Innovasi usahawan kecil (Micro-entrepreneurship innovation)
Innovasi Usahawan Kecil Mohd. Murray Hunter University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)Seminar Peluang dan Potensi Industri Biotechnologi dan Produk Berasakan Herba August 1st 2010
Innovation is a key word in management today…….. BUT RARELY ARE WE SHOWED HOW TO APPLY THIS IN AGRICULTURE
InnovationThe introduction of newthings, ideas or ways of doing things Oxford Dictionary
Tools of Agro-innovation Commodity Specialised Traditional Inputs The Spectrum Biodynamic of marketing channels Organic Traditional Alternative Low Pesticide Channels Conventional High Input Methods DiversityInefficient efficient Mono Multi Compatible? Marketable/Regulated? Non-sustainable sustainable See both in National & Farm Scale
Source Explanation Examples The unexpected success, failure or Opportunity is a Construct of Proton’s market share Apple computer Success of a revolutionary product or the application of Rapid decline technology from one industry to another, sudden orexternal occurrence unnoticed demographic changes caused by wars, Vision insurgencies, migration, etc. Resources Platform An incongruity A change that is already occurring or can be made to occur Sugar free products and sugarbetween reality as it within an industry. It may be visible to those inside the replacements due to concern for healthactually is and what industry, often overlooked or taken for granted. Increasing demand for travel and it ought to be holidays due to increasing incomes and leisure time Networks Dream, ego, aspiration, greed, Having the right Skills survival, education Inadequacy of an An improvement in process that makes consumers more Caffeine free productsexisting technology Experience satisfied based on an improvement or change in Microwave ovensor business process technology. Reference & Benchmark Mobile phonesChanges in industry New ways and means of undertaking business based on Health care industryor market structure Product/Market identified opportunities or gradual shifting of the nature of Education industry – private education the industry. StrategyPerceptual changes Changes in peoples awareness founded on new knowledge Leisure and exercisea source Anchoring industry aerobics & Ability to make linkages values or growing affluence leading to new fashions and/or gyms Cognitive, hemispherial & of innovation and tastes field Perception Demographic Gradual shift of demographics in population by age, income Establishment of more retirement homes changes groups or ethnic groups, etc New knowledge New knowledge or application of existing theoretical Video and VCD industry knowledge into an existing industry that can create new Robotics products not previously in existence Biotechnology
Supply Chain ManagementConsumer Driven Is a key Sustainability (spectrum) Channels Profitability (social & economic) Methods Diversity Personal Productivity (short & Long Term) Goals &Inputs Ambitions
The Major Blocks to Development • The current “psych” of farmers • Growing rural unemployment• Unbalanced affluence (town-rural) The Probable Causes
Lack of Ideas Lack of education and skills Narrow mindsetFeeling of powerlessness – lack of access to markets Lack of resources Lack of will
Media Reports The Continuum from media reports to wisdom in relation Ideas to availability and usefulnessAvailability Increases Data Information Knowledge Wisdom Usefulness Increases
The Unexpected Success or Failure, or External Occurrence Success of a revolutionary product or the application of technology from one industry to another,sudden or unnoticed demographic changes caused by wars, insurgencies, migration, etc.
Retail Concentration Outlet Type Malaysia Thailand Hong Kong AustraliaHyper & 20% 68% 91% 85%Supermarkets(Chain Owned)Independent 20% 2% 2% 10%Hyper &SupermarketsWholesale 57% 10% 2% 3%Trade – Sundry& convenienceStoresOther 3% 20% 5% 2% Convenience Chains
An incongruity between reality asit actually is and what it ought to be A change that is already occurring or can be made to occur within an industry. It may be visible to those inside the industry, often overlooked or taken for granted.
