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Energy efficiency in plug in hybrid electric vehicle chargers - evaluation and comparison
Energy efficiency in plug in hybrid electric vehicle chargers - evaluation and comparison
Energy efficiency in plug in hybrid electric vehicle chargers - evaluation and comparison
Energy efficiency in plug in hybrid electric vehicle chargers - evaluation and comparison
Energy efficiency in plug in hybrid electric vehicle chargers - evaluation and comparison
Energy efficiency in plug in hybrid electric vehicle chargers - evaluation and comparison
Energy efficiency in plug in hybrid electric vehicle chargers - evaluation and comparison
Energy efficiency in plug in hybrid electric vehicle chargers - evaluation and comparison
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Energy efficiency in plug in hybrid electric vehicle chargers - evaluation and comparison

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  1. Energy Efficiency in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Chargers: Evaluation and Comparison of Front End AC-DC Topologies 1 Fariborz Musavi, Murray Edington Department of Research, Engineering Delta-Q Technologies Corp. Burnaby, BC, Canada fmusavi@delta-q.com, medington@delta-q.com Abstract—As a key component of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charger system, the front-end ac-dc converter must achieve high efficiency and power density. This paper presents a topology survey evaluating topologies for use in front end ac-dc converters for PHEV battery chargers. The topology survey is focused on several boost power factor corrected converters, which offer high efficiency, high power factor, high density and low cost. Experimental results are presented and interpreted for five prototype converters, converting universal ac input voltage to 400 V dc. The results demonstrate that the phase shifted semi-bridgeless PFC boost converter is ideally suited for automotive level I residential charging applications in North America, where the typical supply is limited to 120 V and 1.44 kVA. For automotive level II residential charging applications in North America and Europe the bridgeless interleaved PFC boost converter is an ideal topology candidate for typical supplies of 120 V and 240 V, with power levels of 3.3 kW, 5 kW and 6.6 kW. I. INTRODUCTION A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid vehicle with a battery electric storage system that can be recharged by connecting a plug to an external electric power source. The vehicle charging ac inlet requires an on-board ac-dc charger with power factor correction [1]. An on-board 3.4 kW charger can charge a depleted battery pack in PHEVs to 95 % charge in about four hours from a 240 V supply [2]. A variety of power architectures, circuit topologies and control methods have been developed for PHEV battery chargers. However, due to large low frequency ripple in the output current, the single-stage ac-dc power conversion architecture is only suitable for lead acid batteries. Conversely, two-stage ac-dc/dc-dc power conversion provides inherent low frequency ripple rejection. Therefore, the two-stage approach is preferred for PHEV battery chargers, where the power rating is relatively high, and lithium-ion batteries, requiring low voltage ripple, are used This work has been sponsored and supported by Delta-Q Technologies Corporation. Wilson Eberle, 2 William G. Dunford Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of British Columbia | 1 Okanagan | 2 Vancouver 1 Kelowna, BC, Canada | 2 Vancouver, BC, Canada 1 wilson.eberle@ubc.ca | 2 wgd@ece.ubc.ca as the main energy storage system [3]. A simplified block diagram of a universal input two-stage battery charger used for PHEVs is illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1. Simplified block diagram of a universal battery charger. The ac/dc plus PFC stage rectifies the input ac voltage and transfers it into a regulated intermediate dc link bus. At the same time, power factor correction is achieved [4]. The isolated dc-dc stage that follows then converts the dc bus voltage to a regulated output dc voltage for charging batteries. Boost circuit-based PFC topologies operated in continuous conduction mode (CCM) and boundary conduction mode (BCM) are surveyed in this paper, targeting front end single-phase ac-dc power factor corrected converters in PHEV battery chargers. In the six sections that follow, five different boost based PFC topologies are discussed and experimental results are presented for each. The topologies in each section include: II. Conventional Boost Converter, III. Interleaved Boost Converter, IV. Phase Shifted Semi-Bridgeless Boost Converter, V. Bridgeless Interleaved Boost Converter, and VI. Bridgeless Interleaved Resonant Boost Converter. A topology comparison is presented in section VII and the conclusions are presented in section VIII. II. CONVENTIONAL BOOST CONVERTER The conventional boost topology is the most popular topology for PFC applications. It uses a dedicated diode
