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The Dominance of “Western” Management
 

The Dominance of “Western” Management

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The Dominance of “Western” Management

The Dominance of “Western” Management
Theories in South-East Asian Business
Schools: The Occidental Colonization of the
Mind
The 4th Media

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    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East ... Page 1 of 13 M4 English Beijing SHOTS 四月网 四月青年社区 博客 Русский язык 百科 ABOUT US Just Another Voice Submit Query Home Opinion Politics Economy Society Environment Culture Video Photos Forum Subscribe: Your email address Submit Query The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East Asian Business News Feed Comments Feed Schools: The Occidental Colonization of the Top stories Mind 1 HAARETZ: Hundreds Of Israelis March In Tel Aviv To Protest Netanyahu’s Criminal War Against Iran Post Categories: Asia Prof. Murray Hunter | Friday August 17, 2012, 12:46 Beijing , 2 Payback for America’s Unholy Military Alliance: Print 5 Western-instigated, Turk, Saudi, Israeli-backed Terrorist Monster Running Amok in Middle East We don’t need no thought control. 3 Russia, the Anti-Zionist Soviet Union’s Successor in the Middle East: Return of a Superpower? No dark sarcasm in the classroom. Teacher, leave them kids alone. 4 NDAA: The Most Important Lawsuit In American Hey, Teacher, leave them kids alone! History That No One Is Talking About Pink Floyd — Another Brick in the Wall 5 Dept of Homeland Security and US Military Make Final Preparations Before Announcing Martial Law After the Second World War manySouth-East Asian nations had 6 China Demonization Project: Boxun, Zhang Ziyi and to work hard for independenc from their c e olonial masters. After the National Endowment for Democracy more than 50 y ears of self government in some c ases, manyof these nations have developed relative urban affluenc where e 7 US/The West: Getting Away With consumerism and enterprise dominates life. Career development Destroying/Murdering/Stealing of Others’ and upward mobilityoften requires a diploma, degree, and post Lives/Wealth/Resources: Without graduate qualifications. Imprisoning/Punishing These People, Nothing Will Change However, a c olonial hangover and psy hologic dependenc still lingers on. All these awards, c al e 8 A Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) Love Letter to espec iallywithin the business, entrepreneurship, and management disciplines are heavilybased Al Qaeda To Whom US Currently Giving $100 Million upon “Western” theories and ideas, embedding the oc idental mindset within the South-East Asian c Taxpayer Dollars from Its Bankrupt Coffers “psych”. 9 Syria is Only a Pretext: Re-engineering of the Global The dominanc of oc idental intellec e c tual thought, particularlywithin economic entrepreneurship, s, Balance of Power management, and organizational disc iplines display all the hallmarks of neo-colonialism through s the backdoor. 10 9/11 TIMELINE Stand Down: The Minute-By-Minute Chronology From 7:59 A.M. Till 10:06:05 A.M Although governments of South-East Asia espouse their own respec tive national values and ‘ways of doing things’, the fac is that students are taught predominantly“western” ideas and values t Video +MORE through loc c al ollege and universitysy stems. Oc idental sourc knowledge is ac epted into South-East Asian soc c ed c ieties without questioning. This is the last bastion of colonialism, the subliminal waythe “west” imposes values upon others, without overtlybeing aware of it. What more, people payfor the indoc trination of these values. No c ountryc be trulyindependent until it espouses, teac an hes, and promotes its own indigenous ideas and values. South-East Asia maystand independent politic , gone a long wayin ac ally hieving ec onomicindependenc but todaystill trapped within the sy e, ndrome of intellectual colonization. As business sc hools steadfastlystic to oc idental business c k c urriculum, former “western c olonial masters” still dominate their ex-colonies, this time intellectually. Mitt Romney Catastrophe: Barack Obama The spread of management education in South-East Asia Disaster Business, entrepreneurship, and management c ourses are the fastest growing areas in South-East Regrets and fingerpointing as world powers swallow Asian educ ation. Along with ICT, these are the most popular areas within both the private and Annan’s resignation publichigher educ ation sec tors. The relativelylow overhead and operational c per c ost ohort is a Ban’s anti-Syria stance threatening UN existence: financ windfall for c ial olleges and universities. Business educ ation has become the c ash-c of ow American author c olleges and universities within the region. Anti-atom Japanese rally in thousands (PHOTOS, What makes these c ourses financiallyluc rative is the relativelylow c of teac ost hing resourc for es VIDEO) basicc ourses c ompared to other disc iplines. Verylittle infrastruc ture aside from c lassrooms and US position on Syria directly endorses terrorism – lecture theatres are required. A great number of business sc hools develop c urriculum around an Lavrov arrayof “international” edition US sourc textbooks on offer bythe major educ ed ational publishers, VIDEO: Scattered gun fights sound ‘Battle for stronglyc ompeting for business. Damascus’ Consequentlythe intelligentsia of manybusiness schools has looked inwardly foc , using their Severe Weather – Global Warming Climate Change c erns upon quantityand numbers. The organization of the majorityof regional business sc onc hools is Here is based upon the best of what both Weber and Tay had to offer. lor Photos +MOREhttp://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East ... Page 2 of 13 Theyare bureauc raticdiploma factories based upon single textbook unit courses, orientated around exams that at best measure memoryand retention rather than c reativityand the potential of the student to be innovative. To c it all off, these sc ap hools are burdened down with qualityassuranc proc e esses at administrative and teac hing levels. With the high time commitment needed to adhere to these processes, medioc is ensured through the rigiditythese sy rity stems c reate. South-East Asian educators have suc eeded in building the most uglyimages of the western func c tionalistic 1 2 3 4 organization, replicating organizations that existed in the industrial revolution. The Unbelievably Arbitrary, Arrogant, Hypocritical and Psychopathic EMPIRE Warns “Iran To Stay Out The leaders and teac hing staff of the region’s business schools have a preferenc for the imported e hy of management gurus who are popular in the media, even if these positivist instruments are pe not direc suited to the different c tly ontexts and varied business situations within the local Most Popular environment. 1 A Dying Empire: Ending of Empire is in Process and will Continue to be Violent Consequentlythere is a blindness and adverseness for loc allydeveloped ideas and thinking. The majorityof management and business c onsultants, speakers, and trainers either franchise, or copy 2 Turkey, NATOs Neo-Ottoman Spearhead in western management tools and instruments theyuse. Perhaps it would not be exaggerated in Middle East, Provides NATO and THE say that loc ac ing al ademic educ s ated in the “western” paradigm locallyor abroad are mesmerized PENTAGON Direct Access to Iran, Syria.. byinternational management gurus. 