Toyyibaan & Halal• This day are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you. The food of the people of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them. … If anyone rejects Faith, fruitless is his work, and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good). Al-Ma’idah5:5
• O you people! Eat of what is on earth, lawful and good; and do not follow the footsteps of the evil one, for he is to you an avowed enemy. Al-Baqarah 2:168
• From the land that is clean and good, by the Will of its Cherisher, springs up produce, (rich) after its kind; but from the land that is bad, springs up nothing but that which is niggardly: thus do we explain the Signs by various (symbols) to those who are grateful. Al-A’raf 7:58
• O ye who believe! Eat of the good things that We have provided for you, and be grateful to God, if it is Him ye worship. Al-Baqarah 2:172
“He hath subjected to you all that there is in the heavens and all that there is in the earth: All is from Him. Verily, herein are signs for those who reflect.” Al-Jathiyah 45:12
The Muslim living as a minority in a non-Islamic society will have a number of problems identifying what items are halal and haram (forbidden in Islam), withoutproduct certification. For example, gelatine, lard and tallow can be either in a halal or non-halal, depending upon their source and method of processing. Cross contamination is a major problem in stores and particularly restaurants, where pork is also served.
Haram (Those things prohibited by Traceable Allah in the Al Qu’ran) Sustainable HACCPenvironment, community & business Supply GMP Chain Community Benefit ToyyibaanNon-exploitive Ethical Healthy Clean
Toyyibaan would also mean thatagriculture must be undertaken within sustainable practices, and in business, where things should be done with good intentions.
Muslim share of population and GDP in major economies Muslim %rank Country GDP pop GDP 1 US 12,360 1.0 123.6 2 China 8,859 1.5 132.9 3 Japan 4,018 0.0 1.6 4 India 3,611 13.4 483.9 5 Germany 2,504 3.7 92.6 6 UK 1,830 2.7 49.4 7 France 1,816 7.5 136.2 8 Italy 1,698 1.5 25.5 9 Russia 1,589 12.5 198.6 10 Brazil 1,556 0.1 1.6 11 Canada 1,114 1.9 21.2 12 Mexico 1,067 0.1 1.1 13 Spain 1,029 1.5 15.4 14 Korea, South 965 0.2 1.9 15 Indonesia 866 88.0 761.7 16 Australia 640 1.5 9.6
The top Islamic economies GDP Muslim % share of GDPrank country country pop % GDP World Islam 1 Indonesia 866 88.0 761.7 1.3 13.9 2 Turkey 572 99.8 570.9 0.9 10.4 3 Iran 562 98.0 550.4 0.9 10.1 4 India 3,611 13.4 483.9 0.8 8.9 5 Pakistan 393 97.0 381.6 0.6 7.0 6 Saudi Arabia 338 100.0 338.0 0.6 6.2 7 Egypt 304 90.0 273.2 0.4 5.0 8 Bangladesh 304 83.0 252.6 0.4 4.6 9 Algeria 233 99.0 230.9 0.4 4.2 10 Russia 1,589 12.5 198.6 0.3 3.6 11 Malaysia 290 55.0 159.6 0.3 2.9 12 Morocco 138 98.7 136.5 0.2 2.5 13 France 1,816 7.5 136.2 0.2 2.5 14 China 8,859 1.5 132.9 0.2 2.4 15 US 12,360 1.0 123.6 0.2 2.3 16 UAE 111 96.0 106.8 0.2 2.0
Farmers’ Home Delivery markets COOP Market Gerai Delivery Many smallsuppliers thatare customer orientated Restaurant & Hotel Delivery Diversified Halal Farms
Infrastructure Government Regulation Positive Inputs Taxes & Conducive weather Water subsidies Negative Outputs Climate Or Sunshine Trade Floods, droughts, etc Nitrogen Runoffs, wastes, environment Agricultural inputs carbon Research Weather Fertilizers etc Rainfall Knowledge Wind Labour Sunshine UV radiation Temperature Some Humidity Resource inputs, Production Processes fertilizers, herbicides, recycling insecticides, machinery, back to Human research capabilities Farm size & layout system Habitisation Organisation & methods Knowledge Suitability of conditionsSuppliers & contractors Pollution (air, land & water) Propagation Pollution Labour sourcesAttitudes and concerns Water resources Cultivation Positive Outputs (create hinterland where Products farm part of) Processing Physical Environment Customers Financing & Marketing Revenue flow various kinds of back to Soil capital Topography system Atmosphere Natural flora & Negative Inputs fauna habitat Business Urbanisation Adverse physical Environment Competition conditions Low prices Pests & diseases Markets Changing demand Pollution Finance patterns Heavy metals Trade environment An Agricultural Enterprise as a System
Wild Harvest Linear/Industrial/Chemical Traditional Farming Biological Farming Biodynamic Farming Natural Farming Organic Farming Chemical Free Reduced Pesticide Low Input Sustainable Minimum TillGreen/Biological/Natural ConventionalMinimum interventionalist High Input Chemical Intensive
THE OPERATION OF ORGANIC PHILOSOPHY (Fundamental Principals and Practices)Objectives Soil Health & Pest & Disease Weed Eco-system Sustainability Fertility Management Management BiodiversityPractices Crop Rotation Crop Rotation Crop Rotation Crop Rotation Crop Rotation Green Manure Green Manure Cover Crops Green Manure Green Manure Animal Cover Crops Intercropping Animal Animal Manure Manure Manure Composting Mulching Cover Crops Cover Crops Cover Crops Intercropping Flame Control Mineral Intercropping Intercropping supplements Crop Diversity Natural Herbicide Bio-control Farmscape Natural Bio-control Fertilizers Farmscape Composting Natural Integrity Mulching Pesticides Buffers Mulching Buffers Composting Sanitation Buffers Records Foundations Tillage Tillage Certification Site Selection Intercropping Farmscape Improvement Conversion Bio-control Fire Farmscape Buffers Habitat Creation Buffers Planning
Approximate Size of the World Organic Market 2008 (USD Billion) Fruit & Cosmetics, Vegetables, 6.5, 18% 12.9, 35%ProcessedFoods, 3.9, 11% Meat and Beverages, Poultry, 1.5, 3.6, 10% Bread & Dairy, 3.6, 4% Grains, 4.5, 12% 10%
Basic Pattani Bird House Layout Top View 36 Feet8 Feet 10 Feet 12 Feet 18 Feet
Swiftlet Farming End View 3 Ft 6 Feet 3 Ft 5 Feet 9 Feet 23 Feet 1 Ft 8 Feet Side View 9 Feet23 Feet 14 Feet Top View (Reinforcements) By developing novel applications of technology
Essential OilA volatile oil obtained from awide variety of plant, scrub,and tree species and fromvarious parts of the plantanatomy, such as the roots,rhizomes, wood bark, leaves,stems, fruit, flowers and seeds.Usually extracted by hydro orsteam distillation, expressionor effleurage - Hunter 1996
Wild Collection & Distillation Tea Tree Australia
Ginger Oil (Zingiber officinale) citral, beta-sesquiphellandrene, zingeberene, and gingerols/shogaols The fresh ginger rhizome is a versatile ingredient of the far eastern cuisine, and is now commonly used in mos of the world. Its flavour is lemony-balsamic and its tast is medium hot.The lemony character of fresh ginger is due to citral. Major components of the essential oil are the sesquiterpenes beta-sesquiphellandrene and zingiberene. The sharp constituents, causing the burning sensation on the mucous membranes, are substituted phenols (gingerols/shogaols) Extraction Method: Steam Distillation Origin: Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, China
Massoia Bark Oil (Cryptocarya massoy) C-10 massoia lactone C-12 massoia lactone Massoia bark has a sweet, coconut-like aroma and is steam distilled to yield massoia bark oil. The bark is obtained by cutting the tree at the base, making circular incisions at one meter intervals, lifting the bark off and allowing it to dry. Each tree yields on average 65 kg of air dried bark. Extraction: hydro-distillation of the bark, heartwood and fruits of the massoia tree afford pale yellow- coloured oils in 0.7, 1.2 and 1.0 yields, respectively Constituents: C-10 massoia lactone, or 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2- one, (65-68 %), and the C-12 massoia lactone, or 5,6-dihydro-6-heptyl-2H- pyran-2-one, (17-28 %), while the major fruit oil constituent is benzyl benzoate (68%) Origin: New Guinea and Irian Jaya Highlands
