0
Index
● Introduction
● Stone
● Cement
● Mortar
● Concrete
-Reinforced
concrete
● Plaster
● Ceramics
-What is clay
-Ceramic...
Introducction
From ancient times to the present day,
builders has used a wide variety of materials for
construction. In co...
Stone
●
Stone is a natural matStone is a natural material that we extract from quarries.erial that we extract from quarrie...
CEMENT
● It's blinder,like glue. It is a dry, grey powder that
binds other materials together
● It is a mixture of ground ...
STEPS OF PRODUCTION OF CEMENTSTEPS OF PRODUCTION OF CEMENT
1st. Grind the chalk and the limestone1st. Grind the chalk and ...
Mortar
● Mortar is a mixture of
cement, sand and water.
● When cement and water
come into contanct they
start a chemical
r...
Mortar
● Before laying bricks
with mortar, we dip
the bricks in water. If
the bricks are dry,
they absorb the water
from t...
Concrete
● Concrete is mortar with added pebbles, so it is a
mixture of cement, water, sand and pebbles.
● We use concrete...
Concrete
● REINFORCED CONCRETE
-It's concrete with steel bars inside it.
Reinforcing the element is important when the
ele...
Plaster
● It's a soft solid that we normally use for asthetic
purpouses, to cover bricks walls which have a
rough surface....
Ceramics
● THE HISTORY OF CERAMICS
Ceramic is the oldest artificial material. In the
begining, ceramics was used for potte...
Ceramics
● WHAT IS CLAY?
-Ceramics is made from clay. Clay is a mass of
very small particles of rock, which is formed by
a...
Ceramics
● CERAMIC
PRODUCTS
-The most common
ceramic product is
brick.
-Other can be tiles.
-(Roofing, wall, and
floor til...
Ceramics
● HOW DO WE MANUFACTURE THEM?
1- Moulding: We make a mould with the negative
shape of a brick, for example. Then ...
Ceramics
● USE OF BRICKS
- We use bricks to
make walls
- Bricks are harder
than mortar. When the
cracks appear in the
mort...
STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING ASTEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A
BUILDINGBUILDING
The first thing obviously is to achieve, but also the land...
STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING ASTEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A
BUILDINGBUILDING
After the foundation, you begin to lift the wall that will...
STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING ASTEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A
BUILDINGBUILDING
Drains and pipes through which electrical currentDrains an...
· CREDITS·
Information taked from the internet
Images taked from google images
Work made by:
· Jesús Martínez
· Paloma Maj...
Construction materials
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Transcript of "Construction materials"

  1. 1. Index ● Introduction ● Stone ● Cement ● Mortar ● Concrete -Reinforced concrete ● Plaster ● Ceramics -What is clay -Ceramic products -How do we manufacture ceramics -Use of bricks ● Phases of constructing buildings ● Credits
  2. 2. Introducction From ancient times to the present day, builders has used a wide variety of materials for construction. In construction today, the most commmon materials that we use are stone,plaster,cement, mortar, concrete and ceramics. Each part of a house is made of a different material. Advances in materials technology have led to advances in construction techniques.
  3. 3. Stone ● Stone is a natural matStone is a natural material that we extract from quarries.erial that we extract from quarries. ● It can be shapedIt can be shaped into blocks or into panels.into blocks or into panels. --ChipChip Stone: Used to make fundations for road and railways.Stone: Used to make fundations for road and railways. ·Roads: We dig a trench in the ground and fill it with several layers of chip·Roads: We dig a trench in the ground and fill it with several layers of chip stone.On the top layer, we lay the tarmac.stone.On the top layer, we lay the tarmac. ·Railways: We build a “long hill” of chip stone on which we lay the wooden or·Railways: We build a “long hill” of chip stone on which we lay the wooden or concrete bars to which we bolt the steel bars.concrete bars to which we bolt the steel bars. -Sand:Consist of very small stones. Uses:-Sand:Consist of very small stones. Uses: ·For road fundations·For road fundations · For mixing with cement· For mixing with cement ● Stone is also a common material for making break-waters.Stone is also a common material for making break-waters.
  4. 4. CEMENT ● It's blinder,like glue. It is a dry, grey powder that binds other materials together ● It is a mixture of ground and baked minerals,oxides and sometimes others subtances ● We usually use cements to produce mortar and concrete ● Portland cement:It is considered the standard mixture. Contains Clay, Chalk, Limestone, Gypsum, Tricalcium, Calcium Ferrites & Metal Oxide.
  5. 5. STEPS OF PRODUCTION OF CEMENTSTEPS OF PRODUCTION OF CEMENT 1st. Grind the chalk and the limestone1st. Grind the chalk and the limestone 2nd. Ground limestone and chalk are calcinated2nd. Ground limestone and chalk are calcinated at 1450ºC in a “kiln”. The mixture that we obtainat 1450ºC in a “kiln”. The mixture that we obtain is called “clinker”.is called “clinker”. 3rd.Clinker is ground again with a bit of3rd.Clinker is ground again with a bit of Gypsum.Gypsum. 4th. All the ingredients are mixed with the4th. All the ingredients are mixed with the clinker and the gypsum.clinker and the gypsum.
