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Narrative as a research method                    Murray Hunter                    University Malaysia Perlis
Holistic        Spatial        Conceptual                                            Music Intuitive                      ...
This gives us two views of the world
We view the world through field dependence or independence                 (Witkin 1954, 1973, 1977)
Left Hand SideSequential processing, A to b to C                Right Hand SideLooks at facts and detailed informationSpli...
Please say the colours    Yellow Blue Orange    Black Red Green    Purple Yellow                     Red    Orange Green B...
The Prefrontal Cortex    The ability to manipulate   The ability to imagine
The Fourth Factor   Emotions influence our decisions beforereasoning, a leftover from our primal existence.
Is it rationality or emotion you that makes you decide to buy a car like                  this?
Groups have primal narratives
Why do we buy fine   fragrances?
A cat also has consciousness
Communicate  Cats can solve problems and              learn
Cats can act sociallyHave mental maps
Many apes have empathy
The dawn of man
Consciousness is partly a social        phenomena  Narrative is the heart of      consciousness
Narrative expresses ……………..        Hopes                                             Feelings                             ...
The Four Part Brain                           3. Empathic/Imaginative 2. Holistic                                1. Ration...
We live in a quantitative World
Scientific Management
Newtonian Physics
So when research is considered
Causation, correlation or even reverse             causation?White, Roderick E. , Thornhill, Stewart andHampson, Elizabeth...
The fallacy of factors leading to            successFactors contributing to the growth of small manufacturing firms:  data...
New        Economic                     PollutionParadigms      Growth                                                    ...
More Complex Problems
Losing sight of variables         Location                     Climate                           Genetic Material         ...
Does quantitative research give         meaning?
Reductionist Quantitative         ResearchYou might learn a lot about a          little bit  But what is it               ...
What is Meaning?
Situational and contextualmeaning does not make forgood quantitative research
Can quantitative research clear up           ambiguity?
Even simple environments are complex and have multiple                    perspectives
Attempt to                              Deny an unhappy    impress listener   Keeping Face              family life       ...
Narrative as   Truth                 Narrative as hope                Narrative as we want                  others to see ...
What is thetruth anyway?
All such notions as causation,    succession and primary agent relationships are all figments of theimagination which can ...
A descriptive theory is a narrative
A descriptive theory is “the way things are” which in most disciplines we rarely get right.
Normative theories are common          narratives
A normative theoryis apredictive, instrumental, or positivist theory
All great normative theories? Which one works?
Is there such thing as a positivist theory           that actually works?
The truth keepschanging as we see new         things
Narrative can accommodate ambiguity much      better than qualitative research
Isn’t                              management                              ambiguous?  Chaotic environment Stakeholder wan...
Narrative is empirical research just    as quantitative research is
Ricoeur argues that there is an integral connection between narrative and action.Narratives lead individuals to intervene ...
Drummond argues ‘that narrative is thefundamental scheme for linking individualhuman action and events into interrelatedas...
Drummond argues organisation culture, leadership, conflictand change are narratives. One way of framing this is thatorgani...
A theoretical link must now be made betweennarrative and strategy and again the work ofRicoeur is instructive, beginning w...
Narrative as a story• The way that stories are told, how meaning is  constructed to achieve the understanding of the  audi...
We use narratives or stories to make sense of our lives and the world around us. There different ways in which we use the ...
The world is seen from our own perspective – our narrative
Memory is in “I” & “Me” Mode
MemoryTruth    Knowledge    Belief        Imagination
How manyChalices are in Leonardo daVinci’s painting  of the Last   Supper?
We see what we want to see
Experience introduces feeling & emotion               to learning
Meaning• Dear Honorable Dato/Prof./Assoc.Prof./Dr./Mr/Mrs/Miss,  Kindly be informed that there will be a talk on "Science ...
The Things we think          The things we do       The intentions we have          The things we buyAre all governed by o...
MeaningWe give symbols common meaning to form society’s narrative
Heaven Strategy                             (Dan Hill 2010)   High                          More                          ...
Stories we construct
Stories we construct shape ourassumptions, beliefs and values
How do you know?
Archetypes           Our different selves can be considered archetypes           • The hero (seeking something)           ...
How many stories are there here?
Narrative gives meaning – without  narrative there is no meaning
Most of the time we project ourmeanings onto    others
Who is the successful person here?                  Stereotyping
Who is the  mostsuccessful  here?
Value is socially constructed
Meaning is relative
Gender is a relative    concept
BuildingFrameworks orour own Meta-   Theories
Narrative integrates subjectivity    and objectivity throughstorytelling to produce scientific explanations (i.e., meaning...
Narrative deals with the development of stories over time (a longitudinal study)
Narrative creates our identity
Narrative is a form of ‘meaning making’. It is a complex formwhich expresses itself by drawing together descriptions of st...
Narratives come into existence……Events happen and weobserve and participate in them and we make conscious (and unconscious...
A Meta-Theory Trap & Filter                              Emotions                       Transactional Analysis and/or Fiel...
Narrative Theory
Narrative Theory       Paul Ricoeur
Emplotment is integral to narrative. Narrative should consider a plot, with goals, causes, and    chance being brought tog...
Human experiences are held in the mind aspre-concepts (narratives in the making whichRicoeur calls mimesis 1, or pre-confi...
Images and                          Connections                   Vision Platform - PerceptionMimesis 1                   ...
Articulated Narratives: Those that we are  part, work, school, club, religion, nation, etc.Embedded Narratives: Specific n...
Dominant Logic (Prahalad)The way people deal with events and situations   in life. Dominant logic consists of a mental  ma...
Dominant Logic• Our behaviour, focus and the way people act• A set of ideas about ourselves and the world• Personal rules ...
