-What is clay
-How do we
-Use of bricks
● Phases of
From ancient times to the present day,
builders has used a wide variety of materials for
construction. In construction today, the most
commmon materials that we use are
stone,plaster,cement, mortar, concrete and
Each part of a house is made of a different
material. Advances in materials technology
have led to advances in construction
Stone is a natural matStone is a natural material that we extract from quarries.erial that we extract from quarries.
It can be shapedIt can be shaped into blocks or into panels.into blocks or into panels.
--ChipChip Stone: Used to make fundations for road and railways.Stone: Used to make fundations for road and railways.
·Roads: We dig a trench in the ground and fill it with several layers of chip·Roads: We dig a trench in the ground and fill it with several layers of chip
stone.On the top layer, we lay the tarmac.stone.On the top layer, we lay the tarmac.
·Railways: We build a “long hill” of chip stone on which we lay the wooden or·Railways: We build a “long hill” of chip stone on which we lay the wooden or
concrete bars to which we bolt the steel bars.concrete bars to which we bolt the steel bars.
-Sand:Consist of very small stones. Uses:-Sand:Consist of very small stones. Uses:
·For road fundations·For road fundations
· For mixing with cement· For mixing with cement
Stone is also a common material for making break-waters.Stone is also a common material for making break-waters.
● It's blinder,like glue. It is a dry, grey powder that
binds other materials together
● It is a mixture of ground and baked
minerals,oxides and sometimes others
● We usually use cements to produce mortar and
● Portland cement:It is considered the standard
mixture. Contains Clay, Chalk, Limestone,
Gypsum, Tricalcium, Calcium Ferrites & Metal
5. STEPS OF PRODUCTION OF CEMENTSTEPS OF PRODUCTION OF CEMENT
1st. Grind the chalk and the limestone1st. Grind the chalk and the limestone
2nd. Ground limestone and chalk are calcinated2nd. Ground limestone and chalk are calcinated
at 1450ºC in a “kiln”. The mixture that we obtainat 1450ºC in a “kiln”. The mixture that we obtain
is called “clinker”.is called “clinker”.
3rd.Clinker is ground again with a bit of3rd.Clinker is ground again with a bit of
4th. All the ingredients are mixed with the4th. All the ingredients are mixed with the
clinker and the gypsum.clinker and the gypsum.
● Mortar is a mixture of
cement, sand and water.
● When cement and water
come into contanct they
start a chemical
reaction.”Setting” is the
between the chemical
element of the different
minerals and also the
● Before laying bricks
with mortar, we dip
the bricks in water. If
the bricks are dry,
they absorb the water
from the mix and
there isn't enough
water for the chemical
● Concrete is mortar with added pebbles, so it is a
mixture of cement, water, sand and pebbles.
● We use concrete to make structure elements such
as fundations, columns,etc.
● We make a mould with the shape of the element
that we are going to make, and then we pour the
concrete into it.
● To remove the air which can be trapped in the
mould, the concrete is vibbrated to held the
bubbles come up.
● REINFORCED CONCRETE
-It's concrete with steel bars inside it.
Reinforcing the element is important when the
element will suffer tension forces.
-Concrete has good resistance to compression
but not to tension. Steel has good resistance to
● It's a soft solid that we normally use for asthetic
purpouses, to cover bricks walls which have a
● Gives a smooth surface
and has a nice finish
● It is easy to work with
● It is a good sound and
● It is resistant to fire within
a room, reducing or
● It is weak
● It absorbs water
For these two reasons,
plaster isn't used on
● THE HISTORY OF CERAMICS
Ceramic is the oldest artificial material. In the
begining, ceramics was used for pottery and
It was in Asia were people first used ceramics,
more than 10,000 years ago.
Nowadays, we still use ceramics for ornamental
purpouses, but the main use for ceramics is
the manufactruing of bricks
● WHAT IS CLAY?
-Ceramics is made from clay. Clay is a mass of
very small particles of rock, which is formed by
a long process of natural erosion from the rock
-Sometimes we confuse dry clay with ceramics,
but there are several differences:
· If we add water to dry clay, it becomes soft.
· If we add water to ceramics, it stays hard.
-The most common
ceramic product is
-Other can be tiles.
-(Roofing, wall, and
floor tiles. The las two
are coated with
● HOW DO WE MANUFACTURE THEM?
1- Moulding: We make a mould with the negative
shape of a brick, for example. Then we fill the mould
with clay. The mould goes through a klin or an
2- Drying:It can be done under the sun or with fans.
3- Firing:To remove the chemically bound water we
need high temperature. This is why the process is
called “fairing” the clay. It's done in a kiln.
● USE OF BRICKS
- We use bricks to
- Bricks are harder
than mortar. When the
cracks appear in the
mortar they can
develop in a straight
line, so the crak stop
at the next brick.
16. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING ASTEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A
The first thing obviously is to achieve, but also the land, plansThe first thing obviously is to achieve, but also the land, plans
and licenses that you need to do the work.and licenses that you need to do the work.
Then he dug the foundation.Then he dug the foundation.
After digging, place the concrete cleaning, at least 10 cmAfter digging, place the concrete cleaning, at least 10 cm
thick. This helps keep the surface is clean, which will makethick. This helps keep the surface is clean, which will make
the job easier when it comes to the wrought iron.the job easier when it comes to the wrought iron.
Then put the rod area and stirrups.Then put the rod area and stirrups.
The cast also rises to 10 cm of soil. It is made with concreteThe cast also rises to 10 cm of soil. It is made with concrete
separators remove iron from the bottom, and whenseparators remove iron from the bottom, and when
appropriate to concrete, iron will be involved.appropriate to concrete, iron will be involved.
17. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING ASTEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A
After the foundation, you begin to lift the wall that will hold the
suspended floor, the first level of the home. This wall is 30 cm
wide, if the house will have basement is made from it.
PVC tubes are inserted in the walls, holes made for this,
which serve to ventilate the area when the cover slab.
Proceed to place the beams, the rods to the pillars.
Slabs placed between the beams. This is where bands are
made of straw on the beams to create the perimeter of the
18. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING ASTEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A
Drains and pipes through which electrical currentDrains and pipes through which electrical current
flows and the phone is installed and they are unitedflows and the phone is installed and they are united
under the ground.under the ground.
On the beams, almost leaving the perimeter, theyOn the beams, almost leaving the perimeter, they
are placed is called negative rods, they preventare placed is called negative rods, they prevent
them pay to the time of loading, and mallazgos tothem pay to the time of loading, and mallazgos to
cover the entire surface.cover the entire surface.
With the foundation and the slab of the basementWith the foundation and the slab of the basement
finished, we began construction of two floors of thefinished, we began construction of two floors of the
house. Raising the walls and finishing the entirehouse. Raising the walls and finishing the entire
structure with windows and balconies, exteriorstructure with windows and balconies, exterior
facade will be finished.facade will be finished.
19. · CREDITS·
Information taked from the internet
Images taked from google images
Work made by:
· Jesús Martínez
· Paloma Maján