a device such as rip-tape consumer package. or perforations which do not damage the package artwork or markings. The opening device ECR Sweden, based on ECR Europe’s guide- should be of good quality to avoid having to use a knife. If shrink-wrap is used, it lines and in close cooperation with members should be easy to remove. of the industry, has produced and evaluation form for shelf ready packaging. The inten- EASY TO DISPLAY tion of this tool is to contribute to SRP dis- • If a tray is used for display it cussions between the parties in the grocery should be sufficiently stable business so that SRP is used effectively that the consumer packages throughout the chain, where appropriate. cannot topple. The package should be designed to fit The evaluation form for shelf ready pack- the module system, see aging can be downloaded from www.ecr.se. chapter 6, Module System. EASY TO HANDLE • The amount of mate- rial should fit the re- quirements of each product and empty packages should be easy to handle. It is important that there are clear and simple opening instructions on the outer package. 12 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 15. Multiunit packages 4 Chapter Other names for multiunit- packages can include: • Wholesale package Non-returnable • Handling unit multiunit packages. • Transport package Multiunit package. Svenska Retursystem’s returnable crate. Multiunit packages can be used for a range of different outer packages, which due to their shape can be difficult to stack on loading pallets. The multiunit package is often in Labelling the form of crate with an open top or that has a top that is easy to open. The multiunit package does not need to be This is because the goods are commonly labelled as the only task of this package type picked out at the distribution centre, where is to hold a number of outer packages togeth- they are then loaded together with other er. It should not be possible to order or sub- products that the store has ordered. When sequently sell the package as a single unit. choosing a multiunit package, it is therefore However, the multiunit package must have not necessary to give consideration to dis- its own GTIN in order to be identified and playing in the store. stored in various databases. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 13
  • 16. 5 Chapter Pallets Loading pallets are required in order to han- dle, transport and store outer packages in the Note! The word pallet refers supply chain. The following types of loading to loading pallets with goods. pallet are approved by the Swedish grocery Other common names for industry: pallets can include: • Svenska Retursystem’s plastic half size • Unit load loading pallet, 600 x 800 mm • Dispatch Unit (www.retursystem.se). • Tertiary package • Paletten’s plastic full size loading pallet, • Unit load 800 x 1200 mm (www.retursystem.se). • EUR-pallet – full size loading pallet, 800 x 1200 mm, SS-EN 13698-1 800 (www.sis.se). 0 • EUR-half size loading pallet, 120 600 x 800 mm, SS 84 20 04 (www.sis.se). • CHEP pallets in full and half size loading pallet format (www.chep.com). Paletten’s plastic Loading pallets in the 600 x 800 mm format full size loading pallet. should be considered as part of an outer pack- 0 800 age. If, in exceptional cases, non-returnable 60 pallets are used, these must be adapted to the SIS dimensions. In order to handle, transport and store outer packages in the flow of goods, load carriers are required. Svenska Retursystem’s Three different types of pallet – loading plastic half size loading pallets loaded with packages – can be created: pallet. • Unmixed full pallet • Layer pallet • Mixed pallet 00 12 600 800 800 Euro Pallet, full size. Euro Pallet, half size. 14 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 17. The unmixed full pallet corresponds to the with one or more layers with the same article Trade Item Declaration basic configuration number on the outer packages. The mixed and is loaded with the same article number pallet comprises a loading pallet loaded with on all outer packages. outer packages with different article num- The layer pallet is a split unmixed full bers. pallet, i.e. a loading pallet, that is loaded Examples of various pallets. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 15