Paradoxes  Innovate                       Avoid mistakes Live for today                 Think long term  Save money       ...
Metaphor
Typologies
Listening Exercise•   The simple act of listening shows how we sometimes wander through life with a    low level of awaren...
• The ability to listen effectively is a powerful tool in developing  awareness, empathy, humility, and consequently under...
Select the correct tools for a mission
Edgar Schein’s Approach to  Organizational Culture
Culture is a storyTheories in action                          Stories, myths, heroes, artifacts, informal                 ...
Assumptions
Look for the values
The Emotional Vista
We have multiple narratives in                                  Physical Sensations         ourselves                     ...
Imagination                       HeuristicsAction adverse                                                                ...
Perceived Reality                        Object/Event                           The Hierarchy of Emotions                 ...
Our personality is a mix of emotions just like Milton the                        Monster
What Emotions are they feeling?                                                            Courage                        ...
Courage        The different sets of                emotions will heavily               influence performance. Passionate ...
Different weight and balance of emotions may“Big-headed”    produce different behaviour & performance Confused Awkward   T...
Level of Awareness                                                     In control of                     The anxiety line ...
ExerciseRelax, breath in andout, remove all yourthoughts, relax your       musclesWhere am “I”?
Is this what you found?
Our true self is like a computer without any operating system or                             software
Here is our personal operating system
Empathy ExerciseSome people don’t realize we are doing destructive things that hurt  others [67]. Sometimes this hurt can ...
Traps & Filters
InterpersonalCommunication    A brief look atTransactional Analysis        Murray Hunter (with the narratives supplied by ...
Parent                     Parent Ego State         Behaviours, thoughts and feelings copied from parents                 ...
You                            MeParent                                          Parent Adult                             ...
Controlling Parent   Parent   Nurturing Parent Controlling Adult   Adult    Nurturing Adult  Immature Child      Child    ...
Okay my dear son, letmummy tell you the story.  (Nurturing mother)                            Mummy, what is this? Can you...
Hey , who is that guy  you were with!!!?(controlling mother )
Stop, I don’t want to go    to school today   (immature child )
I don’t have money   anymore!!!!!!!! (controlling adult)
Congratulations on your graduation.    Good luck. (nurturing adult)
Honey, Can you cook for metoday.perhaps, some tom yum honey.          (nurturing adult)Altenative: I love U Sayang (darlin...
@#$&%%$!!!!!!! Ya(immature child )
Lalalalallalaalala (Creative child)
Watch the following conversationbetween two students (or film clip) anddetermine the transactional dynamics of     the con...
Pierre Bourdieu’s Field Theory
The field is a sphere or plain of social life where each person or agent isoperating within it according to a practical lo...
The field as a social sphere has its own set of practical logic, producing a habitusembodied with the logic making it uniq...
The habitus can generate new principals of strategy and practice that flowfrom experiences that produce it, taking into ac...
Alan Fiske The Four ElementaryTypes of Relationships
The explicit & Implicit
BodyLanguage
On being emergent or reflective?
Emergent    In a stance of anticipation           A narrative of action and forming meaning
Compresses time                     In a stance of learningReflective   A narrative of significance of the meaning        ...
Emergent there maybe emphasis on anxiety andthe significance of making       an important       commitment.In a reflective...
Through Narrative we can see:                                                                     Values              The ...
Where can we use Narrative?•   In the classroom – aid to learning/understanding•   Research – developing descriptive theor...
Field Research
Documentation as a prime source  (Historical or Contemporary)
Live
A Narrative Meta-Theory                   NARRATIVE     The Theory of Action by                                        Ric...
Map Out the Big Picture of the   Research Phenomena
Making Sense of Narrative is Very Similar to Undertaking English    Comprehension Exercises (with extra “meaning tools”)
Emotional orientation                                             Suspicious                                   No distribu...
Transactional Analysis(A framework to communicate)
Person “A” “I” & “Me”   Words, phrases, met   Person “B” “I” & “Me”  View of the world      aphors, analogies      View of...
Film & Drama
Analysis of a Khmer TaleThis story is extracted from Collection of Folk Story, vol. 4, published by Buddhist Institute, Ph...
Yama                                                                                            Buddha                    ...
Little by little, the girls take to eating their food raw. Upset by this, they try to goback to her mother, but she thinks...
This story metaphorically reveals the mysteries of life, ourreal selves and social interaction. Key words, which couldbe u...
While Charles Darwin tried to explain how animals evolved to behumans, this story explains how humans can evolve to be ani...
3. In row 3 the abandoned girls suffer from a defective bondingrelationship. To them life in the forest, in which their bo...
4. In row 4 the fragmentary souls of the girls touched with humanness, are reconfiguredthrough interactions with the fores...
Publishing
Any reality is only seen in themind and therefore really part     of our imagination
Most people have (sourcesof) multiple identities wheresome are easier than others to discover and appreciate.
Follow the relationships     Types                            Conflicts   Shared meanings                      Who control...
It is impossible for us to see thingsuntouched by our own view, since theobserver and the observed are within           th...
It is the theory that determines       what we can observe                          - Albert Einstein
The Tools of Trade           Syntax                     Creative                    sensitivity                           ...
Ability to see the environment in different ways   No Sensitivity                                                        H...
Your researchcareer should not   be about…..
Is Blue Ocean Strategya new Marketing theory    or a narrative?