Patchouli Oil (Pogostemon cablin) There are no synthetic equivalents of the patchouli scent. Main Constituents: (-)-patchoulol (30-40 %). However, it is maintained that norpatchoulenol, present in only 0.3-0.4 %, is playing a principal part (-)-patchoulol and in the overall odour picture. norpatchoulenol Obtained by steam distillation under pressure or CO2- extraction of the dried leaves Patchouli is mostly grown in Indonesia
Pepper Oil (Piper nigrum) (+)-3-carene piperine Main Constituents: The pepper seeds contain avolatile oil and the non-volatile compound piperine, the latter being responsible for the burning effect on the mucous membranes.Also, cyclic monoterpenes with -carene as the major component (around %). Moreover, a number of hitherto unidentifiedsesquiterpenes probably contribute to its character. Extraction: Steam Distillation of the crushed seeds Main producer: Sarawak, Malaysia
Backhousia citriodora (Lemon Myrtle) High Investment to Expand Industry in Australia Strong Demand as an Ingredient for tea Good Crop to Grow in Most Parts of Thailand CHO CHO Citral (geranial 51.43 % and neral 42.12 % )
Eucalyptus citriodora Good Monsoon Crop Easy to Cultivate Oil is a bi-product Excellent & High Valued Hard Wood One year for oil 10 years for timber Percentage of oil yields is 0.9 %. citronellal (88.62%), β-pinena (0.16%), 1, 8-cineol (0.32%), 5-hepten (0.14%), linalool (0.12%), citronellol (0.52%), isopulegol (0.33%), 3- cyclohexanol (3.66%)and β-citronellol (0.52%).
Geranium (pelargonium species) Citronellol, andgeraniol, which occur in different proportions according to the origin of the oil. Both Bourbon and North African-types contain unusual high quantities of (-)-citronellol, isomenthone and monoterpene formates. However they can be distinguished by the presence of different constituents such as guaia-6,9-diene in Bourbon oil and 10-epi-[gamma]-eudesmol in the African-type The Chinese oil is similar to Bourbon-type, having higher content of citronellol (+40%) and lower content of Iinalool and geraniol (1,3). Distillation or Potential High Value solvent Boutique Crop extraction of the Good for Hilly Terrain dried leaves
Plai oil (Zingiber cassumunar) Sabinene and terpinen-4-ol a-terpinene g-terpinene Major Constituents: terpinen-4-ol, a-terpinene, sabinene, g-terpinene, cis-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl -4-[(E)-2,4,5-trimethoxy-styryl]cyclohex- 1-ene, cis-3-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(E)-3,4- dimethoxystyryl]cyclohex-1-ene, cis-3- (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(E)-2,4,5- trimethoxystyryl]cyclohex-1-ene (3),(E)-4- (3,4-dimethoxypheny1)but-3-en-1-ol, E)-4- (3,4-dimethoxypheny1)but-3-en-1-yl acetate, 8-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-methoxynaphtho- 1,4- quinone Extraction Method: Steam distillation of the rhizomes
Cajuput (Gelam) Melaleuca cajuputi Local Tree Number potential Markets Can Basically Set Price Easy to Cultivate
Persicaria odoratum (Kesum) New Material Good Highland Crop Small Scale High Value Pests Easily Controlled Doesn’t need Registration as an Aromatic Chemical
Changes in industry or market structure New ways and means of undertaking business based on identified opportunities or gradual shifting of the nature of the industry.