  • 18. Creating a pallet • The pallet built up of packages must be • For pallets handled via distribution cen- stable and easy to handle. tres, a maximum weight of 1,000 kg • Each layer must contain the same num- applies, including loading pallet and ber of outer packages. Does not apply to packages. Mixed pallets. • When the pallet is to be labelled with • For technical transport and distribution GS1 pallet labels, this must take place reasons, the maximum height, including with two identical labels containing bar the loading pallet, should be as close to code and information in plain text. The 1250 mm as possible. This makes it pos- plain text information must include the sible to utilise the goods vehicle’s maxi- manufacturer’s article number, product mum internal loading height. name, etc., so that the pallet can easily Pallet shelves in many warehouses are be identified. The bar code should be of built for a pallet height of 1250 mm. a sufficient quality that it is legible with This pallet height is also good from an a scanner right up until the pallet is bro- ergonomic perspective during manual ken. If the pallet contains goods that are picking work. hazardous to health or the environment, separate labelling is required. • The aim is to create stackable pallets that are able to be loaded with their own weight. • If tape is used around the pallet, there is a considerable risk of labelling and décor on the outer packages being damaged when the tape is removed. • If the pallet has been wrapped in shrink or stretch film, this film must not be applied so tightly that the packages become deformed. The same applies to pallets that are secured with transport ties. 16 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 19. Modular system 6 Chapter Efficient flow of goods based on modules In order effectively to utilise the production equipment, transport and warehouse resources, in-store systems, etc., it is important to adapt all units to the Modular system 600 x 400 mm. This applies to consumer packages, outer packages and multiunit 400 – 5 packages. 00 The modular system has been developed by SIS in collab- 600 oration with the 400 grocery industry. 0 90 600 800 This measure- ment standard is Store shelves are adapted in suitable both for accordance with the modular 1200 800 x 1200 mm system. loading pallets and for 1000 x 1200 mm loading pallets. The latter are used in some European countries. THINGS TO CONSIDER • Adapt the outer package to the dimen- sions of the loading pallet. This is done most easily by reducing the dimension of the outer package by 5–10 mm per outer package. In practice this means that an outer package according to the 600 x 400 mm basic module should have outer dimensions of 590 x 390 mm. Modularly adapted outer • Adapt the consumer package to the inner di- packages in roller containers mensions of the outer package to achieve the and on loading pallets. highest possible degree of filling. The calcu- lation must be performed with consideration for the thickness of the outer package. • Always perform test packing before estab- lishing final dimensions. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 17
  • 20. A large number of ideal modules are based important to consider the thickness of the on the 600 x 400 mm basic module. When packaging material. consumer packages and outer packages are The package must be able to cope with produced, it is important to utilise these normal loads during transport, storage and ideal modules. The consumer package’s outer handling. The packaging material must be dimensions must fit inside the outer pack- correctly adapted, neither too thick nor too age’s internal dimensions. It is therefore also thin. 600 x 400 300 x 400 200 x 400 150 x 400 120 x 400 300 x 200 200 x 200 Examples of ideal modules that are used in the grocery industry. 600 x 400 200 x 400 150 x 400 300 x 400 18 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 21. 7 Chapter Labelling GTIN and bar codes GS1 article numbers (GTIN) and bar code For GTIN-14 there is also the initial LV labelling must be employed for consumer code, where LV is the abbreviation for packages, outer packages and pallets. For logistical variant. multiunit packages, GTIN must be used. Note that the article registers must Different structures apply for each pack- always contain 14 digits (right-aligned). age. In Sweden, registration and coordina- EAN 13 and EAN 8 are the bar codes that tion are handled by GS1 Sweden. The web- can be read at store checkouts. site www.gs1.se explains how to gain access to the GS1 system. GTIN-13 The numbering of packages can be carried GTIN-13 is the most widely used GS1 out in accordance with four different struc- article number type. The number contains tures. These are GTIN-13, GTIN-8, GTIN- 13 digits and is international. The same 14 and GTIN-12. These numbering struc- number must be used, irrespective of the tures are called GTIN – Global Trade Item country to which the product is exported. Number. All numbering within the