Is just abeginning
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Narrative as a research method
Narrative as a research method
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Narrative as a Research method - workshop at TAR College 2nd May 2012

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  1. 1. Narrative as a research method Murray Hunter University Malaysia Perlis
  2. 2. Holistic Spatial Conceptual Music Intuitive PreciseImagination Time Orientated Emotional Empathy Mathematical Language Logical Reasoned
  3. 3. This gives us two views of the world
  4. 4. We view the world through field dependence or independence (Witkin 1954, 1973, 1977)
  5. 5. Left Hand SideSequential processing, A to b to C Right Hand SideLooks at facts and detailed informationSplits the world into concrete and Holistic processing, big pictureidentifiable categories orientatedLogical cause and effect reasoning Visual and spatialLinear thinking from task to task Looks at the whole rather than piecesFollows on pre-existing fixed rules Analogic: sees similarities andMaths and science resemblancesStatistically inclined Feelings and emotional thoughtSystematic appraisal Philosophy and religionThinks in words and language Thinks in imagesUtilizes the concept of time, past and Transformativepresent IntuitiveObjective reality based Looks for relationships, patterns, makesLogically strategizes associationsSplits things apart Looks for unbounded connectionsKnows Lumps things together: connectorAcknowledges ImaginationReality based Present and future orientatedRealistic Looks at possibilitiesSafety, risk adverse Uses symbols and images Believes Appreciates Fantasy based Impetuous Adventurous, risk taker
  6. 6. Please say the colours Yellow Blue Orange Black Red Green Purple Yellow Red Orange Green Black Blue Red Purple Green Blue Orange An example of hemisphere conflict
  7. 7. The Prefrontal Cortex The ability to manipulate The ability to imagine
  8. 8. The Fourth Factor Emotions influence our decisions beforereasoning, a leftover from our primal existence.
  9. 9. Is it rationality or emotion you that makes you decide to buy a car like this?
  10. 10. Groups have primal narratives
  11. 11. Why do we buy fine fragrances?
  12. 12. A cat also has consciousness
  13. 13. Communicate Cats can solve problems and learn
  14. 14. Cats can act sociallyHave mental maps
  15. 15. Many apes have empathy
  16. 16. The dawn of man
  17. 17. Consciousness is partly a social phenomena Narrative is the heart of consciousness
  18. 18. Narrative expresses …………….. Hopes Feelings Ethical & spiritual codes Social hierarchies Empathy Imagination Self identity Fears Our introspections Sharing values Sharing beliefs Means of transferring ideas Problem solving Our projections Our relational position to society Meaning
  19. 19. The Four Part Brain 3. Empathic/Imaginative 2. Holistic 1. Rational 4. Emotional
  20. 20. We live in a quantitative World
  21. 21. Scientific Management
  22. 22. Newtonian Physics
  23. 23. So when research is considered
  24. 24. Causation, correlation or even reverse causation?White, Roderick E. , Thornhill, Stewart andHampson, Elizabeth, Entrepreneurs andEvolutionary Biology: The Relationship High-testosteronebetween Testosterone and New Venture entrepreneurs leadCreation (2003). Babson College, BabsonKauffman Entrepreneurship Research bigger--but lessConference (BKERC), 2002-2006 profitable--firmsENTREPRENEURS ANDEVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY:THE RELATIONSHIPBETWEEN TESTOSTERONEAND NEW VENTURE What drives women out of entrepreneurship? The joint role of testosterone and culture
  25. 25. The fallacy of factors leading to successFactors contributing to the growth of small manufacturing firms: data from Australia The key success factors, distinctive capabilities, and strategic thrusts of top SMEs in
  26. 26. New Economic PollutionParadigms Growth Fossil Fuels Export/Import Transport Farm Raw materials Transport Government Power Production Transport Diversity generation Warehouse Management Supermarket Conflict Research & Community Development Consumption Education Regulation Competition & Tension Air Transport Poverty & Unhappiness Development Waste Health Uncertainty A simplified environment
  27. 27. More Complex Problems
  28. 28. Losing sight of variables Location Climate Genetic Material Humidity Collection Temperature Purchase Sunshine hoursTopography UV radiation Plant physiology Seasons Slope & drainage Propagation Yield and Rainfall characteristics Chemical Constituents of the Humus Nutrients Method of extraction Essential Oil Extraction time Compactness Drainage & water holding qualities Pest & weed pH control Pre-harvest handlingMineral residuals Irrigation & preparation Plant densities Soil type Time & method of harvest Agronomic Harvest & Soil Practices Extraction Practices
  29. 29. Does quantitative research give meaning?
  30. 30. Reductionist Quantitative ResearchYou might learn a lot about a little bit But what is it Holistic Qualitative Research really?
  31. 31. What is Meaning?
  32. 32. Situational and contextualmeaning does not make forgood quantitative research
  33. 33. Can quantitative research clear up ambiguity?
  34. 34. Even simple environments are complex and have multiple perspectives
  35. 35. Attempt to Deny an unhappy impress listener Keeping Face family life Keeping up with theNarrative device of “Jones” optimism “We would be very happy if our children undertook higher education” Cultural Could be the truth expectations Showing off Peoples statements can have multiple meanings
  36. 36. Narrative as Truth Narrative as hope Narrative as we want others to see us Narrative as we see our self Narrative as we want to suppress Reality
  37. 37. What is thetruth anyway?
  38. 38. All such notions as causation, succession and primary agent relationships are all figments of theimagination which can have multiple explanations. Narrative lets us see the explanation from the actor’s point of view.
  39. 39. A descriptive theory is a narrative
  40. 40. A descriptive theory is “the way things are” which in most disciplines we rarely get right.
  41. 41. Normative theories are common narratives
  42. 42. A normative theoryis apredictive, instrumental, or positivist theory
  43. 43. All great normative theories? Which one works?
  44. 44. Is there such thing as a positivist theory that actually works?