  6. 6. Mortar ● Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand and water. ● When cement and water come into contanct they start a chemical reaction.”Setting” is the chemical reaction between the chemical element of the different minerals and also the water.
  7. 7. Mortar ● Before laying bricks with mortar, we dip the bricks in water. If the bricks are dry, they absorb the water from the mix and there isn't enough water for the chemical reaction.
  8. 8. Concrete ● Concrete is mortar with added pebbles, so it is a mixture of cement, water, sand and pebbles. ● We use concrete to make structure elements such as fundations, columns,etc. ● We make a mould with the shape of the element that we are going to make, and then we pour the concrete into it. ● To remove the air which can be trapped in the mould, the concrete is vibbrated to held the bubbles come up.
  9. 9. Concrete ● REINFORCED CONCRETE -It's concrete with steel bars inside it. Reinforcing the element is important when the element will suffer tension forces. -Concrete has good resistance to compression but not to tension. Steel has good resistance to both.
  10. 10. Plaster ● It's a soft solid that we normally use for asthetic purpouses, to cover bricks walls which have a rough surface. Advantages ● Gives a smooth surface and has a nice finish ● It is easy to work with ● It is a good sound and thermal insulator ● It is resistant to fire within a room, reducing or eliminating structural damage Disadvantages ● It is weak ● It absorbs water For these two reasons, plaster isn't used on exterior walls
  11. 11. Ceramics ● THE HISTORY OF CERAMICS Ceramic is the oldest artificial material. In the begining, ceramics was used for pottery and ornaments. It was in Asia were people first used ceramics, more than 10,000 years ago. Nowadays, we still use ceramics for ornamental purpouses, but the main use for ceramics is the manufactruing of bricks
  12. 12. Ceramics ● WHAT IS CLAY? -Ceramics is made from clay. Clay is a mass of very small particles of rock, which is formed by a long process of natural erosion from the rock -Sometimes we confuse dry clay with ceramics, but there are several differences: · If we add water to dry clay, it becomes soft. · If we add water to ceramics, it stays hard.
  13. 13. Ceramics ● CERAMIC PRODUCTS -The most common ceramic product is brick. -Other can be tiles. -(Roofing, wall, and floor tiles. The las two are coated with procelain)
  14. 14. Ceramics ● HOW DO WE MANUFACTURE THEM? 1- Moulding: We make a mould with the negative shape of a brick, for example. Then we fill the mould with clay. The mould goes through a klin or an conveyor belt. 2- Drying:It can be done under the sun or with fans. 3- Firing:To remove the chemically bound water we need high temperature. This is why the process is called “fairing” the clay. It's done in a kiln.
  15. 15. Ceramics ● USE OF BRICKS - We use bricks to make walls - Bricks are harder than mortar. When the cracks appear in the mortar they can develop in a straight line, so the crak stop at the next brick.
  16. 16. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING ASTEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDINGBUILDING The first thing obviously is to achieve, but also the land, plansThe first thing obviously is to achieve, but also the land, plans and licenses that you need to do the work.and licenses that you need to do the work. Then he dug the foundation.Then he dug the foundation. After digging, place the concrete cleaning, at least 10 cmAfter digging, place the concrete cleaning, at least 10 cm thick. This helps keep the surface is clean, which will makethick. This helps keep the surface is clean, which will make the job easier when it comes to the wrought iron.the job easier when it comes to the wrought iron. Then put the rod area and stirrups.Then put the rod area and stirrups. The cast also rises to 10 cm of soil. It is made with concreteThe cast also rises to 10 cm of soil. It is made with concrete separators remove iron from the bottom, and whenseparators remove iron from the bottom, and when appropriate to concrete, iron will be involved.appropriate to concrete, iron will be involved.
  17. 17. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING ASTEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDINGBUILDING After the foundation, you begin to lift the wall that will hold the suspended floor, the first level of the home. This wall is 30 cm wide, if the house will have basement is made from it. PVC tubes are inserted in the walls, holes made for this, which serve to ventilate the area when the cover slab. Proceed to place the beams, the rods to the pillars. Slabs placed between the beams. This is where bands are made of straw on the beams to create the perimeter of the house.
  18. 18. STEPS OF CONSTRUCTING ASTEPS OF CONSTRUCTING A BUILDINGBUILDING Drains and pipes through which electrical currentDrains and pipes through which electrical current flows and the phone is installed and they are unitedflows and the phone is installed and they are united under the ground.under the ground. On the beams, almost leaving the perimeter, theyOn the beams, almost leaving the perimeter, they are placed is called negative rods, they preventare placed is called negative rods, they prevent them pay to the time of loading, and mallazgos tothem pay to the time of loading, and mallazgos to cover the entire surface.cover the entire surface. With the foundation and the slab of the basementWith the foundation and the slab of the basement finished, we began construction of two floors of thefinished, we began construction of two floors of the house. Raising the walls and finishing the entirehouse. Raising the walls and finishing the entire structure with windows and balconies, exteriorstructure with windows and balconies, exterior facade will be finished.facade will be finished.
  19. 19. · CREDITS· Information taked from the internet Images taked from google images Work made by: · Jesús Martínez · Paloma Maján
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