frame- The numbering of the product is nor- work of GTIN results in unique identities. mally performed by the product manufac- The number forms the basis for orders, turer, which applies for an GS1 Company stock reporting, statistics, etc. It is therefore prefix from its national GS1 organisation. a requirement that all packages are given a There is a variant of article number unique number. GTIN-13 that is national and intended for An GTIN can be divided into three con- goods with a variable weight. This number stituent parts. GS1 Company prefix, the arti- may only be used on the consumer package. cle number part and a control number (K). The numbering Position 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1(K) of packages can GTIN-13 0 7 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 5 be carried out in GTIN-8 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 3 0 0 1 1 1 9 accordance with GTIN-14 1 7 3 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 2 four different GTIN-12 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 structures. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 19
  • 22. GTIN-8 GS1 bar codes GTIN-8 is used on packages where there is not enough room for the EAN 13 bar code. GTIN-8 contains a total of just eight digits, Bar code EAN 13 is the and may only be used on consumer packages. most widely used on con- With GTIN-8 it is possible to code a maxi- 7 350000 000016 sumer packages. mum of 10 articles. Bar code EAN 13 only contains GS1 num- GTIN-14 bers. It has four different bar widths. Good GTIN-14 cannot be read at the store’s check- printing quality is therefore required in outs, and is therefore only used when num- order for the code to be legible. bering outer packages and pallets. Numbering Bar code ITF 14 has two bar widths and a frame. with GTIN-14 means that the package is It is only used for outer packages. identified with the packaged product’s GTIN-13 number in combination with an initial logistical variant code (LV code). • The LV code can assume the values 1 – 8 on unit goods. • The LV code 9 indicates that this is a weight product. 173 50000 00001 3 Bar code ITF 14, Interleaved Two of Five, only contains GTINs. It has two bar widths. Choosing numbering principle It is therefore legible with a scanner even if it The consumer package (CP) is numbered has been printed or written with an inkjet with GTIN-13 and GTIN-8. printer directly on e.g. corrugated board. The outer package (OP) and pallets are Bar code GS1-128 provides both GTIN and the numbered with GTIN-13 or GTIN-14. option to add other information. Relevant information about the numbering of weight goods can be found on www.gs1.se EXAMPLE 1: Numbering with GTIN-13 CP: 73 5000000 001 6 (01)07350000000023(15)041223(10)437825 OP: 73 5000000 002 3 Pallet: 73 5000000 003 0 Bar code GS1-128 is a bar code that contains GTIN and also offers the potential for other EXAMPLE 2: Numbering with GTIN-13 and GTIN-14 bar-coded information. This can include dif- ferent types of date, such as best-before and CP: 73 5000000 001 6 packing date, traceability information such OP: 1 73 5000000 001 1 as batch number or serial number, and where Pallet: 2 73 5000000 001 0 appropriate information about weight. GS1- 128 requires more or less the same good printing quality as EAN 13. In favourable cases, the bar code can be written with an inkjet printer directly on corrugated board. If this is not possible, labels must be used. 20 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 23. EXAMPLE 1: Numbering with GTIN-13 Bar code alternative CP: 73 5000000 001 6 EAN 13 OP: 73 5000000 002 3/ 073 5000000 002 3 EAN 13 /ITF 14, GS1-128 EXAMPLE 2: Numbering with GTIN-13 and GTIN-14 Bar code alternative CP: 73 5000000 001 6 EAN 13 OP: 1 73 5000000 001 1 ITF 14, GS1-128 Choice of bar code The bar code’s location The consumer package must be marked with ON CONSUMER PACKAGES: one of the bar codes EAN 13 or EAN 8. These are the codes that can be read at the The way in which the store checkouts. bar code is positioned The outer package is labelled with the bar on the consumer codes GS1-128, EAN 13 or ITF 14. In order package is important. to use an article number with 13 positions in a code with 14 positions, LV code 0 must be used. A standardised label must be used for bar • Labels with bar codes are positioned at code labelling of pallets. The pallet label is least 20 mm from the edge of the pack- bar coded with GS1-128. A full description age. can be found at www.gs1.se. • Labels with bar codes may never be placed around corners, over joins, perfora- Printing quality for bar codes tions or seals. The bar code