  2. bridge to rectify the ac input voltage to dc, which is then followed by the boost section, as shown in Figure 2. This requires a design compromise between the core, inductor size and inductance value. A lower inductance value for a boost inductor increases the input current ripple and consequently increases the input EMI filter size. It also increases the output capacitor high frequency ripple, thereby reducing the output capacitor lifetime. Therefore, it can be concluded that a conventional boost converter is not the preferred topology for PHEV battery charging applications. Part # / Value # of Devices Regular Diode 25ETS08S 4 Fast Diode IDB06S60C 1 MOSFET IPB60R099CP 400 μH 1 98 97 96 95 Vin = 90 V 94 Vin = 120 V Vin = 220 V 93 Vin = 240 V 1 Inductors 99 B. Performance Evaluation of the Conventional Boost Converter Figure 4 shows the efficiency of a conventional boost converter at input voltages ranging from 90 V to 265 V. As it can be noted from this graph, the efficiency drops significantly at low input line as the power increases. To solve this problem for power levels >1 kW, discrete Vin = 265 V 92 91 500 Device Figure 3. Input current, input voltage and output voltage of a conventional boost converter at Vin = 240 V. Y-axis scales: Iin 10 A/div, Vin 100 V/div and Vo 100 V/div. 2000 Components Used in Prototype Unit Input Current Iin 0 Conventional PFC Boost Converter Topology CONVENTIONAL BOOST CONVERTER PROTOTYPE COMPONENTS Output Voltage Vo 1500 A. Experimental Results of Conventional Boost Converter An experimental prototype was built to verify the operation of the conventional boost PFC converter. The components used to build the prototype are listed in Table I. Figure 3 shows the input voltage, input current and PFC bus voltage of the converter under the following test conditions: Vin = 240 V, Iin = 7.5 A, Po = 1.7 kW, Vo = 400 V, fsw = 70 kHz. Input Voltage Vin 1000 In this topology, the output capacitor ripple current is very high [5] and is the difference between diode current and the dc output current. Furthermore, as the power level increases, the diode bridge losses significantly degrade the efficiency, so dealing with the heat dissipation in a limited area becomes problematic. The inductor volume also becomes a problematic design issue at high power. Another challenge is the power rating limitation for current sense resistors at high power. Due to these constraints, this topology is good for the low to medium power range, up to approximately 1 kW. For power levels >1 kW, typically, designers parallel discrete semiconductors, or use expensive MOSFET + SiC Diode semiconductor modules in order to deliver greater output power. An example of a module commonly used in industry is the APT50N60JCCU2 from Microsemi Corporation. Efficiency (%) Figure 2. Conventional PFC boost converter. TABLE I. semiconductors are paralleled, or expensive modules are used. This reduces the power loss in the MOSFETs, but at low line, the input current increases and consequently the input bridge losses increase. As a result, the inductor current also increases. Output Power (W) Figure 4. Efficiency versus output power at different input voltages for a conventional boost converter. III. INTERLEAVED BOOST CNVERTER The interleaved boost converter, illustrated in Figure 5, consists of two boost converters in parallel operating 180 ° out of phase [6-8]. The input current is the sum of the two input inductor currents. Because the inductors’ ripple currents are out of phase, they tend to cancel each other and reduce the input ripple current caused by the boost switching
  3. action. The interleaved boost converter has the advantage of paralleled semiconductors. Furthermore, by switching 180 ° out of phase, it doubles the effective switching frequency and introduces smaller input current ripple, so the input EMI filter is relatively small [9-11]. With ripple cancellation at the output, it also reduces stress on output capacitors. However, similar to the boost, this topology has the heat management problem for the input diode bridge rectifiers; therefore, it is limited to power levels up to approximately 3.5 kW. B. Performance Evaluation of the Interleaved Boost Converter Figure 7 shows the efficiency of an interleaved boost converter at input voltages ranging from 90 V to 240 V. As it can be noted from these graphs, the output power level has increased. Hence, the efficiency profiles for each curve resemble those from the conventional boost converter. Despite the stated advantages of interleaving, the total power losses are the same compared to a conventional boost converter. 98 97 Efficiency (%) 96 95 Figure 5. Interleaved PFC boost converter. 