Farming in FijiFarming is primarily subsistence agriculture
Aveda The Body Shop Thursday Sureco Hain Celestial Plantation GroupEst. Sales USD120million USD1.5Billion USD85Million USD40Mil[iv] USD738Mil[v] (1996)[i] (2006)[ii] (2006)[iii] (2006) USD619mil (2006)Location USA UK Australia Malaysia USAEstablished 1978 1976 1976 1999 1926Products Personal Care Personal Care Personal Care Herbs Organic food and cosmeticsBasic Philosophy To sustain the Social Natural tea Halal & Free of artificial environment and humanitarianism tree Toyyibaan ingredients, give back to activism on many products/natur Kosher foods communities issues al medicinesEthics YesGreen Yes Yes YesNatural Yes Yes Yes YesOrganic Yes Yes YesCommunity Yes Yes YesCulturalReligious/Spiritual Yes YesMode of Distribution Direct Retail and e- Direct and Direct General Marketing/Salon Commerce through Marketing distribution distributorsOwner Estée Lauder Loreal Chris Dean & Private Listed company Companies Inc. Family Ownership
Actualisation Fulfillment: (dreams) (The Artist) Study after retirement Self-fulfillment Fresh vegetables (Organic) BooksFine Dining & Processed Foods Aromatherapy products Luxury cars Esteem Nutraceuticals & herbs Travel & Vacations (The Executive) Achievement, Fine Fragrances prestige,fulfillmentCar Air Fresheners Responsibility: (hope) Fashion Clothes (e.g. Social (Worker) Jeans) Chewing Gum Family, relationships, workgroups Community: (acceptance) Most Water Household Safety (The Farmer) Purifiers Cleaning Home, Security and stability Necessities: based on what is good (existence) Products FreshSoap Vegetables Physiological (The Hunter) Rice Basic Biological Needs – Food, water, air Staples: based on survival (fear)
Demographic changesGradual shift of demographics in populationby age, income groups or ethnic groups, etc
Coronary artery obstruction. Nearly 90%. Caused by fat Accumulate on artery walls. Until the tube constricted blood. Hard and narrow.
New knowledge New knowledge or application of existing theoretical knowledgeinto an existing industry that can create new products not previously in existence
Colostrum To Achieve Excellence in Passive Immunity Transfer: By providing an all natural premier milk extract with a guaranteed minimum level of40% Immunoglobulin and antibody level derived from bovine & goat milk.
Colostrum or Mother‟s Milk is the original and ultimate nutritionalsupplement. It is a unique natural secretion produced at the beginning of lactationdesigned by Nature to promote strength and good health.
Colostrum has been called life‟s first food. Each drop of Colostrum contains the promise of life: immunoglobulins, antibodies, growth factors, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, amino acids, and other substances designed to „prime‟ the body to face a lifetime of invasion by various microorganisms andenvironmental toxins. (Colostrum is considered to be nature‟s most perfect disease fighter). Shape of Antibody
Inside the intestinal tract the antibodies fromPremier Milk prevent the toxins from attaching to the intestinal wall and multiplying. In effect shielding the body from toxins.
Premier Milk Extract – Photographic Evidence Ordinarily With Premier Milk The „control‟ cells. The hundreds of At normal Premier Milk doses little black dots are E. coli bacteria there are practically no E. coli attaching to the cell walls. attaching to the cell walls.ETEC strain H10407 adhering to differentiated Caco-2 Inhibition of adherence of H10407 to Caco-2 cell line cell line (colon carcinoma). in the presence of 500μg/ml hyperimmune colostrum.(Photos from approx. 40x magnification, Phase-contrast, Giemsa stain)
Maximises benefits of large local biodiversity Competitive Advantage Through Differentiation Local culture is utilised as branding Maximises Benefit from Location as a marketing advantage Relatively low competitive market Southern Thailand segment Malaysia Brunei Indonesia
Location Perak Malaysia, Sales RM100 Million Plus
Location Perlis Malaysia and IndonesiaSales RM 170 million P.A. Plus
Certification and ValueOrganic Products have 3 times the value as conventional crops
A Roadmap from today Skills (how to make), place to Look for Resources make, finance Determine whether there is a market and how much competition there is.Screen the Idea for opportunity Determine if the product can be made. Decide on what product each group would want to be involved in and match this with an expert person and Create Ideas some students.
K-OTOP Model Network University Training • Students R&D Funding Through Cluster Initial Grant • Farmers Prospectus • UNDP Umbrella Brand (Direct Marketing Company) •Prospectus • Zakat Entrepre- • VC neurship Application of University R&D Health Graduates Under Beverages University Nutraceuticals Supervision Herbs & • CosmeticsDrive Marketing Others • Product Development Organic Farming Govt. • Business Operations Support Integrated Farming