must be legible at least until • Bar codes must be placed on a smooth the product’s “best-before date”. The print- surface. ing quality of the bar code must therefore be • Bar codes may not be located under joins of a quality that corresponds to “Overall on transparent film. Symbol Grade C” in accordance with ISO • Bar codes should not be positioned on the 154 16. bottom of the package. This occasionally means that at least • Bar codes are positioned upright, like a “Overall Symbol Grade B” should be select- ladder, on round cans or other cylindrical ed when printing. packages with a diameter of less than 120 mm. Correct information In order to have the correct information on packages labelled with bar code GS1-128, consult the website www.gs1.se where detailed instructions are given. This applies to outer packages, pallets and store packages. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 21
  • 24. ON OUTER PACKAGES: ON PALLETS: • The pallet must be labelled on two adja- cent sides. One short side and its right- hand long side. • The bar codes on the label should be at least 400 mm and at most 800 mm from the bottom. The bar code on the outer package must • The label should be positioned as high as be positioned so that it is easily possible within the specified interval, but accessible during handling. if necessary should provide space for a transport label above the pallet label. • There must be a bar code label or a bar • No labels should be closer than 50 mm to code printed directly on the package. GS1 the edge of the pallet. recommends labelling on at least one side. In cases where labelling is only on one side, the principal rule applies, namely to employ strict orientation when placing the outer packages on the pallets. • The bar code should not be positioned on the bottom of the package. • The bar code should be positioned so that the bottom edge of the bar is 32 mm ±3 mm from the bottom of the package. For ITF 14, the frame around the bar code must be located with its bottom edge The pallet must be labelled 27.2 mm above the bottom of the pack- on two adjacent sides. age. The frame is 4.8 mm wide. The bar code must be positioned • The distance between the side of the at least 400 mm and at most 800 mm from the bottom. package and the bar code should be at least 19 mm. Package type GS1 article number Bar code Consumer GTIN-13 EAN 13 package GTIN-8 EAN 8 GTIN-12 UPCA UPCE Outer package GTIN-13 EAN 13/ ITF 14 / GS1-128 GTIN-14 ITF 14/ GS1-128 Multiunit package GTIN-13 GTIN-14 Pallets GTIN-13 GS1 Pallet label GTIN-14 GS1 Pallet label 22 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 25. Trade Item Declaration 8 Chapter What do Trade Item Declarations have to do with the package? The exchange of information within the gro- cery industry is intensive and continuous. It is increasingly taking place electronically between retailers and suppliers. Orders, develop a service for quality assurance of delivery notifications and invoices are exam- trade item data called Validoo Item. ples of business transactions that, to a grow- GTIN (GS1 article number), package ing extent, are being sent electronically. In dimensions and weights, number of con- order for an electronic information flow to sumer units in an outer package and number function effectively, it is important that the of outer packages on a pallet are some of the parties have common, accurate master data as attributes which must be supplied. Other a foundation. details can include package type, storage If a new package is produced or an exist- instructions, markings such as KRAV- ing one changed, it is important that the labelled goods, VAT details and REPA regis- buyer knows the attributes and configura- tration. tion of the consumer unit, intermediate Trade item data is most easily sent via a package and pallet. This is a prerequisite not solution provider of which there are several only for orders and deliveries to be correct, in the market. Their products often allow but also for planning of transport, warehous- data to be input simply through a web site. ing and store shelf usage. In short, correct To ensure that this data is correct, it is sent master data is essential for an effective flow to Validoo Item. This service can be ordered of goods and information. at www.gs1.se/validoo. How does this work? Read more about trade item decla- For a number of years, Swedish grocery sup- rations and Validoo Item at pliers have sent item information to retailers www.gs1.se where you will also find to ensure that they have correct logistic mas- a list of verified solution providers. ter data. This is a prerequisite for the suppli- er’s products to be available in the retailer’s There are rules for how different stores. In order to get this information items should be measured. Read more at www.gs1.se/forpacknings- included in the electronic flow, the Swedish databas grocery sector commissioned GS1 Sweden to PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 23