3 The 18th CPC Congress Special: A Geo-Political The great paradox of South-East Asian business and entrepreneurship educ ation is that local Analysis on South East China Sea A Perfect Crisis higher educ ation institutions espouse values within their respective cultural frameworks, but what is for Intl Crisis Group ac tuallytaught is distinc “western”. tly 4 White House Still Believes Iran NOT On Verge of There is also a double paradox here. Although “western” tec hniques are taught, so manybusiness Nuclear Weapon: BUT Israel the Middle Easts Only Nuclear Arsenal prac es are influenc byindigenous c tic ed ultural considerations. 5 The US Election of a "Puppet President": Whether What is taught is direc threatening to manyloc business owners. This is the sourc of muc tly al e h You Vote for the Republican or the Democrat, the generational conflic as the c t hildren of manysuc essful Chinese businesses return home to c OLIGARCHS Will WIN Jakarta, Bangkok, and Manila after study overseas and disagree with the waytheir parents ing operate the familybusiness. 6 Reps From Half the Worlds Population Meet to Resist Foreign Destabilization in Syria In addition manyinnovation management methods are seen to challenge the perceived right of “management prerogative” of Chinese owned and operated businesses. 7 China Demonization Project: Boxun, Zhang Ziyi and the National Endowment for Democracy The poor fit – cemented into the wall 8 Syria is Only a Pretext: Re-engineering of the There has been little debate about the fit between “western” management thinking and the make- Global Balance of Power up and behaviour of loc c al orporations, entrepreneurs, and the general environment. As a 9 Russia, the Anti-Zionist Soviet Unions Successor consequenc the relevanc of manytheories has been ac epted without question. e, e c in the Middle East: Return of a Superpower? For example in the theoryarea, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is ac epted into management c 10 Dept of Homeland Security and US Military Make curriculum where there maybe manyother more suitable theories and meta-theories that c ould be Final Preparations Before Announcing Martial advanc In the c ed. ontextual area, the legal sy stem, supplychain, where the emphasis on partic ular Law marketing tools should lie, interrelationships between people, whic all c h ould be described ‘as the way of doing things’, makes apply ‘western management theory’ c ing hallenging to saythe least. For example, human relationships among the ethnicChinese in South-East Asia were onc built e upon trust based princ iples of personalization and quanxi[1]. This was considered nec essaryin developing South-East Asia where legal c odes and c ontrac enforc t ement were still in their infanc . y The effec of this was to slow down the state of progress and limit the inc t orporation of new c omers to an industry This also restric the input of new ideas and tec . ted hnologyinto firms within the region, a situation described in few textbooks. The preferenc for the ‘latest popular’ management knowledge often leads to misinterpretations, as e veryfew management and entrepreneur instruc tors actuallyhave muc first hand business h experienc Thus rigid interpretations of management still influenc entrepreneurship c e. e ourses. Manyentrepreneurship c ourses advoc market researc through foc groups, whic are not ate h us h suited to new to the world products in developing markets. Business plans are almost alway at the s central c of anyc ore urriculum where there is little evidenc that planning leads to suc ess in e c entrepreneurship[2]. Further business sc hools base muc of the c h urriculum upon general misc eptions that both the onc media and imported textbooks that have evolved over the last 15 to 20 y ears have created. Entrepreneurship has been glorified bymedia stories, biographies of suc essful entrepreneurs, and c events like ‘entrepreneurship week’, ‘business plan competitions’, and ‘entrepreneurship awards’. Course c urriculum is shaped in the mold of the media made my of hi-tech and high-growth ths entrepreneurs[3]. Business sc hools have developed inspiring spiels about becoming an entrepreneur. Many assumptions about firm behaviour, entrepreneurship, and innovation are based on my rather than th grounded researc h[4]. Some of these my enc ths apsulated within foreign textbooks infer that firms are perpetuallyentrepreneurial, when the c ept of entrepreneurship is reallyonlya desc onc ription of firm start-ups and earlygrowth period.http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East ... Page 3 of 13 Contraryto the multitude of media stories and books on high tech entrepreneurship, veryfew start- ups are based upon innovation. Researc has indic h ated time and time again that the majorityof new firms are of a non-innovative nature. The average start-up is muc more likelyto be a h cafeteria, sandwic bar, c h offee shop, computer retailer, or some other form of retail outlet than something high tech. Business c urriculum largelyignores the importanc of emotion in dec e ision making. For example, identify an opportunityand exploiting it mayhave as more to do with inner personal needs i.e., ing recognition, love and affection, power and control, self esteem, or grandeur, etc., as with any rational thought proc esses[5]. Case studies are usuallyabout highlysuc essful growth c c ompanies like Apple, Google, and Yahoo, etc Students develop the belief that this is the norm rather than the exc . eption. This is the ‘entrepreneurial growth myth’, the idea that firms need to grow into large firms in order to survive. This ‘grow or die’ sy ndrome has been adopted bybusiness sc hools around the region, making manysmall businesses feel pressured to seek expansion and strain the stabilityof the enterprise [6]. Proprietors of small or mic SMEs tend to be branded as un-ambitious failures with little ro relevanc to soc e ietyand c onsidered part of the informal economy . Today like the ‘west’, South-East Asian soc , ietyequates suc ess with size[7]. The realityis that c most firms have verylittle intention to grow. The human rac has sent a man to the moon, c e ured manydiseases, mapped the human genome, desc ended to the deepest parts of the world’s oceans, but nobodyc reallybe too sure of the an reasons whyone business is suc essful while another business fails. There are manyty c pes of businesses where it is extremelydiffic to identifythe elements of suc ess, e.g. restaurants, ult c boutiques, and spas, etc. Theyrelyon verytight (but not necessarilyapparent) formulas for suc ess, whic the entrepreneur c h maynot even understand. Also quite often what looks like a solid and viable opportunityappearing verystraightforward and even gathering veryfavorable market researc results, mayfail dismallyin h the marketplac [8]. e Some examples of spec ular market failures inc tac lude Federal Express’s launc of ZAP Mail h facsimile servic in 1984, The Coc Cola Company launc of New Coke in 1985, and the launc e a ’s h h of 3G video c alling around 2003. Management theories that have 10 rules, habits, or points that c laim to lead to suc ess, do not c prove c ause and effec The mentioned elements mayexist and c t. orrelate with suc ess, but we c aren’t reallysure about c ausation. So manybooks mention the same c ompanies, that it can’t be possible that all these c ompanies are utilizing all these theories at onc e. These positivist theories miss out on the complexities of organizations and the environments they exist within, and most often the points and issues that influenc suc ess and failure. e c Implementing management theories as a c