From ancient times to the present day, builders has used a wide variety of materials for construction. In construction today, the most commmon materials that we use are stone,plaster,cement, mortar, concrete and ceramics. Each part of a house is made of a different material. Advances in materials technology have led to advances in construction techniques.
Stone is a natural mat erial that we extract from quarries.
It can be shaped into blocks or into panels.
- Chip Stone: Used to make fundations for road and railways.
·Roads: We dig a trench in the ground and fill it with several layers of chip stone.On the top layer, we lay the tarmac.
·Railways: We build a “long hill” of chip stone on which we lay the wooden or concrete bars to which we bolt the steel bars.
-Sand:Consist of very small stones. Uses:
·For road fundations
· For mixing with cement
Stone is also a common material for making break-waters.
It's blinder,like glue. It is a dry, grey powder that binds other materials together
It is a mixture of ground and baked minerals,oxides and sometimes others subtances
We usually use cements to produce mortar and concrete
Portland cement:It is considered the standard mixture. Contains Clay, Chalk, Limestone, Gypsum, Tricalcium, Calcium Ferrites & Metal Oxide.
STEPS OF PRODUCTION OF CEMENT
1st. Grind the chalk and the limestone 2nd. Ground limestone and chalk are calcinated at 1450ºC in a “kiln”. The mixture that we obtain is called “clinker”. 3rd.Clinker is ground again with a bit of Gypsum. 4th. All the ingredients are mixed with the clinker and the gypsum.
Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand and water.
When cement and water come into contanct they start a chemical reaction.”Setting” is the chemical reaction between the chemical element of the different minerals and also the water.
Before laying bricks with mortar, we dip the bricks in water. If the bricks are dry, they absorb the water from the mix and there isn't enough water for the chemical reaction.
Concrete is mortar with added pebbles, so it is a mixture of cement, water, sand and pebbles.
We use concrete to make structure elements such as fundations, columns,etc.
We make a mould with the shape of the element that we are going to make, and then we pour the concrete into it.
To remove the air which can be trapped in the mould, the concrete is vibbrated to held the bubbles come up.
-It's concrete with steel bars inside it. Reinforcing the element is important when the element will suffer tension forces.
-Concrete has good resistance to compression but not to tension. Steel has good resistance to both.
It's a soft solid that we normally use for asthetic purpouses, to cover bricks walls which have a rough surface.
Gives a smooth surface and has a nice finish
It is easy to work with
It is a good sound and thermal insulator
It is resistant to fire within a room, reducing or eliminating structural damage
It is weak
It absorbs water
For these two reasons, plaster isn't used on exterior walls
THE HISTORY OF CERAMICS
Ceramic is the oldest artificial material. In the begining , ceramics was used for pottery and or namen t s.
It was in Asia were pe ople first used ceramics, more than 10,000 ye ars ago.
Nowadays, we still us e ceramics for ornament al purpouses, but the m ain use for ceramics is the manufactruing of bric ks
WH AT IS CLAY?
-Ce ram ics is made from clay. Clay is a ma ss of very sma ll p articles of rock, which is form ed by a long process of natural erosion from th e rock
-Sometimes we confuse dry clay with ce ramics, but there are several differences:
· If we add water to dry clay, it becomes soft.
· If we add water to ceramics, it stays hard.
-The most common ceramic product is brick.
-Other can be tiles.
-(Roofing, wall, and floor tiles. The las two are coated with procelain)
HOW DO WE MANUFACTURE THEM?
1- Moulding: We make a mould with the negative shape of a brick, for example. Then we fill the mould with clay. The mould goes through a klin or an conveyor belt.
2- Drying:It can be done under the sun or with fans.
3- Firing:To remove the chemically bound water we need high temperature. This is why the process is called “fairing” the clay. It's done in a kiln.
USE OF BRICKS
- We use bricks to make walls
- Bricks are harder than mortar. When the cracks appear in the mortar they can develop in a straight line, so the crak stop at the next brick.
STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING The first thing obviously is to achieve, but also the land, plans and licenses that you need to do the work. Then he dug the foundation. After digging, place the concrete cleaning, at least 10 cm thick. This helps keep the surface is clean, which will make the job easier when it comes to the wrought iron. Then put the rod area and stirrups. The cast also rises to 10 cm of soil. It is made with concrete separators remove iron from the bottom, and when appropriate to concrete, iron will be involved.
STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING After the foundation, you begin to lift the wall that will hold the suspended floor, the first level of the home. This wall is 30 cm wide, if the house will have basement is made from it. PVC tubes are inserted in the walls, holes made for this, which serve to ventilate the area when the cover slab. Proceed to place the beams, the rods to the pillars. Slabs placed between the beams. This is where bands are made of straw on the beams to create the perimeter of the house.
STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDING Drains and pipes through which electrical current flows and the phone is installed and they are united under the ground. On the beams, almost leaving the perimeter, they are placed is called negative rods, they prevent them pay to the time of loading, and mallazgos to cover the entire surface. With the foundation and the slab of the basement finished, we began construction of two floors of the house. Raising the walls and finishing the entire structure with windows and balconies, exterior facade will be finished.
· CREDITS· Information taked from the internet Images taked from google images Work made by: · Jesús Martínez · Paloma Maján