  • 26. Glossary Each industry has its own special words, expressions and abbreviations. This lists shows some of the common words and expressions within the grocery industry. The list does not claim to be complete. Brim – Liner in a pallet to hold together Dolly – Cart with four wheels for internal e.g. drinks packages. transport of e.g. plastic crates. Case – See Picking case. DUN 14 – Dispatch Unit Number. Now called ITF 14 bar code and GS1 article number. CHEP – Global loading pallet and container pool company. EAN/UCC – See GS1. Consumer package – The main task of the EANCOM – Description of GS1’s selected parts consumer package is to make the product of EDIFACT. accessible and at the same time protect and preserve its properties. ECR – Efficient Consumer Response – working together to fulfill the consumer wishes CoP – Another name for Consumer package. better, faster and at less cost. CP – Consumer package. See Consumer EDI – Electronic Data Interchange – computer package. for computerised transfer of structured information between trading partners. C-pack – See Consumer package. EDIFACT – EDI for Finance, Administration, Cross docking – Handling at a DC/wholesaler Commerce and Transport. A UN agreement where the goods from the supplier for a regarding international standards and store order are not placed in the ware- guidelines for the exchange of structured house at the DC/wholesaler. The received data. delivery is immediately divided up into specific store orders or they arrive already EN – European Norm. divided and the goods deliveries are trans- ferred (cross-docked) to distribution vehi- Full pallet – See Unmixed full pallet. cles. GS1 – A global organization with standard CU – Consumer Unit – See Consumer package. for the flow of information and goods, containing identification, labelling and DC – Distribution Centre. electronic trade. Dispatch Unit – See Pallet. GTIN – Global Trade Item Number. GS1 article number. Former EAN article number. Display package – Package that is used both to protect and display the goods in the Half pallet – A type of Display pallet. store. See Unmixed half pallet or Display pallet. Display pallet – A loading pallet approved by Handling unit – See Multiunit package. the Swedish grocery industry measuring 600 x 800 mm or 800 x 1200 mm with con- ISO – International Standardisation Organisa- sumer or outer packages belonging to one tion. or several different article numbers built Layer pallet – Part (one or more layers) of an up in order to be displayed in the store. A unmixed full pallet. Display pallet has a unique article number. Corresponds to TID’s basic configuration Liner – Layer of e.g. cardboard that is laid for secondary packaging. between the various layers in a loading pallet. DLF – Grocery Manufacturers of Sweden (Dagligvaruleverantörers Förbund). 24 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 27. Load carrier – Device specially designed to POS Data – Information about the consumer’s carry and hold together goods during purchases, which is registered in the stores transport and handling. Examples include checkout (articles, number, etc). loading pallets, roller containers and milk trolleys. Primary package – See Consumer package. Loading pallet – Load carrier, for example full RC – Roller container, see Roller container. pallet in accordance with SIS standard ReP – Retailer package. See Outer package. SS-EN 13698-1. REPA – Register for producer responsibility. Mixed pallet – See Display pallet. The commercial sector’s system for recycling Modular system – A standard (SS 84 70 02) packaging. developed by the Swedish grocery sector Retail Ready Packaging (RRP) – see Shelf Ready with the dimensions 600 x 400 mm as the Packaging basic module. RFID – Radio Frequency Identification. MP – Multiunit package. See Multiunit- A technique for keeping track of where a package. particular product is at any given time with Multipack – A consumer package with several the aid of radio waves. connected consumer packages. Roller cage – See Roller container. Multiple pack – See Multipack. Roller container – Industry standardised unit, Multiunit package – Open corrugated card- which is used when transporting store- board box or plastic tray, which is used to ordered goods from distribution centre to hold together a number of outer