klist is potentiallyverydangerous. Chec hec klists are just like putting a net into the ocean to see what c be pic an ked up, where we assume that what is pic ked up is actuallythe essenc of the oc e ean. As W.Edwards Deming onc said “you can only measure 3% of what matters.” Problems and e opportunities arise out of imperfections and theories don’t handle imperfections well. Oc idental c management theoryhas reduc business thinking down to the lowest c ed ommon denominator rather than preserved the c omplexity. Business literature in South-East Asia is primarilyUS based whic reflec the needs of a post h ts industrial societyrather than a developing ec onomy This is partlyresponsible for one of the [9]. biggest tragedies of entrepreneurship educ ation in the region. Verylittle if anyfoc is given to various tec us hnologies that a potential entrepreneur will require in a new business. The ac quisition of technologyis one of the greatest difficulties SMEs in developing countries fac and little is done within the educ e ation sphere to solve this problem. A graduating student mayhave ac quired some general business skills but has little or no knowledge or ac ess to the means to ac c quire the knowledge to develop a farm, a small engineering shop, a food manufacturing operation, or a cosmeticmanufac turing operation. One c see around the ASEAN region that it is the non-business sc an hools that show innovation with their outreac programs while business sc h hools fall into the trap of cashing in on their BBA, MBA, and now DBA programs. US textbooks are based upon the premises of the US sec ondarysc hool system whic is very h different in content and method than sc hools in the South-East Asian region. In addition, due to the different stages of economicand soc development the ty ial pes of industries and contemporary issues are different between the ‘west’ and South-East Asia[10].http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East ... Page 4 of 13 Where elements of creativityare added to a c ourse, tools like Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats are introduc with verylittle applic ed ation to the real world problems that an entrepreneur might face. Entrepreneurship has bec ome seen as a ‘quick fix’ in providing a career[11]. Business schools in the region have structured curriculum in a waythat maybuild false hopes within the student c ohort. For example subjec like entrepreneurial financ and business plan give students the impression ts e that institutional financ is ac essible, where c e c urrent lending prac e in developing c tic ountries is extremelyrisk averse and primarilyc ollateral based lending[12]. Business schools teac the paradigm of growth where researc c h h learlyshows that the majorityof entrepreneurs are not seeking to develop high growth business models. The resulting errors and mistakes – “I don’t need no arms around me” Evolving South-East Asian business and entrepreneurship c urriculum has followed the post industrial models with a number of errors and mistakes. Due to the developing nature of most South-East Asian ec onomies, there should be an emphasis on manufac turing whic should inc h lude new produc development and manufac t turing line and system development. However ‘cut and paste’ c urriculum from business sc hools in post industrial societies have largely dropped manufac turing from their curriculum due to the cohort interest in the servic sec where es tor, opportunities exist. This leads to a mismatc of what South-East Asian business sc h hools offer and what business and entrepreneurship students need. As a result business and entrepreneurship graduates flood out into the market plac without any e technologyskills[13], crowding the servic sec whic is not c es tor h reating extra employ ment or real economicgrowth. Business and entrepreneurship graduate employ abilityis a major issue facing South-East Asian ec onomies today . Todaymany‘roundtable’ disc ussion forums on business and entrepreneurship are run bymajor universities around the world with the objective of disseminating the latest information on theory and pedagogy Manyof these are foc . used upon method and deliveryof entrepreneurial educ ation. However at the time of writing veryfew South-East Asian business sc hools have benefitted in the classroom from these ‘roundtables’. South-East Asian deliverymethods are still verymuc lech ture orientated with textbook content, with a few, but increasing number of adjunc ac t tivities. These two issues, tec hnologyand pedagogyrequire some deep thinking on the part of the intelligentsia of South-East Asian business schools. Content and deliveryespoused and demonstrated at ‘roundtables’ need to be c loselyexamined, experimented with, and utilized with c lose adaptation to the needs of South-East Asian c ohorts. This is the challenge that requires a large investment in time and staff resourc to c es reate the curriculum and deliverymethods nec essaryto meet the needs of the students and nation. To compound the above, governments and c orporations have a positive disposition for foreign advisors and consultants, shunning their own. There is a negative disposition toward ‘locals’. Foreign advisors and consultants are most often sort in the misc eption that their advic will be onc e superior to loc advisors and c al onsultants, even though foreigners mayhave little real understanding of loc c al ontext. This doesn’t oc ur bec c ause of anyvacuum in knowledge and wisdom of loc ac al ademic s. In fac manySouth-East Asian ac t ademic are verysuc essful in other universities around the s c world. Some have written verysound ac ademicdissertations and hypothesis but fail to get them published through the publishers that c bring them to mass popularity Rather theysell a few an . hundred c opies and c be found gathering dust on libraryshelves. an Part of this preferenc for foreign expertise is based on the belief that something imported is better, e an old colonial hangover. However the c of this hangover is holding bac indigenous intellec ost k tual development and preserving the state of neo-c olonialism at a time when the US and Europe are far from possessing a monopolyof new ideas. The irony of it all – “If you don’t eat your meat, you can’t have any pudding” Asian business and management has been of great interest to manyever sinc the rise of Japan e Inc. During the 1980s, a multitude of writers, some of them top academic and management gurus s espoused Asian management ideas to the ‘west’. Japanese suc ess in the US and European markets was explained bynumerous authors as well c thought out marketing strategies[14], a strategicmindset[15], superior produc tivity[16], organizational culture[17], spec c ific ultural prac es and a shared c tic ommitment[18], a spec nexus ial between government, business, and the banking sy stem[19], and innovation[20].http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East ... Page 5 of 13 Asian authors like Kenic Ohmae brought intuitiveness into strategyat a time it was bec hi oming overlyanaly al. In addition he provided a reorientation towards the c tic ustomer in the firm’s strategy, at a time when marketing theorywas bec oming too struc tured. This interest in Asian management extended into the 1990s where manyauthors espoused the reasons for suc ess of the Asian tigers due to work ethic c c s, ulture, low c base, rising levels of ost innovation, government sponsored c apitalism, the role of the overseas Chinese[21], quanxi[22], growing domesticmarkets, and well thought out strategies[23]. Most literature on