Ricoeur argues that there is an integral connection between narrative and action.Narratives lead individuals to intervene in the course of things. The action derives from intention or motivation, based on the particular narratives of an individual, irrespective of whether these are selfgenerated, after appropriation from a culture.
Drummond argues ‘that narrative is thefundamental scheme for linking individualhuman action and events into interrelatedaspects of an understandable composite’.
Drummond argues organisation culture, leadership, conflict and change are narratives. One way of framing this is that organisation culture is composed of many narratives with enough coherence between them to give a sense of the whole’.36 Change occurs when new narratives replace old narratives. If the change is superficial, then the narratives could be described as morphostatic; (changing the chairs on the Titanic would not stop the ship sinking); or morphogenic;where things will never be the same again’.37 Hence, it can be argued that the linking of strategy and complexity throughnarrative theory collectively extends each theory and provides a theoretical underpinning to understand better these concepts and the linkages between them.
A theoretical link must now be made between narrative and strategy and again the work of Ricoeur is instructive, beginning with narrative and the individual. This will lead us to make theconnection between narrative and organisational strategy which in turn leads to the concept of identification since an organisation’s strategy requires individuals (members of the organisation) it identify with it, or support it, at least in some minimal ways.
Future Orientation Emotional Disturbances External Locus of Control Internal Locus of Control Optimum Region of Awareness Past OrientationAll narrative comes from our emotional orientation
Narrative as a story• The way that stories are told, how meaning is constructed to achieve the understanding of the audience.• Groups events into cause and effect – action and inaction.• Organises time and space in very compressed form.• The voice of the narrative can vary; whose story is being told and from whose perspective?• Narrative plot refers to everything audibly or visibly present, i.e. selective.• Narrative story refers to all the events, explicitly presented or referred.
We use narratives or stories to make sense of our lives and the world around us. There different ways in which we use the narrative form:• As children we listen to fairytales and myths/legends. As we grow older, we read short stories, novels, history and biographies.• Religion is often presented through a collection of “stories/moral tales” e.g. the Bible, the Ramayana, etc.• Scientific breakthrough is often presented as stories of an experimenter/scientist’s trials.• Cultural phenomena such as plays, films, dance and paintings tell stories.• News events are told as stories.• Dreams are retold as stories.
The world is seen from our own perspective – our narrative
Meaning• Dear Honorable Dato/Prof./Assoc.Prof./Dr./Mr/Mrs/Miss, Kindly be informed that there will be a talk on "Science of Knowledge", scheduled as follows : Date : 9th September 2011 (Friday) Time : 3.00 pm ~ 4.30 pm Venue : PPIPT Meeting Room, Block A Attendance : Compulsory to all academic staffs Speaker : Honorable Prof. Dato Wira Dr. Mohd Salleh Bin Hj Din Your commitment and attendance is deeply appreciated. Thanking in advance. Confidence?
The Things we think The things we do The intentions we have The things we buyAre all governed by our own stories
MeaningWe give symbols common meaning to form society’s narrative
Stories we construct shape ourassumptions, beliefs and values
Culture is a storyTheories in action Stories, myths, heroes, artifacts, informal behavioursverses EspousedNorms and groupbehaviour Productivity &Values Organisational effectiveness learning (single or double looped Leadership Beliefs Assumptions
Innovate --------------------------Avoid mistakes Think long term--------------------Live for today Save money----------------Spend for the future Work by oneself---------------Work as a group Be flexible------------- Follow rules and norms Collaborate-------------------------------CompeteMake your own decisions---Make joint decisions
We have multiple narratives in Physical Sensations ourselves Physical Awareness Material Awareness Social Awareness Ego Awareness Spiritual Awareness True Self (Universal awareness) Spiritual Self Ego Self Social Self Material Self Primal Self Perception Society
What Emotions are they feeling? Courage Passionate intimidated Nervous Energetic Determined Excited AnxiousOverwhelmed Competitive Challenging Green are positive, Red are negative and yellow emotions can go either way
Courage The different sets of emotions will heavily influence performance. Passionate intimidatedDetermined EnergeticOverwhelmed Anxious Challenging
Different weight and balance of emotions may“Big-headed” produce different behaviour & performance Confused Awkward Tense ScaredOverwhelmed ShyPassionate Confident Excited
Parent Parent Ego State Behaviours, thoughts and feelings copied from parents and parent figures. Adult Ego State Adult Behaviours, thoughts and feelings are direct responses to here and now. Child Ego State Child Behaviours, thoughts and feelings are replayed from childhood.
Archetypes Our different selves can be considered archetypes • The hero (seeking something) • The Villain (opposing the hero) • The donor/benefactor/provider (a helper) •The dispatcher (sends the hero on his/her way)•The false hero (falsely assuming the role of the hero) •The helper (assisting the hero) •The princess (seeking protection of the hero)
Dominant LogicThe way people deal with events and situations in life. Dominant logic consists of a mental map which orientates a person. It can either inhibit or enhance learning, growth and fulfillment.
Dominant Logic• Our behaviour, focus and the way people act• A set of ideas about ourselves and the world• Personal rules and experiences• A reflection of our success, failure, and indifference• Something that is invisible, internal• An organisations genetic code• An organisations operating system
Where can we use Narrative?• In the classroom – aid to learning/understanding• Research – developing descriptive theory• Marketing – Branding• Entrepreneurship research (The Republic of Tea)• Organizational Analysis• Political analysis• Social analysis• Self & Identity• Creativity Research
Reductionist Quantitative ResearchYou might learn a lot about a little bit But what is it Holistic Qualitative Research really?