94 TABLE II. INTERLEAVED BOOST CONVERTER PROTOTYPE COMPONENTS Interleaved PFC Boost Converter Topology Components Used in Prototype Unit Device Part # / Value # of Devices Regular Diode 25ETS08S 4 Fast Diode IDB06S60C 2 MOSFET IPB60R099CP 2 Inductors 400 μH Vin = 90 V 93 Vin = 120 V 92 Vin = 220 V Vin = 240 V 91 3500 3000 Output Power (W) 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 90 0 A. Experimental Results of Interleaved Boost Converter An experimental prototype was built to verify the operation of the interleaved boost PFC converter. The components used to build the prototype are listed in Table II. Figure 6 shows the input voltage, input current and PFC bus voltage of the converter under the following test conditions: Vin = 240 V, Iin = 15 A, Po = 3.4 kW, Vo = 400 V, fsw = 70 kHz. Figure 7. Efficiency versus output power at different input voltages for an interleaved boost converter. IV. PHASE SHIFTED SEMI-BRIDGELESS BOOST CONVERTER 2 Input Voltage Vin The bridgeless boost PFC topology avoids the need for the rectifier input bridge yet maintains the classic boost topology [12-19], as shown in Figure 8. Output Voltage Vo Figure 8. Bridgeless PFC boost converter. Input Current Iin Figure 6. Input current, input voltage and output voltage of an interleaved boost converter at Vin = 240 V. Y-axis scales: Iin 10 A/div, Vin 100 V/div and Vo 100 V/div. It is an attractive solution for applications >1 kW, where power density and efficiency are important. This converter solves the problem of heat management in the input rectifier diode bridge inherent to the conventional boost PFC, but it introduces increased EMI [20, 21]. Another disadvantage of this topology is the floating input line with respect to the PFC ground, making it impossible to sense the input voltage without a low frequency transformer or an optical coupler. Also, in order to sense the input current, complex circuitry is needed to sense the current in the MOSFET and diode paths
  4. separately, since the current path does not share the same ground during each half-line cycle [14, 22]. In order to address these issues, a phase shifted semi-bridgeless boost converter, shown in Figure 9 was introduced in [23]. However, this topology does not achieve high full load efficiency since there is high power stress in the main MOSFETs due to high intrinsic body diode losses. B. Performance Evaluation of the Semi-bridgeless Boost Converter Figure 11 shows the efficiency of phase shifted semibridgeless boost converter at input voltages ranging from 90 V to 240 V. As it can be noted from this graph, the efficiency is significantly improved at light load. 99 Efficiency (%) 98 97 96 95 Vin = 90 V Vin = 120 V 93 Vin = 240 V Vin = 220 V TABLE III. COMPONENT USED IN THE SEMI-BRIDGELESS BOOST CONVERTER PROTOTYPE Phase Shifted Semi-bridgeless PFC Boost Converter Topology Components Used in Prototype Unit Device Part # / Value # of Devices Regular Diode 25ETS08S 2 Fast Diode IDB06S60C 2 MOSFET IPB60R099CP 2 Inductors 400 μH 2 Input Voltage Vin Input Current Iin Figure 10. Input current, input voltage and output voltage of a phase shifted semi-bridgeless boost converter at Vin = 240 V. Y-axis scales: Iin 10 A/div, Vin 100 V/div and Vo 100 V/div. 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 Output Power (W) Figure 11. Efficiency versus output power at different input voltages for a phase shifted semi-bridgeless boost converter. These results show that the phase shifted semi-bridgeless PFC boost converter is ideally suited for automotive level I residential charging applications in North America where the typical supply is limited to 120 V and 1.44 kVA. As an example, for 120 V input voltage and 1700 W load the efficiency is 95 %, which is the same efficiency achieved with an interleaved boost converter operating with the same conditions. But at lighter loads, the semi-bridgeless converter achieves much higher efficiency. This is critical for converters used in applications such as battery chargers. In battery chargers, the converter is fully loaded for only one third of the total charging time (i.e. during the bulk charging stage). However, during the absorption and float stages, which are two thirds of the total charging time, the charger is only partially loaded, so light load efficiency is an important consideration. V. Output Voltage Vo 1000 A. Experimental Results of the Phase Shifted Semibridgeless Boost Converter An experimental prototype was built to verify the operation of the phase shifted semi-bridgeless boost PFC converter. The components used to build the prototype are listed in Table III. Figure 10 shows the input voltage, input current and PFC bus voltage of the converter under the following test conditions: Vin = 240 V, Iin = 15 A, Po = 3.4 kW, Vo = 400 V, fsw = 70 kHz. 500 92 0 Figure 9. Phase shifted semi-bridgeless PFC boost converter. 94 BRIDGELESS INTERLEAVED BOOST CONVERTER The bridgeless interleaved topology, shown in Figure 12, was proposed as a solution to operate at power levels at and above 3.5 kW. In comparison to the interleaved boost PFC, it introduces two MOSFETs and also replaces four slow diodes with two fast diodes. The gating signals are 180 ° out of phase, similar to the interleaved boost. A detailed converter description and steady state operation analysis are given in [24, 25]. This converter topology shows a high input power factor, high efficiency over the entire load range and low input current harmonics. Since the proposed topology shows high input power factor, high efficiency over the entire load range, and low input current harmonics, it is a potential option for single phase PFC in high power level II battery charging applications.