Asian management was positivist and instrumentalist rather than reflec tive which could be seen with the titles using words like ‘how’, ‘new competition’, ‘success’, and ‘challenge’, etc Culture and philosophyhad been superfic . iallymentioned and a multitude of books about ‘Confucius’[24], ‘Sun Tzu’[25], ‘Buddhist management[26]’, and ‘Islamic business[27]’, were published. A sec ond generation of business and management books foc using upon China and to a lesser degree India is upon us. Books in this latest era are focused upon the nouveau entrepreneurs of the region, who theyare, how theyorganize themselves and bec ame suc essful[28]. In essenc c e there has been no shortage of “Asian” ideas in management going across to the ‘west’. During the 1980’s and 1990’s manyac ademic bec s ame interested in the connections between Confuc ianism and the spec ular rise of the Asian Tigers. tac Some argued that Confuc was opposed to modernization as it didn’t advoc individualism, ius ate common to the Western c harac teristic of entrepreneurship, was too dependent on guidanc s e, emphasized an all round development of personalityto harmonise with the environment, whic h discouraged aggressiveness and enc ouraged traditionalism, rather than modernisation[29]. However Tu suggested that individualism is a Western mode of c apitalism and East Asian had developed another model based on relationships to develop c hange through c onsensus and networks, with a sense of personal discipline[30]. Confucianism was c ized for lac of profit ritic k motive, as his philosophies discouraged self-motivation and that merc hants were not included in Confuc set of keyrelationships. ius However, through responsibilityand obligation to family other motives exist, suc as their well- , h being[31], and treatment of those inside and outside an individual’s universe of relationships will be different, i.e., outsiders treated with respec but c t aution, more adversarial, rather than brotherly relationship. Confuc ianism is also c ized for its lac of innovation, whereas the realityof Chinese business ritic k has been to seek way to c s ontrol an existing market, rather than create new value through innovation[32]. However there are two interesting c epts within Confuc onc ianism that are veryrelevant to corporate wisdom, a c ept that will most probablyhave a revival in popularityin c onc ontemporary management thinking in the near future. The first is the Tao, the wayof life and Te, potenc and self-sac ial generositywith humility with y rific , the moral power of attrac tion and transformation, associated with these qualities. The humanistic attribute required to ac hieve the above is through Ren, whic means love, kindness and goodness, h qualities of the perfec individual. t This is the essenc of what makes humans different from other members of the animal kingdom. e Failure to develop Ren would lead an individual to quic develop foregone c lusions, kly onc dogmatism, obstinac and egotism, whic would bloc wisdom and prevent people from making y h k new insights and discoveries, as one’s mind must remain open to become wiser. Li is the expression of Ren in a soc c ial ontext through norms, rites and rituals governing ceremonies ac ording to one’s soc position. Through Li, the individual expresses his respec and c ial t reverenc for others[33]. e Another important aspec of Confuc thought mentioned above is Yi or righteousness. This is t ian where self interest is subservient to organizational interest. Yi is prac ed through c tic ultivating ritual and etiquette and eventuallybec omes sec ond nature. Zhi or wisdom is the abilityto applythe above virtues into life situations whic implies an h understanding of the Confuc worldview above. Zhi is therefore muc more than knowledge. ian h Finallyone must possess Xin or trustworthiness to safeguard the mission of the organization. Romar suggested that Confuc ethic are verysimilar to the ideas developed byPeter Druc ian s ker [34]. The tremendous ec onomicgrowth in Asia after the Sec ond World War was labeled as ‘Confucian capitalism”[35]. Hofstede postulated that c ulture is a prime determinant of performanc and e Confuc ianism dictates hierarc al organizational struc hic ture, preserving values, and thrift, which were all seen as organizational drivers of ec onomicgrowth[36]. One of the side effec of Confuc ts ianism is nepotism and thus the c reation of lac of transparenc , k y corruption, and inefficienc [37]. Some sc y holars labeled this as one of the prime reasons of thehttp://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East ... Page 6 of 13 1997 Asian financial crisis[38][39]. Interest in Asian business and management declined with the Japanese bubble bursting and the Asian financial crisis of 1997. This occurred at a time when there was a small re-emergence of US industry where the Asian myth was broken and it was back to business as usual[40]. US industry became equipped with new paradigms that would solve all their competitive problems packed up in new management philosophies that would bring a new arrogance in executive management, thinking they were envisioned for the future. Tools and slogans like the ‘Value Chain’, ‘Strategic alliances’, ‘Strategic innovation’, ‘Lean Manufacturing’, ‘Business Process Re-engineering’, ‘Balanced Score Card’, ‘Benchmarking’, ‘TQM’, ‘branded derivatives’, ‘Quality Management Systems’, ‘Zero defects’, ‘Performance Measurement’, ’Excellence Model’, and ‘Six Sigma’ instilled new found confidence. Many of these ideas developed as a ‘quick fix’, within a rapidly growing consulting industry. Another example of Asian influence on the ‘west’ is the claim that Chinese business success is related to the doctrines of Sun Tzu[41]. This may have some positive bearing in the business strategies of some businesses, which are quoted as examples in books[42], and Sun Tzu’s philosophies have certainly influenced writers[43]. But as other authors have commented in the Asian SME context, most businesses start out finding the correct business strategies by nothing more than trial and error until they find a successful set of strategies for their businesses[44]. Very few business entrepreneurs in Southeast Asia until recently have been educated past secondary school and although Sun Tzu is known to Western business scholars, it is highly doubtful whether many Chinese are familiar with his works on strategy. However there is some evidence that the educated Chinese public service over the centuries did use these texts in forming the strategies of Chinese state[45]. It is claimed that Sun Tzu’s doctrine influenced Admiral Yamamoto in planning the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Mao Tse-Tung’s philosophies, the Vietnamese General Vö Nguyên Giáp’s strategies that led to victories over the French and American forces in Vietnam, Che Gueverra’s revolutionary and guerrilla tactics in South America, and the Gulf war campaigns and resulting insurgencies[46]. It also appears that the doctrines of Sun Tzu were studied by Western military scholars[47] and the early business schools took some interest in The Art of War in the 1950s and 60s when the concepts of business and corporate strategy was being pioneered. Strategy as a war paradigm became very popular in the United States with a number of ‘bestsellers’ like Barrie James ‘Business War Games’, and Al Ries and Jack Trout’s ‘Marketing Warfare’[48] in the 1980s and has become part of contemporary marketing terminology[49]. In addition Sun Tzu has become part of popular culture influencing films like the