packages store. that are difficult to stack on loading pallets. Roller pallet – See Roller container. Ordering unit – The unit, for example number RP – Roller pallet. See Roller container. or weight, in which the store orders the product. SDH – Swedish Food & Drink Retailers’ Federation (Svensk Dagligvaruhandel). Origin labelling – Information for the consumer about where the goods were grown or Secondary package – See Outer package. reared, for example. Shelf Ready Packaging (SRP) – a term used Outer package – Name of the packaging level to describe a package that is ready to be that is normally an orderable unit. placed directly on the store shelf. It must be easy to identify, easy to open, easy to Paletten – A company and system for plastic display, easy to handle and easy to buy. full pallets owned by Svenska Retursystem. SRP covers all types of package including Pallet – Loading pallet with packages (goods). displays, pallets, trays, crates, etc. Picking case – Used as a statistical unit of the SIS – Swedish Standards Institute. unit that is delivered to the store. SKU – Stock Keeping Unit. Can be used Picking pallet – A delivery unit compiled by the as another name for Outer package. wholesaler/DC for a specific store. This is a Slave pallet – A loading pallet approved loading pallet approved by the Swedish by the Swedish grocery sector measuring grocery industry measuring 800 x 1200 mm, 800 x 1200 mm, which is used for example which is loaded and marked with the store’s during handling, storage and transport of details at the wholesaler/DC with outer non-approved loading pallets. packages belonging to several different article numbers for distribution to the store. S-pack – Store package. See Outer package. POS – Point of Sale. The point where the sale SS – Swedish Standard. to the consumer is registered, for example the checkout. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I 25
  • 28. SSCC – Serial Shipping Container Code. Trade unit – See Outer package. Unique identity for delivery unit. Transport label – Swedish International SSLF – Swedish Food Retail Federation. Freight Association’s label STE (standardised transport label). Standard product – A product that is sold in the same weight or volume in all packages. Transport package – See Multiunit package. Store pack – A delivery unit compiled by the Transport-optimised pallet – Several pallets supplier for a specific store. Can comprise stacked on top of one another. a loading pallet approved by the Swedish grocery sector measuring 600 x 800 mm Unit load – See Pallet. or 800 x 1200 mm, or an outer package Unmixed full pallet – A loading pallet (e.g. a returnable crate) that is marked approved by the Swedish grocery industry with the store’s details at the supplier for measuring 800 x 1200 mm with a number distribution to the store (possibly via cross- of outer packages belonging to the same docking at the wholesaler/ DC). article number. Corresponds to TID’s basic Strict orientation – The outer package is placed configuration for tertiary packaging. on the loading pallet so that the bar codes Unmixed half pallet – A type of Display pallet. are facing in the same direction as one of A loading pallet approved by the Swedish the two pallet labels. grocery industry measuring 600 x 800 mm SU – Sales unit. See Outer package. with a number of outer packages belonging to the same article number. Corresponds to Svenska Retursystem – A company and system TID’s basic configuration for secondary for plastic half pallets and plastic returnable packaging. crates jointly owned by DLF and SDH. Weight product – Each package has an individ- Terminal – Another name for distribution ual weight. centre. Wholesaler package – See Multiunit package. Tertiary package – See Pallet. TID – Trade Item Declaration. Information from a supplier to a buyer with attributes for consumer units, outer packages and pallets. Traceability – Potential, through all the various stages, to trace and follow food, fodder, food-producing animals or substances that are intended, or that can be expected, to be included in food or fodder. Traceability encompasses all the stages in the produc- tion, processing and distribution chain. Web addresses CHEP: www.chep.com Normpack: www.packforsk.se DLF: www.dlf.se Paletten: www.retursystem.se GS1 Sweden: www.gs1.se SDH: www.dagligvaror.se ECR Europe: www.ecrnet.org SIS: www.sis.se ECR Sweden: www.ecr.se Svenska Retursystem: www.retursystem.se 26 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I