  5. Q3 Q4 Figure 12. Bridgeless interleaved PFC boost converter. A. Experimental Results Bridgeless Interleaved Boost Converter An experimental prototype was built to verify the operation of the bridgeless interleaved boost PFC converter. The components used to build the prototype are listed in Table IV. Figure 13 shows the input voltage, input current and PFC bus voltage of the converter under the following test conditions: Vin = 240 V, Iin = 15 A, Po = 3.4 kW, Vo = 400 V, fsw = 70 kHz. TABLE IV. BRIDGELESS INTERLEAVED BOOST CONVERTER PROTOTYPE COMPONENTS Bridgeless Interleaved PFC converter Topology Components Used in Prototype Unit Device Part # / Value IDB06S60C IPB60R099CP 4 Inductors 400 μH 4 97 96 Vin = 90 V Vin = 120 V 95 Vin = 220 V Vin = 240 V 94 4 MOSFET 98 # of Devices Fast Diode 99 Input Voltage Vin Output Voltage Vo Input Current Iin Figure 14. Efficiency versus output power at different input voltages for a bridgeless interleaved boost converter. VI. BRIDGELESS INTERLEAVED RESONANT BOOST CONVERTER The bridgeless interleaved resonant topology operating in BCM was first introduced by Infineon Technologies [26] and proposed for front end ac-dc stage of level II on-board chargers. The topology is illustrated in Figure 15. Compared to the bridgeless interleaved boost converter, it replaces the four fast diodes with four slow diodes; however it requires two high side drivers for MOSFETs – Q1 and Q2 as well as two low side drivers for Q3 and Q4. The other drawbacks with this topology include the need for at least two sets of current sensors, two snubbers and a complex digital control scheme. D1 Figure 13. Input current, input voltage and output voltage of a bridgeless interleaved boost converter at Vin = 240 V. Y-axis scales: Iin 10 A/div, Vin 100 V/div and Vo 100 V/div. B. Performance Evaluation of the Bridgeless Interleaved Boost Converter Figure 14 shows the efficiency of the bridgeless interleaved boost converter at input voltages ranging from 90 V to 240 V. In general, this converter achieves higher efficiency than both the phase shifted semi-bridgeless converter and interleaved boost at the same power levels. In addition, due to the improved efficiency, greater output power can be achieved for a given input current. For Output Power (W) 4500 Q2 4000 Q1 3500 L4 L O A D 3000 Co 2500 L2 2000 L3 Vin example, at 240V input, the maximum output power increases from 3.4kW for the phase shifted semi-bridgeless converter up to 4.2kW for the bridgeless interleaved boost converter. These results demonstrate that the bridgeless interleaved boost converter is ideally suited for automotive level II residential charging applications in North America and Europe where the typical supply is limited to input voltages of 120/240/250 V, and power levels up to approximately 8kVA - depending on the input supply breaker limitation. 1500 D4 1000 D3 500 D2 0 D1 Efficiency (%) L1 D4 LB1 Q1 Q2 LB2 Vin D2 D3 Co Q3 Q4 Figure 15. Bridgeless interleaved resonant PFC boost converter. L O A D
  6. # of Devices Fast Diode - 4 MOSFET IPW60R045CP 4 Inductors - 2 98 Efficiency (%) 97.5 97 96.5 Vin = 230 V 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 96 Output Power (W) Figure 16. Efficiency versus output power at 230 V input voltages for a bridgeless interleaved resonant boost converter by Infineon Technologies AG [26]. VII. TOPOLOGY COMPARISON Prototypes of the converter presented in sections II-V were built to provide data for a qualitative and quantitative performance comparison. Loss analysis modeling was also performed to gain insight into the noted qualitative advantages/disadvantages of each prototype in comparison to the measured efficiency. Figure 17 shows the modeled loss distribution within the semiconductors for these topologies