Star Wars Trilogy, Wall Street, The Sopranos (HBO), The Art of War, and Die Another Day. The influence of Sun Tzu on Asian business has probably been through these western influences, rather than direct knowledge and education in the region itself. There is very little evidence of direct influence of Buddhist Dharma upon business in Asia. Many studies mix Buddhist and Confucian philosophies which although bear some similarities, are also contrastingly different[50]. Although some cases are reported[51], the Buddhist business is more myth than reality. This is partly because there is very little consensus about what a Buddhist venture would actually be like. The only visible evidence is the belief and practice of a degenerated form of corrupted Buddhism, mixed with superstitious rituals, artifacts, ceremonies, giving donations to the temple for positive Karma, and praying to Bodhisatvta for wealth and prosperity. However, Buddhist Dharma has influenced Western psychology significantly. The teachings of the Abhidhamma Pitaka have inspired and influenced many psychoanalysts and psychologists[52], including Carl Jung, Erich Fromm, Albert Ellis, Jon Kabat-Zinn and Marsha M. Linehan. There has been a great leap forward in humanitarian and transpersonal philosophical influence in therapy[53]. Dialogue between philosophy theorists and practitioners of East and West has led to mutually influential relationships between them[54]. This has led to new insights into therapies and new schools of thought on both sides[55]. Many of these practices are being used in modified forms for therapy today[56].Aspects of Buddhist Dharma are also incorporated in the works of Western philosophers including Caroline A. F. Rhys David and Alan Watts. Applying Buddhist philosophy to organization and management in “Western society” is also not new. Writers have focused upon the quantum analogies of Buddhism[57], ethics[58], and humanist views[59].http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East ... Page 7 of 13 The concepts within the wheel of Samsara provide insight that emotions play a major role in all organizations[60],where occidental organization theories have tended to ignore the role of emotion in organizations until quite recently[61]. The concepts of dependent origination through systems theory and a reframed ‘Eightfold Path’ is similar to many of the concepts within the learning organization. Peter Senge is the Director for Organizational Learning at the Sloan Business School at MIT in Boston. He was one of the high profile academics during the 1990’s and propelled the concept of Learning Organization into the management vocabulary. Senge defines the learning organization “where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together[62].” Such organizations according to Senge will be able to face the rapidly changing environment with flexibility and adaptation, driven by peoples’ willingness and capacity to learn at all levels. However current organization structures and form are not conducive to learning and people although having great capacity to learn, do not have the tools needed[63].Senge and his team spent many years developing this process. The irony is that Asian ideas have more influence on ‘Western’ management thought than in Asian management thinking. The only probable exception is Confucianism which could cautiously be associated with the structure, process, and strategies of family owned Chinese businesses in Southeast Asia[64]. Although Sun Tzu’s ‘The Art of War’ and Buddhist Dharma originated in the Asian region, it has primarily been ‘Western’ management thinkers who have applied the respective philosophies to management, at least in these contemporary times. Although the Islamic ‘Tawhid’ is 1500 years old, it is probably only now that it is being considered seriously as a management philosophy. Before now, Islamic thought has had negligible influence on contemporary business, but the market may change that; although Islamic society itself has not taken Islamic concepts onboard into business until this time. The nature of Muslim consumers and the rapid growth of the Halal market globally will be a driver of change here. Why? – “Don’t think I need anything at all” As mentioned in the introduction of this article, South-East Asian business schools have been unquestionably built upon Weberian models. School management tended to overzealously enforce structure, systems and procedures that create immense rigidities. In addition, deans tend to play the role of a patriarch rather than a chairman of the board, which often degrades into crude authoritarianism. Consequently major positions within the hierarchy tend to go to those are liked and favoured, rather than those who have worked meritoriously, successfully, and are qualified for the job. Although these appointed subordinates know their role and operate with a certain degree of autonomy, deans may take the prerogative over decisions he or she may have some interest in. This centralized decision making should increase the ability of schools to make quick decisions and adapt to the changing environment, but usually the opposite occurs due to complacent conservatism or a general reluctance to make decisions. Personal relationships become a major part of decision making, where organization performance becomes very subjective. This most often leads to suboptimal performance. Because of the nepotistic nature of the school, disempowered staff seek satisfaction and reward through their personal work or from outside the school. Consequently many business schools in South-East Asia fall into Morgan’s political organization paradigm where power is the prize and Machiavellian behavior is the norm. Motivation among staff at the school will most probably be very low. There is a drastic shortage of business and entrepreneurship lecturers within the region. Stringent criteria in the employment of lecturers eliminate the potential to employ mature, experienced practitioners or practademics. For example under the regulations of one aspiring university in Malaysia that portrays itself as the “Harvard of the East”, it would not be able to employ people like Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, and the late Steve Jobs, even as adjunct, due to issues of qualifications. Thus those that gain employment within the region’s colleges and universities have formal qualifications, usually without much, if any experience. South-East Asian business and entrepreneurship academics consequently tend to lack the depth of knowledge about what they teach and rely on textbooks and popular management books as the basis of their teaching. This lack of depth of knowledge in many fields leads to a lack of confidence to develop curriculum outside the familiar textbooks they have available to them, thus inhibiting the ability to provide an education according to local needs. With this comes a reinforcement of an unconscious bias towards ‘western’ literature as local literature is still rare and far between and in many cases just a translation of existing foreign textbooks. Any original local material usually lacks peer acceptance due to the lack of ability of many to critically appraise it.http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East ... Page 8 of 13 South-East Asian business schools have developed into a rut of pursuing quantity for the windfall incomes they can accumulate through popular products like the MBA. Foreign universities through setting up branches or strategic alliances are also cashing in on the rapid growth of business education