  45. 45. The truth keepschanging as we see new things
  46. 46. Narrative can accommodate ambiguity much better than qualitative research
  47. 47. Isn’t management ambiguous? Chaotic environment Stakeholder wants PowerThe environment Negotiations Competitors Motivations Politics Management prerogative Labour relationsParadoxes, cost- Personalities quality, sales-profit, hierarchy- knowledge etc
  48. 48. Narrative is empirical research just as quantitative research is
  49. 49. Ricoeur argues that there is an integral connection between narrative and action.Narratives lead individuals to intervene in the course of things. The action derives from intention or motivation, based on the particular narratives of anindividual, irrespective of whether these are self generated, after appropriation from a culture.
  50. 50. Drummond argues ‘that narrative is thefundamental scheme for linking individualhuman action and events into interrelatedaspects of an understandable composite’.
  51. 51. Drummond argues organisation culture, leadership, conflictand change are narratives. One way of framing this is thatorganisation culture is composed of many narratives withenough coherence between them to give a sense of thewhole’.36 Change occurs when new narratives replace oldnarratives. If the change is superficial, then the narrativescould be described as morphostatic; (changing the chairs onthe Titanic would not stop the ship sinking); or morphogenic;where things will never be the same again’.37 Hence, it can beargued that the linking of strategy and complexity throughnarrative theory collectively extends each theory and providesa theoretical underpinning to understand better theseconcepts and the linkages between them.
  52. 52. A theoretical link must now be made betweennarrative and strategy and again the work ofRicoeur is instructive, beginning with narrativeand the individual. This will lead us to make theconnection between narrative and organisationalstrategy which in turn leads to the concept ofidentification since an organisation’s strategyrequires individuals (members of theorganisation) it identify with it, or support it, atleast in some minimal ways.
  53. 53. Narrative as a story• The way that stories are told, how meaning is constructed to achieve the understanding of the audience.• Groups events into cause and effect – action and inaction.• Organises time and space in very compressed form.• The voice of the narrative can vary; whose story is being told and from whose perspective?• Narrative plot refers to everything audibly or visibly present, i.e. selective.• Narrative story refers to all the events, explicitly presented or referred.
  54. 54. We use narratives or stories to make sense of our lives and the world around us. There different ways in which we use the narrative form:• As children we listen to fairytales and myths/legends. As we grow older, we read short stories, novels, history and biographies.• Religion is often presented through a collection of “stories/moral tales” e.g. the Bible, the Ramayana, etc.• Scientific breakthrough is often presented as stories of an experimenter/scientist’s trials.• Cultural phenomena such as plays, films, dance and paintings tell stories.• News events are told as stories.• Dreams are retold as stories.
  55. 55. The world is seen from our own perspective – our narrative
  56. 56. Memory is in “I” & “Me” Mode
  57. 57. MemoryTruth Knowledge Belief Imagination
  58. 58. How manyChalices are in Leonardo daVinci’s painting of the Last Supper?
  59. 59. We see what we want to see
  60. 60. Experience introduces feeling & emotion to learning
  61. 61. Meaning• Dear Honorable Dato/Prof./Assoc.Prof./Dr./Mr/Mrs/Miss, Kindly be informed that there will be a talk on "Science of Knowledge", scheduled as follows : Date : 9th September 2011 (Friday) Time : 3.00 pm ~ 4.30 pm Venue : PPIPT Meeting Room, Block A Attendance : Compulsory to all academic staffs Speaker : Honorable Prof. Dato Wira Dr. Mohd Salleh Bin Hj Din Your commitment and attendance is deeply appreciated. Thanking in advance. Confidence?
  62. 62. The Things we think The things we do The intentions we have The things we buyAre all governed by our own stories
  63. 63. MeaningWe give symbols common meaning to form society’s narrative
  64. 64. Heaven Strategy (Dan Hill 2010) High More More negative/high positive/highe response r responseResponse Rate More More negative/lower positive/lower response Low response Negative Positive Emotional Response
  65. 65. Stories we construct
  66. 66. Stories we construct shape ourassumptions, beliefs and values
  67. 67. How do you know?
  68. 68. Archetypes Our different selves can be considered archetypes • The hero (seeking something) • The Villain (opposing the hero) • The donor/benefactor/provider (a helper) •The dispatcher (sends the hero on his/her way)•The false hero (falsely assuming the role of the hero) •The helper (assisting the hero) •The princess (seeking protection of the hero)
  69. 69. How many stories are there here?
  70. 70. Narrative gives meaning – without narrative there is no meaning
  71. 71. Most of the time we project ourmeanings onto others
  72. 72. Who is the successful person here? Stereotyping
  73. 73. Who is the mostsuccessful here?
  74. 74. Value is socially constructed
  75. 75. Meaning is relative
  76. 76. Gender is a relative concept
  77. 77. BuildingFrameworks orour own Meta- Theories
  78. 78. Narrative integrates subjectivity and objectivity throughstorytelling to produce scientific explanations (i.e., meaning) of the world
  79. 79. Narrative deals with the development of stories over time (a longitudinal study)
  80. 80. Narrative creates our identity
  81. 81. Narrative is a form of ‘meaning making’. It is a complex formwhich expresses itself by drawing together descriptions of statesof affairs contained in individual sentences into particular types ofdiscourse. This drawing together creates a higher order ofmeaning that discloses relationships among states of affairs.Narrative recognizes the meaningfulness of individual experiencesby noting how they function as parts of a whole. Its particularsubject matter is human actions and events that affect humanbeings, which it configures into wholes according to the rolesthese actions and events play in bringing about a conclusion.Because narrative is particularly sensitive to the temporaldimension of human existence, it pays special attention to thesequence of actions and events occur.Poklinghorne, D. E. (1988) Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences, Albany, NY State University of New York Press.