at Vin = 240 V, Po = 3400 W, Vo = 400 V and fsw = 70 kHz. The regular diode losses consist of only conduction losses in bridge rectifier diodes, i.e. reverse recovery losses were neglected due to the low frequency mains input. Due to the low reverse recovery characteristics of SiC, these diodes were selected for the boost diodes. Therefore reverse recovery losses were neglected for these diodes, so that only conduction losses were considered. Switching loss, conduction loss, gate charge loss and ½ CV2 loss are 48.7 35.7 48.7 39.6 7.8 0.0 0.0 7.8 16.6 19.1 0.0 0.0 10 8.3 20 8.3 12.9 12.7 12.9 11.3 27.6 27.6 30 Bridgeless Interleaved Boost FETs 0 Devices / Total Losses Total Losses Part # / Value Interleaved Boost 40 Intrinsic Body Diodes Bridgeless Interleaved Resonant PFC converter Device Phase Shifted Semi-Bridgeless Boost 50 Fast Diodes Components Used in Prototype Unit Topology Conventional Boost Regular Diodes TABLE V. BRIDGELESS INTERLEAVED RESONANT BOOST CONVERTER PROTOTYPE COMPONENTS 60 Power Losses (W) A. Experimental Results and Performance Evaluation of Bridgeless Interleaved Resonant Boost Converter The operation of this converter and efficiency was reported in [26]. The components used for the prototype are listed in Table V. Figure 16 shows the reported efficiency (reproduced) of the converter under the following test conditions: Vin = 230 V, Iin = 16 A, Po = 3.6 kW, Vo = 400 V. This converter achieves a peak efficiency of 97.9% at 2.7kW load, but the efficiency degrades rapidly beyond 2.7kW of output power, so based on the reported data, it is not an ideal candidate for automotive level II charging. Figure 17. Loss distribution in semiconductors at Vin = 240 V, Vo = 400 V, Po = 3.4 kW and fsw = 70 kHz. included in the MOSFET losses. The inductor losses were neglected in the comparison. The regular diodes in input bridge rectifiers have the largest share of losses among the topologies with the input bridge rectifier. The bridgeless topologies eliminate this large loss component (~27.6 W). However, the tradeoff is that the MOSFET losses are higher and the intrinsic body diodes of MOSFETs conduct, producing new losses (~7.8 W). The fast diodes in the bridgeless interleaved PFC have slightly lower power losses, since the boost diode average current is lower in these topologies. Overall the MOSFETs have increased current stress in the bridgeless topologies, but the total semiconductor losses for the bridgeless interleaved boost are 37% lower than the benchmark conventional boost and 37% lower than the interleaved boost. Since the bridge rectifier losses are so large, it was expected that bridgeless interleaved boost converter would have the lowest power losses among the topologies studied in section II-V. Also, it was noted that the losses in the input bridge rectifiers were 56% of total losses in the conventional PFC converter and in the interleaved PFC converter. Therefore eliminating the input bridges in PFC converters is justified despite the fact that new losses are introduced. Figure 18 illustrates the measured efficiency as a function of output power for all five topologies studied under the following operating conditions: fsw = 70 kHz, Vin = 240 V and Vo = 400 V. All semiconductor and magnetic devices used in prototype units were the same. Limited information was available for Infineon bridgeless interleaved resonant converter. Notably it was measured at 230 V input voltage. Table VI demonstrates an overall overview and comparison of all candidate topologies discussed for the front end ac-dc stage of a PHEV battery charger. The phase shifted semi-bridgeless PFC converter was the topology of choice for level I chargers and the bridgeless interleaved PFC converter is an optimal topology for level II chargers.