in South-East Asia, further perpetuating the myth that foreign business theories are the first class product. They have adopted the classic post colonial market strategy of importing their product into a local market with minimum modification and exploiting the market to the maximum. This rut manifests deep into the structure and processes of local colleges and universities. ISO quality accreditations and their logos are prominently displayed as symbols of quality, even though they have little or no relevance to the actual standard of the courses provided. ISO standards make no claims about product quality or relevance whatsoever and only mislead the public. The resources needed to implement these useless ISO standards are taken from potential academic development resources. This leaves a single textbook approach to courses, predominately delivered through formal lectures, rigid assessment and examination criteria and reliance on outdated curriculum development tools like Bloom’s taxonomy, when there have been many advances in pedagogy over the last few years; all in an unquestioning manner. The result of this is a sanitized teaching paradigm which doesn’t reflect the real business environment, leaving students ill-prepared for the outside world. This ‘cut and paste’ culture without questioning and adaptation is holding back the development of business education in the region. Of late, universities have realized the need for research to build esteem and gain a ranking. However this has been turned into a meaningless chase of KPI figures. Many new academic journals are cashing in on this unhealthy focus on SCOPUS indexing and now offer ‘pay for publishing’ arrangements, rather than the traditional ‘double blind peer review’ system. To date, most local research has tended to emulate other research, applying theory to local contexts, rather than developing indigenous hypotheses. This lack of originality is preventing the rise in international stature of local business academics and is the loss of a great opportunity to develop Asian based management knowledge. Finally, local South-East Asian academics have not asked whether “there is a distinctively Asian type of management based upon traditional philosophy?” and perhaps “can the focus on these ancient philosophies and religions really bring any revelations to Asian management thinking today?” Management theory has been something secular in Asia in contrast with the ‘west’ where it has been tainted with spiritualism. Asian academics have preferred to keep both issues in separate boxes. Whether this is on the assumption that Asian academics believe there is nothing to learn from their heritage, so emotionally, psychologically, intellectually, and professionally separate meaning of their personal lives with their professional lives. May be it is just from lack of confidence to think outside their trained discipline and merge new ideas into their existing knowledge. Conclusion – “Another brick in the wall” The education gap between South-East Asia, Europe, Australia, and the US is going to be felt for a long time. Part of the problem is the inept ability and resistance to change. Part of the problem is the lack of skilled, experienced and knowledgeable people. However the rigidity of educational institutions is something that can be solved, through some visionary thinking. There is also another problem. It is apparent that creativity is an important aspect of education, which is deeply lacking in Asian curriculum throughout the whole school system. In business and entrepreneurship creativity is vital in the areas of opportunity recognition and construction, strategy development and execution, marketing, new product development, and solving general problems related to entrepreneurship. If we accept entrepreneurship as a behavior, then entrepreneurial behavior is related more to creativity than intelligence; entrepreneurship can then be taught. Entrepreneurship will no longer be based upon innovation, but value – value for both the consumer and members of the enterprise, much more closely aligned with the reality of the needs and abilities of entrepreneurs in developing economies. Creativity, rather than intelligence appears to be a more critical factor in achieving success. Therefore education curriculum will need to focus on creating value through offering alternative business models rather than the traditional business tools that that the MBA graduate is familiar with. This is in stark contrast to the major objective of ‘western’ education system to nurture creativity and assertiveness from a young age. There is a cultural hindrance here where questioning is encouraged in ‘western’ classrooms but considered disruptive in ‘Asian’ classrooms. Without solving this problem at primary and secondary levels, tertiary institutions have extra challenges to bring up and develop the caliber of local students. This is actually a disadvantage that can be eliminated without great need of any capital expenditure. There are indeed a rich number of paradigms that business and entrepreneurship can be considered through, and many of these can add practically to the development of ethical business, human relations, conflict management, organizational learning, and even creativity development. There are rich models for psychology, motivation theory, and organization behavior from Buddhism and Islam that have been totally ignored. Marketing books are incomplete as they don’t explain the deep textures of the South-East Asian market environment. Using local paradigms will assist in understanding the various paradoxes and contradictions of business in Asia. One of the issues is interpretation. Max Weber interpreted Confucianism as a negative force to economic growth and William Ouchi probably understated the influence of Confucianism inhttp://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-East ... Page 9 of 13 Japanese business hierarchy and decision making. Using single ‘western’ metaphors provides a biased insight[65], but when local metaphors are used, we can see much deeper layers of meaning. There is no shortage of potential paradigms such as the ‘Taoist tradition’ which may have an important insight into Chinese cognition in South-East Asia[66], Hinduism which heavily influences the nature of business[67], ‘feudalism’, ‘developing nation’, government sponsored capitalism’, ‘adventurism’, ‘Sufism”, ‘Sikhism’, ‘Shinto traditions’, ‘Machiavellism’, and ‘diplomacy’, etc., that can bring new ways of learning. These can be developed into relevant meta-theories and interchanged to shed more understanding of the dynamics of Asian business and economy. It could be argued that Asia’s failure to develop their own contextually relevant theories and the corresponding positivist practices, where instead culturally unsuited practices are utilized, is a missed opportunity to develop new forms of new dynamic capabilities and competitive advantage within the region. This is the challenge to management academics and practitioners in South-East Asia. It is the task of looking through the rich history, culture, society, stories, and philosophies of the region for the inspiration to develop and construct homegrown management ideas, rather than importing ideas developed in other parts of the world, which are suitable for those parts of the world. Confucian, Buddhist, Strategy, and Islamic institutes exist all over the region, but there has been little focus on developing these philosophies as management paradigms. Today there is an intense vacuum of original management thinkers in the