  82. 82. Narratives come into existence……Events happen and weobserve and participate in them and we make conscious (and unconscious) note of what is happening. Narrativeputs these events into our own context of understanding and feeling. Narrative is about how we make sense of the world Narrative is unique to a situation, bit similarsituations may have similar narratives by different people.
  83. 83. A Meta-Theory Trap & Filter Emotions Transactional Analysis and/or Field Theory Culture (Values, Beliefs & Assumptions) Narrative
  84. 84. Narrative Theory
  85. 85. Narrative Theory Paul Ricoeur
  86. 86. Emplotment is integral to narrative. Narrative should consider a plot, with goals, causes, and chance being brought together within thetemporal unity of a whole and complete action. However the plot may avoid a chronological listing of events and transforms isolated vents into a schematic whole by highlighting and recognizing the contribution that each eventmakes to the development and outcome of the story.
  87. 87. Human experiences are held in the mind aspre-concepts (narratives in the making whichRicoeur calls mimesis 1, or pre-configuration. The articulation of an experience or the narration of an experience (its emplotment) is called mimesis 2, or configuration. Sometimes experiences are re-authored to make sense of the situation, which Ricoeur calls mimesis 3.
  88. 88. Images and Connections Vision Platform - PerceptionMimesis 1 Time & Space Potential Concept Generator – Making Connections Concepts Learning: Conceptual World Real World Sources of Opportunity Identifying Experimentation concepts & Testing Evaluation after experience “A Narrative” Ideas Complete re- evaluation (seek Mimesis 2 further information) Structure common to all Evaluated and opportunities Elaborated Upon Vision – Outcomes Time & Space Opportunity Resources Networks Mimesis 3 Skills, Competencies & Capabilities Competitive Environment Strategy – scope & depth
  89. 89. Articulated Narratives: Those that we are part, work, school, club, religion, nation, etc.Embedded Narratives: Specific narratives within a person’s consciousness from preconfigured experiences, etc.
  90. 90. Dominant Logic (Prahalad)The way people deal with events and situations in life. Dominant logic consists of a mental map which orientates a person. It can either inhibit or enhance learning, growth and fulfillment. I would like to reframe this as the dominant narrative
  91. 91. Dominant Logic• Our behaviour, focus and the way people act• A set of ideas about ourselves and the world• Personal rules and experiences• A reflection of our success, failure, and indifference• Something that is invisible, internal• An organisations genetic code• An organisations operating system
  92. 92. Paradoxes Innovate Avoid mistakes Live for today Think long term Save money Spend for the future Work by oneself Work as a group Collaborate Compete Conflict Harmony Be flexible Follow rules and normsMake your own decisions Make joint decisions
  93. 93. Metaphor
  94. 94. Typologies
  95. 95. Listening Exercise• The simple act of listening shows how we sometimes wander through life with a low level of awareness. How many times when someone is speaking to you, are you preoccupied with other things? How often do we daydream when others are speaking? How often do you believe that what you think is right and what the other has to say is not worth listening to? How often are you just waiting for an opportunity to espouse what you think? How often are you just thinking of rebuttals, arguments against what a person is saying rather than actually listening to the content of what they are actually saying? How often are you making judgments about the person speaking or what they are saying? How often are you looking for an opportunity to disagree, agree, or run away? How often are you evaluating and comparing what a person is saying against what you believe? How often do you fail to seek clarification about something you don’t understand? Do you try and control the interaction by trying to dominate the conversation? Our listening habits usually show that our level of personal awareness is low and we are influenced by so much of our own emotion just in the act of listening to someone. This is at the cost of seeing new perspectives and exercising our ability to empathize with others. One member of the group should tell the rest of the group about what they did over the weekend un-interrupted. The rest of the group should take notes about what they were thinking about while they were listening to the story.
  96. 96. • The ability to listen effectively is a powerful tool in developing awareness, empathy, humility, and consequently understand new perspectives. Listening is much more than hearing, it involves being attentive to what others say, observing emotion, behaviour and body language, facial expressions, and fighting off our own internal distractions that lessen of ability to listen. Listening requires much more discipline, attention, and concentration than we expect. Think about it, how much self discipline do we need to really effectively listen to someone? Once we have achieved the discipline, attention, and concentration really needed to listen, we realize how powerful a tool listening is in understanding what a person has to say, and from where emotionally a person is saying it. Listening skills can be developed and refined through active and reflective listening techniques, where the listener repeats, paraphrases and reflects upon what the speaker is saying as a means of clarifying the message that the speaker is intending to convey to us [92].