  • 29. PA PA RT RT IIII Checklists Packaging guide for FMCG Part II of the Packaging guide for FMCG (Fast Moving Con- sumer Goods) contains checklists to be used when developing new or adjusting existing consumer packages, outer packages, multiunit packages and pallets. The checklists are a work tool for achieving the best possible handling throughout the entire goods and information flow from manufacturer to consumer. In order to get the full picture, it is important to check against all checklists, irrespective of the package type in question. Background information regarding the checklists can be found in Part I of the publication. The Packaging guide for FMCG can be found on ECR Sweden’s website www.ecr.se where updates will be published. The checklists can be printed separately from ECR Sweden’s website. Contents Consumer packages (CP) 28 Outer packages (OP) 29 Multiunit packages (MP) 30 Pallets 31 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I I 27
  • 30. Consumer packages (CP) CHECKLIST FOR THE DESIGN OF CONSUMER PACKAGES (CP) Other names for con- sumer packages (CP) Is the height of the entire pallet, can include: CP with its OP including loading • Consumer Unit pallet, as close as possible to the • CoP maximum height of 1250 mm? • C-pack • Primary package Is the size of CP adapted to the shelf space in the store for the product group in question? Is there an EAN article number and an Is the loading pallet’s bottom surface EAN bar code, as well as information in fully utilised? plain text? Are the outer dimensions of CP adapted Is the bar code on CP of a sufficiently so that OP is filled to as high a degree high quality and positioned so that it as possible? can be easily read with a scanner at the store’s checkout? Is CP clearly displayed when it stands in a tray on the shop shelf? Do goods that are hazardous to health and the environment have the required Do selected packaging materials require labelling on the package? Normpack approval? Is consumer information readily visible? Are the packaging materials in all the included packages – CP, OP, possibly Is it easy for the consumer to take the MP – selected so that the combined en- item from the shelf? vironmental load is as small as possible? Does the information in the TID Can the combination of packaging correspond to the physical item? material and design of CP and its OP cope with being handled on loading Information about components can be found pallets, in roller containers, as well as in the publication “Packaging guide for storage and transport, without damage FMCG” Part I, issued by ECR Sweden. being sustained by the package and the product? 28 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I I
  • 31. Outer packages (OP) Is OP’s weight, including product, Other names for outer pack- a maximum of 15 kg? Does not apply ages (OP) can include: to display pallets. • S-pack • ReP Is there an GS1 article number and an • Display pallet bar code as well as information in plain • Case text on at least one side? • Secondary package Is the bar code on OP of such a quality • SKU that it is legible right up until the OP • Trade Unit is broken? Is labelling for hazardous goods present if required? In most cases, the outer package (OP) is the same as the orderable unit. Are there clear opening instructions? CHECKLIST FOR THE DESIGN OF OUTER PACKAGES (OP) If the package is returnable, is the correct deposit code given in the TID? Has the modular system been applied? If a non-returnable half pallet is used, Has consideration been given to the is it adapted to the SIS dimensions and product’s rate of turnover in the store can it cope with the total weight of the when determining OP’s size? packages, including product? Is the height of the entire pallet, OP or Is the packaging material at all levels any multiunit package (MP), including – CP, OP, possibly MP and Pallet – loading pallet, as close as possible to the easily handled? maximum height of 1250 mm? Is the loading pallet’s bottom surface Is any display package stable? fully utilised? Is consumer information readily visible Are the packaging materials in all the and is it easy for the consumer to take included packages – CP, OP, possibly MP the item from the shelf? and Pallet – selected so that the combined environmental load is as small as possible? Is this a SRP package? If so, see ”Evalua- tion form for SRP” at www.ecr.se. Can the combination of packaging material and design of all included pack- Has a Trade Item Declaration (TID) been ages (CP, OP and possibly MP) cope with sent? being handled on loading pallets, in roller containers, as well as storage and trans- Information about components can be found port, without damage occurring to the in the publication “Packaging guide for package and the product? FMCG” Part I, issued by ECR Sweden. PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I I 29