South-East Asian region. True independence from colonialism only comes through original thought as a means to act in an intellectually free manner. It will be the content and spirit of the curriculum taught in South-East Asian business schools that will determine how the region does things in the future. [1] Redding, G., (1995), Overseas Chinese Networks: Understanding the Enigma, Long Range Planning, Vol. 28, No. 1, P. 61. [2] Honig, B., (2004), Entrepreneurship Education: Toward a Model of Contingency-based Business Planning, Academy of Management Learning & Education, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 258-273. [3] Volkmann, C., Wilson, K., E., Mariotti, S., Vyakarnam, S., & Sepulveda, A., (2009), Educating the next wave of entrepreneurs: A report to the global education initiative, Geneva, World Economic Forum, https://members.weforum.org/pdf/GEI/2009/Entrepreneurship_Education_Report.pdf, Galloway, L., & Brown, W. (2002), Entrepreneurship education at university: a driver in the creation of high growth? Education & Training, Vol. 44, No. 8/9, pp. 398-405. [4] Hunter, M., (2012), On some of the misconceptions of entrepreneurship, Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 55-104. [5] Hunter, M., (2012), Opportunity, Strategy, & Entrepreneurship, A Meta-Theory, Vol. 1, New York, Nova Scientific Publishers, see Chapter 3. [6] Expansion often requires a firm to take risks and enter parts of the market that have marginal revenue potential than the current areas the firm occupies. This can be seen in the expansion of many Malaysian family owned supermarket groups where a financially solid group of 3 or 4 supermarkets can come under cash-flow strain because the family opened another outlet in a marginal market. If this problem is not quickly remedied by closing the new outlet, the cost of overheads eats heavily into the cash-flow of the financially healthy outlets. [7] Walters, J., S., (2002), Big Vision, Small business, San Francisco, Bennett-Koehler Publishers, Inc., P. 3. [8] Schindler, R.M. (1992). The Real lesson of New Coke: The Value of Focus Groups for Predicting the Effects of Social Influence, Marketing Research, December, pp. 22-27. [9] Mudge, C., Yang, Tae-Yong, & Kim, Wonjoon, (2006), Entrepreneurship Education in Asia, 26th October, accessed at http://ree.stanford.edu/archives/archive06/usa/notes/EntEdAsia.pdf [10] Dana, L., P. (2001), op. cit. [11] Schawbell, D., (2011), How social media has created false hope for future entrepreneurs, 18th August, http://www.fastcompany.com/1774544/why-social-media-has-created-false-hope-for-future- entrepreneurs [12] Kartiwi, M., & Macgregor, R., C. (2007), Electronic commerce adoption barriers in small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in developed and developing countries: A cross country comparison, Journal of Electronic Commerce in Organizations, Vol. 17, No. 3, P. 38. [13] Amornvivat, S., (2012), The worrisome state of the Thai workforce, Bangkok Post, 15th August, http://www.bangkokpost.com/opinion/opinion/307665/the-worrisome-state-of-the-thai-workforce [14] Kotler, P., Fahey, L., & Jatusriptak, S. (1985), The New Competition: Meeting the marketing challenge from the Far East, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice/Hall International.http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-Eas... Page 10 of 13 [15] Ohmae, K. (1982), The Mind of the Strategist: The Art of Japanese Business, New York, McGraw-Hill. [16] Schonberger, R., J. (1982), Japanese manufacturing techniques: Nine hidden Lessons in Simplicity, New York, Free Press. [17] Pascale, R., T. & Athos, A., G., (1982), The Art of Japanese management: Applications for American Executives, New York, Warner Books. [18] Ouchi, W., (1982), Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge, New York, Avon Books. [19] Ouchi, W. (1984), The M Form Society: How American teamwork Can Capture the Competitive Edge, New York, Perseus Books. [20] Morita, A., (1987), Made in Japan: Akio Morita and Sony, London, William Collins & Co. Ltd. [21] Backman, M. (2004), The Asian Insider: Unconventional Wisdom for Asian Business, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. [22] Studwell, J., (2007), Asian Godfathers: Money and Power in Hong Kong and Southeast Asia, New York, Grove Press. [23] Lasserre, P., & Schūtte, H., (1995), Strategies for Success in Asia Pacific: Meeting New Challenges, New York, Palgrave Macmillan. [24] Rarick, C., A., (2007), Confucius on management: Understanding Chinese Cultural values and management Practices, Journal of International Management Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1082092 [25] There are so many texts about Sun Tzu. One of the author’s favorites is Sawyer, R., D., (1994), Sun Tzu: The Art of War, Bolder, Westview Press. [26] Witten, D., & Rinpoche, A., T., (1999), Enlightened management: Bringing Buddhist Practices to Work, South Paris, ME, Park Street Press. [27] Dr. Chapra in an on-line interview was very critical of the development of Islamic economic and business theories claiming they were unbalanced in their approaches. He was reported to state that “Primary attention has been given so far to Islamic Finance. This has led to the false impression that interest-free finance is all that Islamic Economics has to offer. Since most of the governments in Muslim countries are not yet convinced that interest-free finance is workable, excessive emphasis on it has created a resistance in official circles against Islamic Economics. They find it to be of little value. This is unfortunate. We must blame ourselves for this. Islam is a complete way of life and is capable of solving the problems of not only Muslim countries, but also of mankind”. In the same interview Dr. Chapra said that it was the responsibility of Islamic intellectuals to show how Islamic economics could solve the socio-economic problems that humankind faced. This is in great need because there is a distinct lack of theoretical and empirical analysis to show that an Islamic strategy can help solve economic problems, particularly with the current state of the Islamic world, where there is decline in moral values, exploitive financial systems, illegitimate governments, landlordism, lack of education, absence of justice and ineffective operation of incentives and deterrents. Dr. Chapra believes that there is great repetitiveness in what is written about Islamic economics which is not serving any cause. An Islamic alternative needs to be spelt out, which can only really be done after the real position in Islamic countries is analysed, i.e., how individuals, families, firms and governments actually behave, so the gap between ideals and reality can be measured and Islamic remedies developed. See: Islamic Voice, ‘Islamic Economics Offers the Best to Mankind’, http://www.islamicvoice.com/june.2003/ine.htm, (Accessed 20th December 2006). [28] See for example: Engardio, P. (2007), Chindia: How China and India are Revolutionizing Global Business, New York, McGraw-Hill, Yang, K., (2007), Entrepreneurship in China, Aldershot, Ashgate, and Nie, W., Xin, K., & Zhang, L., (2009), Made in China: Secrets of China’s Dynamic Entrepreneurs, Singapore, John Wiley & Sons. [29] Chen, M., J., (2001), Inside Chinese Business: A Guide for Managers Worldwide, Boston, Harvard Business School Press, P. 23. [30] Tu, W., M., (1984), Confucian Ethics Today: The Singapore Challenge, Singapore, Federal Publications. [31] Tu, W., M., (1995), ‘Is Confucianism Part of the Capitalist Ethic?’, Stackhouse, M., C., (Ed.), On Moral Buwsiness, Grand