  97. 97. Select the correct tools for a mission
  98. 98. Edgar Schein’s Approach to Organizational Culture
  99. 99. Culture is a storyTheories in action Stories, myths, heroes, artifacts, informal behavioursverses EspousedNorms and groupbehaviour Productivity &Values Organisational effectiveness learning (single or double looped Leadership Beliefs Assumptions
  100. 100. Assumptions
  101. 101. Look for the values
  102. 102. The Emotional Vista
  103. 103. We have multiple narratives in Physical Sensations ourselves Physical Awareness Material Awareness Social Awareness Ego Awareness Spiritual Awareness True Self (Universal awareness) Spiritual Self Ego Self Social Self Material Self Primal Self Perception Society
  104. 104. Imagination HeuristicsAction adverse Reckless overconfidence Negative emotions Future Orientation Positive emotions Optimal drive Value sets Optimal learning Sense of Present Sense of low self high self efficacy Orientation efficacy Patterning Past Orientation Bad memories Good memories Memory Imagination Belief System All narrative comes from our emotional orientation
  105. 105. Perceived Reality Object/Event The Hierarchy of Emotions Affected Perception/ Emotions Recognition Socially Related Emotions Varied (Socially Constructed) Mix of Complex Emotions Emotions Loyalty, Sympathy, Pride, Humility, Confident, Achievement, Embarrassment, Indignation, Bewilderment, Pity, Elation, Satisfaction, Boredom, Shame, Disgust, Frustration, Conscious Surprise, etc. Unconscious Core Emotions Core Emotions Anxious, Happiness, Guilt, Greed, Envy, Depression, Hope, Interest, etc. Primal Emotions Deep Inner SelfFear, Anger Sadness, Pleasant UnpleasantLoss, Hate, Joy, Pain, Pleasure, Curiosity, Deep Subconscious: Self-esteem, self-efficacy, Feeling of hopelessness, Low Frustration tolerance, Sexual Desire, etc. Awfulness, etc. Leftover from Primal Emotions Evolution
  106. 106. Our personality is a mix of emotions just like Milton the Monster
  107. 107. What Emotions are they feeling? Courage Passionate intimidated Nervous Energetic Determined Excited AnxiousOverwhelmed Competitive Challenging Green are positive, Red are negative and yellow emotions can go either way
  108. 108. Courage The different sets of emotions will heavily influence performance. Passionate intimidatedDetermined EnergeticOverwhelmed Anxious Challenging
  109. 109. Different weight and balance of emotions may“Big-headed” produce different behaviour & performance Confused Awkward Tense ScaredOverwhelmed ShyPassionate Confident Excited
  110. 110. Level of Awareness In control of The anxiety line emotion Individual Overwhelmed Sea of Emotion in emotion
  111. 111. ExerciseRelax, breath in andout, remove all yourthoughts, relax your musclesWhere am “I”?
  112. 112. Is this what you found?
  113. 113. Our true self is like a computer without any operating system or software
  114. 114. Here is our personal operating system
  115. 115. Empathy ExerciseSome people don’t realize we are doing destructive things that hurt others [67]. Sometimes this hurt can lead to grave and serious illness. If we switch our self from the usual “I am” to a different viewpoint, i.e., the feeling of being superior, equal, or inferior to another, from one of these viewpoints we can generate new sets of emotions. For example, if we take a superior view point to others we may generate intensive highhandedness. If we view others as equals we may generate feelings of jealousy and competitiveness, and if we view others from an inferior position, we may generate feelings of jealousy and envy. This helps us see the perspectives of our false sense of ourselves and the source of our behaviours. If we can substitute humility for our emotions (humility does not mean subservience or inferiority), we can see our relationships without the emotional intensities that existed before. We can see our inter-connectiveness, how our actions hurt people, and how we stray from our innate morality. In a group one person share a story where emotions have dominated their judgments and with the group come up with alternative sets of thoughts that may lead to new sets of emotions.
  116. 116. Traps & Filters
  117. 117. InterpersonalCommunication A brief look atTransactional Analysis Murray Hunter (with the narratives supplied by my organization behaviour students at University Malaysia Perlis
  118. 118. Parent Parent Ego State Behaviours, thoughts and feelings copied from parents and parent figures. Adult Ego State Adult Behaviours, thoughts and feelings are direct responses to here and now. Child Ego State Child Behaviours, thoughts and feelings are replayed from childhood.
  119. 119. You MeParent Parent Adult Adult Child Child Transactional Analysis relationship Dynamics
  120. 120. Controlling Parent Parent Nurturing Parent Controlling Adult Adult Nurturing Adult Immature Child Child Creative Child
  121. 121. Okay my dear son, letmummy tell you the story. (Nurturing mother) Mummy, what is this? Can you tell me the story about this. (creative child)
  122. 122. Hey , who is that guy you were with!!!?(controlling mother )
  123. 123. Stop, I don’t want to go to school today (immature child )
  124. 124. I don’t have money anymore!!!!!!!! (controlling adult)
  125. 125. Congratulations on your graduation. Good luck. (nurturing adult)
  126. 126. Honey, Can you cook for metoday.perhaps, some tom yum honey. (nurturing adult)Altenative: I love U Sayang (darling) (Creative child)
  127. 127. @#$&%%$!!!!!!! Ya(immature child )
  128. 128. Lalalalallalaalala (Creative child)
  129. 129. Watch the following conversationbetween two students (or film clip) anddetermine the transactional dynamics of the conversation (i.e., parent-parent, Adult-Adult, Child-Child, Parent- Adult, or Parent-child).
  130. 130. Pierre Bourdieu’s Field Theory
  131. 131. The field is a sphere or plain of social life where each person or agent isoperating within it according to a practical logic with the objective ofachieving some end. The field can be a society, a village, a market, anindustry, an organization or any other social structure.A person’s power to influence or dominate the field depends upon theamount and type of capital they possess in relation to other agents. ToBourdieu the concept of capital was much wider than financial resources.Four types of capital exist;Economic capital – access to money, buildings, plant and equipment, etc,Cultural capital – knowledge which equips the social agent with empathytoward for, or appreciation for, or competence working within the culturalrules and norms within the field,Social capital – consisting of resources obtainable through connectionsand group networks, andSymbolic capital – which include socially derived symbols like universitydegrees, or acceptance by social institutions within the field (Drummond1998, P. 104).
  132. 132. The field as a social sphere has its own set of practical logic, producing a habitusembodied with the logic making it uniquely suited to operate within it. Due tosocial background and social grounding through families and education, ahabitus will be more predisposed to operate in certain fields rather than othersor the field will draw the person with the appropriate habitus to play the gamein that field. This is an explanation of why it is difficult for people to move intobusinesses outside fields their habitus is not conditioned to. The modusoperandi of the field is foreign and the agent does not have the necessarypractical logic within their habitus, or the necessary capital to gain any influencewithin the field.Given the relationship between the habitus and the field, it can be seen thatthe social structure (field) produces the mental structure (habitus), thatproduce social structure (field), that produce mental structure (habitus), thatproduce social structure (field). Everybody is unaware of this process as theyare within it. Therefore the individual’s rationality is a social boundedphenomenon where our practical logic, disposition towards toperceptions, appreciation, view of the world, and action content is createdthrough experience within a social structure.