  • 32. Multiunit packages (MP) An outer package (OP) cannot always be stacked on a loading pallet. Examples in- Other names for multiunit clude the transport of entire hams or other packages (MP) can include: butchery products. In this case, OP is placed • Wholesale package in an MP, which is stackable and ideally open at the top. • Handling unit • Transport package CHECKLIST FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTIUNIT PACKAGES (MP) Has the modular system been applied? Is MP’s weight, including product, Is the height of the entire pallet (MP a maximum of 15 kg? including loading pallet), as close as possible to the maximum height of Is there an GS1 article number? 1250 mm? Is labelling for hazardous goods present Is the loading pallet’s bottom surface if required? fully utilised? Has a Trade Item Declaration (TID) Are the packaging materials in all the been sent? included packages – CP, OP, possibly MP and Pallet – selected so that the It is not always possible to stack OPs on a combined environmental load is as Pallet. The OPs are then put in an MP small as possible? which can be stacked and preferably open at the top. Can the combination of packaging material and design of all included For Display Pallets see Outer Packages. packages (CP, OP/MP) cope with being handled on loading pallets, in roller Information about components can be containers, as well as storage and found in the publication “Packaging guide transport, without damage occurring for FMCG” Part I, issued by ECR Sweden. to the package and the product? 30 PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I I
  • 33. Pallets Is the height of an entire pallet with Note! The word pallet refers packages, including loading pallet, as to loading pallets with goods. close as possible to the maximum height Other common names for of 1250 mm? pallets can include: • Unit load Does each layer contain the same number • Tertiary package of outer packages (OP)? • Unit load • Dispatch Unit Is the total pallet weight (packages including product and loading pallet) a maximum of 1,000 kg? Display pallets, see Outer packages Has the load restraint been adapted so that no damage is caused to the packages? CHECKLIST FOR THE DESIGN OF PALLETS Are GS1 pallet labels present? Is a loading pallet approved by the Is the pallet label of such quality that it is Swedish grocery industry being used? legible right up until the pallet is broken? Is a non-returnable loading pallet being If the package is returnable, is the used? Check that it has been adapted to correct deposit code given in the TID? SIS dimensions. Has a Trade Item Declaration (TID) Can the non-returnable pallet cope with been sent? the total weight of the packages, includ- ing product? Information about components can be found Is the loading pallet’s bottom surface in the publication “Packaging guide for fully utilised without pallet overhang? FMCG” Part I, issued by ECR Sweden. Are the packaging materials in all the included packages – CP, OP, possibly MP and Pallet – selected so that the combined environmental load is as small as possible? PA C K A G I N G G U I D E F O R F M C G – S E P T E M B E R 2 0 0 8 – PA R T I I 31
  • 34. E R.S W. EC IS WW SU ET: ED E RN E IN T SE NT H PT D O EM SOB EF OUN Packaging guide BE R AL 20 CAN for FMCG 08 From manufacturer to consumer Why do we need a Packaging guide for FMCG? For many years, the package has had three main purposes: to protect and seal the products, to be a bearer for the brand and to be an information carrier to the consumer. In recent decades, the package has also developed into one of the cornerstones of efficient logistics. The flow of goods and information from manufacturer to consumer has become increasingly complex, which affects those who sell and supply pack- aged goods. The design of the package, both physically and in terms of information, is now a decisive factor as regards whether a prod- uct can function in the flow of goods and information. The Packaging guide for FMCG contains answers to many of the questions that need to be asked during the design and forma- tion of new packages or the adjustment of existing ones. The Packaging guide for FMCG has been produced in close collaboration between representatives of the grocery industry. The author is ECR Sweden (Efficient Consumer Response), which is owned by DLF (Grocery Manufacturers of Sweden) and SDH (Swedish Food & Drink Retailers’ Federation). ECR Sweden Box 1178 SE-111 91 Stockholm Sweden Tel: +46 (0)8 - 501 010 62 Fax: +46 (0)8 - 501 010 01 E-mail: info@ecr.se www.ecr.se