Rapids, MI., William B. Eerdmans Publishing, pp. 409-411. [32] Fairbank, J., K. and Goldman, M., (1998), China: A New History, Cambridge, MA., Belknap Press of Harvard University. [33] Koller, J. M. (1984), Oriental Philosophies. New York: Macmillan. [34] Romar, E. (2004), “Managerial Harmony: The Confucian Ethics of Peter F. Drucker,” Journal of Business Ethics 51(2): 199-210.http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-Eas... Page 11 of 13 [35] Tu, W., (1991), A Confucian Perspective on the Rise of Industrial East Asia, Confucianism and the Modernization of China, Mainz, Hase & Koehler Press, P. 31. [36] Hofstede, G., (1991), Cultures and Organizations: Software of the mind, London, McGraw-Hill, Franke, R., Hofstede, G., & Bond, M., (1991), Cultural Roots of Economic performance: A Research Note, Strategic Management Journal, Special issue, Global Strategy, pp. 165-166. [37] Redding, S., (1993), The Spirit of Chinese Capitalism, New York, Walter de Gruyter. [38] Pye, L., (2000), Asian values: From Dynamos to Dominoes?, Culture matters: How Values Shape Human progress, New York, basic Books., Seong, H., C., (2003), myth and reality in the Discourse of Confucian Capitalism in Korea, Asian Survey, Vol. 43, No. 3, P. 485. [39] However another explanation is that institutions are more a product of their stage of development rather than the cultural context, which negates the Confucian influence. See: Singh, K., (2007), The Limited Relevance of Culture to Strategy, Asian Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 24, P. 421. [40] Krugman, P., (1994), The Myth of Asia’s Miracle, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 73, No. 6, pp. 62-78. [41] Min Chen, (2004) Asian Management Systems, 2nd Edition, London, Thomson. [42] Chen, M., J., (2001), op. cit. [43] Ohmae, K., (1990), The Borderless World: Power and Strategy in the Interlinked Economy, London, Collins. [44] Gomez, E., T., (2004), op. cit. [45] Tung, R., L., (2001), Strategic management Thought in East Asia, In: Warner, M., Comparative Management: Critical perspectives on Business and Management, Vol. 3, London, Routledge, [46] Cantrell, R., L. (2003), Understanding Sun Tzu on the Art of War, Arlington, VA, Centre for Advantage. [47] McNeilly, M., R., (2001), Sun Tzu and the Art of Modern Warfare, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 6-7. [48] James, B., G., (1986), Business Wargames, London, Penguin, and Ries, A., & Trout, J., (1986), Marketing Warfare, New York, Paperback, [49] Terms such as offensive, defensive, flanking, and guerrilla marketing strategies have become very common in marketing expression. [50] Weber, J. (2009), “Using Exemplary Business Practices to Identify Buddhist and Confucian Ethical Value Systems,” Business and Society Review 114(4): 511-540. [51] Prayukvong, W. (Undated), “A Buddhist Economic Approach to a Business Firm: A Case Study,” accessed at http://www.eco.ru.ac.th/eco/necon6/papers/g3/3.4.pdf (16th March 2012). [52] Trungpa, C. (1975), Glimpses of Abhidharma: From a Seminar on Buddhist Psychology. Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications; de Silva, P. (1991), “Buddhist Psychology: A Review of Theory and Practice,” Current Psychology: Research and Reviews 9(3): 236-254; Claxton, G. (1990), “Meditation in Buddhist Psychology,” in West, M. A. (ed.), The Psychology of Meditation. Oxford: Clarendon Press; Epstein, M. (1995) Thoughts without a Thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist Perspective. New York: Basic Books. [53] Goleman, D. (2004), Destructive Emotions and How We Can Overcome Them: A Dialogue with the Dalai Lama. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. [54] Safran, J. D. (2003), “Psychoanalysis and Buddhism as Cultural Institutions,” in Safran, J. D. (ed.), Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: An Unfolding Dialogue. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1- 34. [55] Grossman, P. (2004), “Mindfulness Practice: A Unique Clinical Intervention for the Behavioral Sciences,” in Heidenreich, T., and Michalak, J. (eds.), Mindfulness and Acceptance in Psychotherapy. Berlin: DVTG Press, 16-18; Safran, J. D. (2003), “Psychoanalysis and Buddhism as Cultural Institutions,” in Safran, J. D. (ed.), Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: An Unfolding Dialogue. Boston, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1-34; Sherwood, P. M. (2005), “Buddhist Psychology: Marriage of Eastern and Western Psychologies,” www.sophiacollege.com/publications/Buudd% 20pschoz.pdf (accessed 20th October 2009). [56] Epstein, M. (2001), Going on Being. New York: Broadway Books. [57] Low, A. (1976), Zen and the Art of Creative Management. New York: Playboy Paperbacks. [58] Field, L. (2007), Business and the Buddha: Doing Well by Doing Good. Boston: Wisdom Publications.http://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
    • The 4th Media » The Dominance of “Western” Management Theories in South-Eas... Page 12 of 13 [59] Larkin, G. (1999), Building a Business the Buddhist Way. Berkeley: Celestial Arts. [60] Hunter, M. (2012), Opportunity, Strategy, & Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Theory., Vol. 1, New York, Nova Scientific Publishers, 255-271. [61] One of the first books on emotions within organizations was Fineman, S. (ed.) (2000), Emotions in Organizations. London: Sage. [62] Senge, P. (1990), The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday, 3. [63] Ibid., Ch. 2. [64] However even the influence of this paradigm is declining as ‘occidental management paradigms’ learned by ‘Gen Y’ children of patriarchal leaders return home from study abroad with new ideas. Yet this does not mean the disappearance of Confucianism as an influence on management as the cognitive and ethical aspects may enjoy a renaissance in China this century. See: Bell, D., A. (2006), China’s leaders rediscover Confucianism – Editorials & Commentary – International Herald Tribune, The New York Times, Sept. 4, accessed online at: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/14/opinion/14iht-edbell.2807200.html (16th March 2012). [65] Morgan, G., (2006), Images of Organization, (Updated Edition), Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications, P.4. [66] Spencer-Rogers, J., Peng, K., & Wang, L., (2010), Dialecticism and the co-occurrence of positive emotions across cultures, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 109- 115. [67] Rai, H., (2005), The role of Hinduism in Global India and her business ethics, In; Capaldi, N, (Ed.), Business and religions: a clash of civilizations?, Salem, MA, M & M Scrivener Press, pp. 379- 389. Prof. Murray Hunter Tags: China education Sun Tzu War 4 Print Related articles: China Demonization Project: Boxun, Zhang Ziyi and the National Endowment for Democracy 133 Nations at UN General Assembly “Condemn Syria Gov’t and UN Security Council”: A Vote with The Empire? Foreign Companies in China: An Introduction to the Real World Up To You: Those ‘Surreal’ Geopolitical Occurrences: China in Africa- Russia-Malaysia Add Comments Name (required) Mail (required) 4+7= (required) Submit Query Protected by WP Anti Spam Notify me of follow-up comments via e-mail Further DECLINE in CREDIBILITY Ratings for Most Global Mainstream News OrganizationsCopyright ©2011 April Media Co, Ltd. All Rights Reserved 四月网 | 四月青年社区 | 百科 | 博客 | Beijing SHOTS | Русский языкAbout US | Contact Us | Work for us | Helphttp://www.4thmedia.org/2012/08/17/the-dominance-of-western-management-theories-... 8/17/2012
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