  133. 133. The habitus can generate new principals of strategy and practice that flowfrom experiences that produce it, taking into account of specific social contentwithin the field the individual is playing in (Boudieu 1991, P.14).When the habitus is in line with the field and vice versa, a coherent logic ofpractice develops. This logic is called doxa. Doxa is the basic belief and valuesystem of the habitus where it accepts its social position and place in theworld. Doxa operates at the pre-conscious level.
  134. 134. Alan Fiske The Four ElementaryTypes of Relationships
  135. 135. The explicit & Implicit
  136. 136. BodyLanguage
  137. 137. On being emergent or reflective?
  138. 138. Emergent In a stance of anticipation A narrative of action and forming meaning
  139. 139. Compresses time In a stance of learningReflective A narrative of significance of the meaning involved
  140. 140. Emergent there maybe emphasis on anxiety andthe significance of making an important commitment.In a reflective mode there maybe an emphasis on the joy of the occasion. Different modes willproduce different sets of meanings. In reflective narrativemany people try to justify their past decisions. In The emergent versionemergent analysis more of The reflective version may be full of anxiety the uncertainty of the may be about the joy of and uncertainty about situations are apparent. the occassion commitment
  141. 141. Through Narrative we can see: Values The types of Construction of relationships ethicsInfluences Beliefs Intentions Motivations What they see & how they see Thinking A Person’s View if the things Processes world Assumptions What they Self efficacy Self View espouse/wh & esteem at they do Biases Emotions How Sequences Level of decisions are awareness made Past or What they respect future orientation Through their stories
  142. 142. Where can we use Narrative?• In the classroom – aid to learning/understanding• Research – developing descriptive theory• Marketing – Branding & advertising• Entrepreneurship research (The Republic of Tea)• Organizational Analysis• Political analysis• Social analysis• Self & Identity• Cognition & Creativity Research
  143. 143. Field Research
  144. 144. Documentation as a prime source (Historical or Contemporary)
  145. 145. Live
  146. 146. A Narrative Meta-Theory NARRATIVE The Theory of Action by Ricouer EMOTION Self Awareness Mode Murray Hunter TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS The Transactional Theory by Eric Berne ARTIFACT The Model of Organizational VALUE Culture by Edgar Schein ASSUMPTION
  147. 147. Map Out the Big Picture of the Research Phenomena
  148. 148. Making Sense of Narrative is Very Similar to Undertaking English Comprehension Exercises (with extra “meaning tools”)
  149. 149. Emotional orientation Suspicious No distribution of information Centralized decision making Lack of definite strategy Centralized decisions Rigid Unplanned strategy Paranoid Narrow Vision Shallowness Traditional Narcissistic Obsessive-Recklessness Compulsive Balanced Organization Excessive risk taking Attention- Inconsistent strategy Schizoid Seeking Inconsistent Centralized decisions Political decisions (Dramatic) Unplanned expansion Poor leadership Climate of suspicion Depressive Potential Leaderless & apathetic Behaviour Excessive caution & conservatism Rigidity Lack of vision & strategy Weak competitiveness
  150. 150. Transactional Analysis(A framework to communicate)
  151. 151. Person “A” “I” & “Me” Words, phrases, met Person “B” “I” & “Me” View of the world aphors, analogies View of the world Dominant Narrative Values Emotions Beliefs Similarity AssumptionsThe Dialogue or conflict
  152. 152. Film & Drama
  153. 153. Analysis of a Khmer TaleThis story is extracted from Collection of Folk Story, vol. 4, published by Buddhist Institute, Phnom Penh, 1966,p.1-10, and is translated to English by DavidChandler, Facing the Cambodian Past,1996, First ed. Silkworm Books Chang Mai,p.79-81
  154. 154. Yama Buddha The organization The basic ambiguity, development tools required complexity, & uncertainty Death to leave the influence of the of the environment Require realms innovation & Existence Ignorance adaptation necessary Organization capabilities to start-up change The realm of the Deva Success in the past, arrogant, in denial, blind to the environment, Rebirth Karma irrelevant to the market, Usually learning is Setting large companies in stable paramount to organization The realm of the Preta environments The realm of the Azura change trajectory High growth high profit Realms or “states of mind” Ambitious, aggressive, orientation, trend setters, of an organization outwardly pious, win-lose compulsive, can lose focus on strategies, suspicious, vigilant, long term strategies, usually suits organizations in conglomerates. dynamic environments. Consciousness Physical, Craving emotion & The firming of intellectual values, beliefsSelf interest The realm of the Triyangyoni The realm of the Manusya energy and perception Short-term orientation, rent Paradoxical, hope yet doubt, high seeking, no innovation, The basic paradoxes an aspirations, willing to experiment but get lost in process, able to no investment, impulsive organization faces learn, can be non-conformist, decision making, nepotistic, suitable for organizations usually production The realm of Naraka engaged in highly Attachment orientated Sense of low self-efficacy and technical tasks. Name & To the past or organizations. failure, depression, hopelessness, Form the future little control over environment, not Paths & much interest in anything, no market rigidities orientation, usually firms in declining industries. Perception Senses Evaluation & The ability to The “cognitive action adapt Contact processes” of an Awareness of organization potential opportunities
  155. 155. Little by little, the girls take to eating their food raw. Upset by this, they try to goback to her mother, but she thinks they are lying to her. She chases them back tothe forest.At the pond when they return, the smouldering wood has gone out but some ofthe corn has begun to grow. The girls eat it raw, along with shellfish, as theguardian spirit has directed them to do. For three months, the spirit keeps wildanimals away from the children and the pond, and after six months, the girls hadgrown downy feathers all over their bodies, and their arms had turned into wings.They could fly onto branches now, and their new claws could grip the branches orpluck fruit…Their lips narrowed into beaks, and they lost their ability to talk. Intheir hearts, all the same, they knew they were people, not animals, even if whenthey tried to talk, they had animals’ voices.Meanwhile their mother’s second husband had been sent to prison. The motherrepents and comes to redeem her daughters. Even though they are birds, she canstill recognize them, and she follows them deeper and deeper into theforest, while they call out to her, “We are released from our humanity; we haveturned into animals, and we are far more beautiful. Don’t come near us!” themother hears only the phrase koun lok (“child of the world,” translated as“humanity”). She runs on after them, runs out of breath and dies.