  7. 99 REFERENCES [1] Efficiency (%) 98 97 [2] Bridgeless Interleaved PFC Converter Vin = 240 V 96 [3] Phase Shifted Semi-Bridgeless Converter Vin = 240 V Interleaved PFC Converter Vin = 240 V 95 Infineon Bridgeless Resonant Converter Vin = 230 V Conventional PFC Vin = 240 V [4] 4500 Output Power (W) 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 94 [5] Figure 18. Efficiency versus output power for different PFC boost converters. [6] Conventional PFC boost converter Phase shifted semibridgeless PFC boost Interleaved PFC boost converter Bridgeless interleaved PFC boost converter Bridgeless interleaved resonant PFC converter TABLE VI. TOPOLOGY OVERVIEW/COMPARISON < 1 kW < 3.5 kW < 3.5 kW > 5 kW > 5 kW Poor Fair Fair Best Best High Medium Low Low Low High Medium Low Low Low Large Medium Small Small Small Driver 2 LS 2 LS 2 LS 2 LS 2LS+2HS Efficiency Poor Best Fair Best Fair Cost Low Medium Medium High [7] Highest Topology Power Rating EMI / Noise Capacitor Ripple Input Ripple Magnetic Size [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] VIII. CONCLUSIONS A topology survey aimed at evaluating topologies for use in front end ac-dc converters for PHEV battery chargers is presented in this paper. The potential converter solutions have been analyzed and their performance characteristics are presented. Several prototype converter circuits were built to verify the proof-of-concept. The results show that the phase shifted semi bridgeless converter is ideally suited for automotive level I residential charging applications in North America where the typical supply is limited to 120 V and 1.44 kVA. For high power level II residential charging applications, the bridgeless interleaved boost converter is an ideal topology candidate in North America and Europe where the typical supply is limited to input voltages of 120/240/250 V, and power levels up to 8kVA. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] Y.J. Lee ; A. Khaligh ; A. Emadi, "Advanced Integrated Bidirectional AC-DC and DC-DC Converter for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on vol. 58, pp. 3970 3980 2009. K. Morrow ; D. Karner ; J. Francfort, "Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review," U.S. Departent of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program, 2008. L. Petersen ; M. Andersen, "Two-Stage Power Factor Corrected Power Supplies: The Low Component-Stress Approach " in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, APEC. vol. 2, 2002, pp. 1195 - 1201. B. Singh ; B.N. Singh ; A. Chandra ; K. Al-Haddad ; A. Pandey ; D.P. 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  8. [20] T. Baur ; M. Reddig ; M. Schlenk, "Line-conducted EMI-behaviour of a High Efficient PFC-stage without input rectification," Infineon Technology – Application Note, 2006. [21] W. Frank ; M. Reddig ; M. Schlenk, "New control methods for rectifier-less PFC-stages," in EEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics. vol. 2, 2005, pp. 489 - 493 [22] P. Kong ; S. Wang ; F.C. Lee, "Common Mode EMI Noise Suppression for Bridgeless PFC Converters," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 23, pp. 291 – 297, January 2008. [23] F.Musavi ; W. Eberle ; W.G. Dunford, "A Phase Shifted SemiBridgeless Boost Power Factor Corrected Converter for Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers," in IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, APEC Fort Worth, TX, 2011. [24] F. Musavi ; W. Eberle ; W.G. Dunford, "A High-Performance SinglePhase AC-DC Power Factor Corrected Boost Converter for plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers," in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition Atlanta, Georgia, 2010. [25] F.Musavi ; W. Eberle ; W.G. Dunford, "Efficiency Evaluation of Single-Phase Solutions for AC-DC PFC Boost Converters for Plugin-Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Chargers," in IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference Lille, France, 2010. [26] "On Board Charging: Concept Consideration and Demonstrator Hardware," in The World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exposition (EVS) Shenzhen, China: Infineon Technologies, 2010.

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