  156. 156. This story metaphorically reveals the mysteries of life, ourreal selves and social interaction. Key words, which couldbe used to convey these meanings include:mind/body, interaction, clinging/repelling, order/disorder, pleasant/unpleasant, and some-thing more, associatedwith terms like process, change, contiguity, and adaptiveability, etc. This story shows us the possibility of conflictwithin each individual, conflict between individual andindividual, and also social conflicts, as well as the enginethat produces reality for each individual and society, andthe way this engine works. Through this story, we can seehow the dynamics of interaction plays a critical role inshaping our reality.
  157. 157. While Charles Darwin tried to explain how animals evolved to behumans, this story explains how humans can evolve to be animals.1. In row 1 the girls are touched by the bonding relationship betweenthemselves and their parents. They experience a bonding relationship whenboth mother and father are favoured parents, providing them withlove, care, and support that they are attached to. This bonding providesmeaning to the girls’ lives, which determine realities for them.2. In row 2 the girls are touched by the defective bonding relation betweenthe girls to their parents. The absence of the father from the family leavesmother as a widow to struggle with work so that she can feed the family.There is a break in the bonding relationship between the girls and theirmother. The relationship between the mother and her second husbandmark a serious threat to the bonding relationship between the mother andher children. Finally the mother decides to abandon the girls since the girlsare considered as obstacles to the bonding relationship between motherand the second husband. Here is the point that human creature’scharacteristics is thus: when one clings to one thing, one repels anotherthing that is an obstacle to his or her clinging.
  158. 158. 3. In row 3 the abandoned girls suffer from a defective bondingrelationship. To them life in the forest, in which their bondingrelationship to mother, to their selves, that used to be the shelterfor life, are severed, is like breaking their souls and bodies intopieces. The more fear of the forest they have the more they recalltheir experience at home with parents that used to be their wombof security. The more they try to repel their situation in the forestthe more they try to restore the bonding relationship, their shelter.As the result of that attempt the more they suffer from theconflicts caused by these opposing forces that break theirpersonalities into pieces. Finally to survive the girls are determinedto adapt to the situation in the forest. They eat raw food. Whiletheir interactions with human culture are severed, little by littlethe girls begin to meld themselves to the forest through theirinteractions with the forest creatures in a way that little by littletheir cultural links to humanness are eroded.
  159. 159. 4. In row 4 the fragmentary souls of the girls touched with humanness, are reconfiguredthrough interactions with the forest. The girls adopt human personalities modified by theirwild life. The girls lose their ability with language, the very medium for human production andculture transmission. Little by little the girls’s behaviour and personalities change to half-human-half-animal beings, which are waiting to become completely animal like. When theybecome completely animal they repel the state of being human. However, during the time ofevolution the girls suffer from the conflicts between opposing forces that determine theirrealities and way of life, such as their struggles against the distinction between humannessand animality that are modifying their personalities and behaviours.5. In columns 1, and 2, it is clear that the personalities of the girls and the mother changeaccording to the context in which they interact. Meanings assigned to every one depend onthe way individuals interact. The reality for the girls changes from happy children to unhappychildren, from unhappy girls to animals. These are determined by social interaction, likewisepersonality and behaviour of the mother. Without her relationship to her second husband themother would have assigned a good meaning to her daughters. With her relationship to hersecond husband, her daughters become obstacles for her. When repelled by the secondhusband, she realised that her daughters are important to her.Extracted from: Hel Rithy (2004) DependentOrigination: Towards a Theory of Meaning
  160. 160. Publishing
  161. 161. Any reality is only seen in themind and therefore really part of our imagination
  162. 162. Most people have (sourcesof) multiple identities wheresome are easier than others to discover and appreciate.
  163. 163. Follow the relationships Types Conflicts Shared meanings Who controls the narrative?
  164. 164. It is impossible for us to see thingsuntouched by our own view, since theobserver and the observed are within the same entity - Margaret Mead
  165. 165. It is the theory that determines what we can observe - Albert Einstein
  166. 166. The Tools of Trade Syntax Creative sensitivity Comprehension SkillsMetaphor Template and Trap Empathy Theories
  167. 167. Ability to see the environment in different ways No Sensitivity High SensitivityOpenness to novelty – the ability to reason with relatively novel forms of stimuli,Alertness to distinction – the ability to distinguish minute differences in thedetails of an object, action, or environment,Sensitivity to different contexts- tasks and abilities will differ according to thesituational context,Awareness of multiple perspectives – the ability to think dialectically, andOrientation in the present- paying attention to here and now.
  168. 168. Your researchcareer should not be about…..
  169. 169. Is Blue Ocean Strategya new Marketing theory or a narrative?
  170. 170. Is just abeginning
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